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History of PE

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History of PE Basketball History http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Io35RCBMQJw 1909 Depends on You WCU PE HISTORY Brownie ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: History of PE


1
History of PE
2
Point of Emphasis
  • This is the only course that will address PE
    history, a topic included on the Praxis II exam.

3
  • Current Physical Education is the latest
    rendition of all the changes that have taken
    place over time.
  • Throughout their history in the U.S., k-12
    physical education programs have tended to
    reflect larger patterns in American culture,
    peoples needs and choices regarding physical
    activity, and trends in the educational system.
    The goals, content, and instruction in physical
    education have evolved and will continue to grow
    in ways that call for new approaches.

4
Ancient Times
  • No formal PE, activity through work, dance or
    game play
  • Gymnasium Greece word for training ground
    (Pompeii image below)
  • From gymnos Greek for naked
  • Palaestrae private wrestling schools in Greece

5
PE in U.S. Early American
  • Mid 1700s 1900
  • Emphasis on physical training, also called
    gymnastics
  • Many different systems
  • German system vigorous calisthenics with hand
    weights, indian clubs, ropes, ladders, parallel
    and horizontal bars, brings, vaulting poles and
    balance activities. Music and rhythms (usually
    drumbeats) accompanied the exercises.

6
PE in U.S. Early American
  • Swedish System more scientific and thearapuetic
    focusing on improving heart and lung function
    also using much of the same equipment as the
    German system.
  • Many other systems, only included two most
    prominent
  • 1886 California becomes first state to require
    physical training as part of public school
    curriculum

7
Typical 1800s gymnasium
8
  • Harvard University

9
  • Pratt Gym, Amherst College, MA

10
PE in U.S. Early American
  • Catherine Beecher
  • Developed her own system that focused more on
    beautiful and strong movements performed to
    music to help produce good posture, strength and
    grace.
  • Many light exercises that involved holding
    positions (yoga-esque)
  • Did not use equipment as this not lady-like
  • Mother of American PE

11
PE in U.S. Early American
  • Dudley Sargent
  • Combined several of the systems
  • Modified and developed adjustable exercise
    machines using pulley systems to lift or pull
    weights
  • Fought to put physical education on par with
    other subject areas

12
1885
  • Adelphi Conference, NY (1885) Participants
    pledge to improve the profession and increase its
    standing. The Association for the Advancement of
    Physical Education was formed (forerunner of
    SHAPE).
  • Names for PE Gymnastics, physical training,
    sport, physical education

13
Early American Period (1900-1930)
  • Immigration introduced new activities
  • Urbanization, transportation, and war dispersed
    activities
  • Growth of leisure time
  • Intercollegiate athletic conferences
  • Curb abuses like betting (1st one - Big Ten)
  • Comprehensive Education
  • John Dewey progressive education, learn by doing
    and experimenting

14
Early American Period (1900-1930)
  • Noticeable shift
  • PE began diversifying its content to include
    sports
  • Still included militaristic, calisthenics like
    exercises but emphasis was waning
  • Culture of Physical Training gave way to Physical
    Education
  • Formalized PE curriculum begins to develop
  • More states began requiring PE

15
Posture Exercises
http//www.youtube.com/watch?vPqlZgMkaC5A
16
Early American Period (1900-1930)
  • Umbrella term Physical Education
  • Included dance, health education, intramurals,
    camping, playgrounds, recreation, outdoor
    education, YMCA/YWCA.
  • NEA officially recognizes physical education as
    curricular field.

17
Mid-20th Century (1930-70)
  • WWII an unacceptable number of recruits were
    declared unfit for combat
  • A much higher percentage of American children
    were unfit compared to European peers (60 v. 6)
  • Presidents Council on Youth Fitness
    established,1956
  • John F. Kennedy publishes The Soft American in
    S.I.
  • Pres. Johnson creates the Presidential Youth
    Fitness Award program, 1966 (today Presidents
    Challenge)
  • Combined with Fitnessgram 2010

18
Mid-20th Century (1930-70)
  • PE beginning to incorporate more adventure
    programming, lifetime activities, dance and
    outdoor pursuits
  • Creation of the first instructional model -
    movement education in 60s and 70s
  • Physical education research begins being
    published by university faculty

19
Late 20th Century (1970-2000)
  • Development of national standards
  • NASPE developed a document defining what children
    should know and be able to do (1986)
  • 1995 NASPE publishes Moving Into the Future
    National Standards for Physical Education
  • Fruits of academic research seen in the New PE
  • Physical Education begins splitting into
    sub-disciplines and various fields specialize
    (more later)
  • Development of all instructional models except
    movement education (what are they)
  • Cooper Institute releases Fitnessgram (1991)

20
Late 20th Century (1970-2000)
  • Adventure/Cooperative (late 60s, 70s)
  • Outward bound, project adventure, team challenge
  • Tactical or Teaching games for understanding
    (1986)
  • Hellisons model of social responsibility (1995)
  • Sport education (1994)
  • Wellness/fitness (1990s)
  • Holistic/proactive (body, mind, spirit)
  • Lifetime activity

21
Late 20th Century (1970-2000)
  • Title IX (1972) began addressing gender inequity
    in sport and PE
  • Coed classes became the norm (quite a shock for
    some)
  • QA when is it OK to have same-sex classes

22
Late 20th Century (1970-2000)
  • Individuals with Disability Education Act (1990)
  • Least restrictive environment IEPs
  • No Child Left Behind (1991) schools must show
    improvement in core subjects

23
Subdisciplines
  • Anatomy
  • The physical structure of an animal

24
Subdisciplines
  • Kinesiology
  • Study of movement (human in our case)

25
Subdisciplines
  • Biomechanics
  • Study of the human body as a mechanical system,
    utilizes principles drawn from physics.
  • No specific course, incorporated throughout

26
Subdisciplines
  • Physiology
  • Functions and activities of living organisms,
    including all physical and chemical processes.

27
Subdisciplines
  • Exercise physiology
  • Study of bodily systems and their reactions to
    stress of exercise.

28
Subdiscplines
  • Motor Learning
  • Focuses on how motor skills are learned.
  • Areas motor learning, control, development
  • Categories
  • Initial
  • Elementary
  • Mature

29
Early 21st Century (2000-
  • Downsides
  • Reduction of time allotted PE
  • Partly due to increased emphasis on high-stakes
    tests
  • Disparities in instruction
  • Roll out the ball gym teachers
  • Waivers/exemptions for PE

30
Early 21st Century (2000-
  • Positives
  • Increased lifetime activity and fitness focus
  • Improved status (room to grow)
  • Seen as engine for promoting PA and reducing
    obesity and diabetes
  • Greater recognition of the importance of physical
    activity in many facets of life
  • Play 60, CDC recommendations, School Board

31
Early 21st Century (2000-
  • Positives
  • Publication of detailed national standards by
    grade level
  • Refocusing mission on HPE (SHAPE)
  • Emphasis on assessment and data collection
  • On cusp of being listed as core subject
  • Increased PE mandates in several states

32
QA
http//inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blspo
rts.htm
  • What sports were invented in the US? Some have
    their roots in sports from abroad.
  • Lacrosse (lt1630, Native Americans)
  • Baseball/Softball (Cartwright, 1845, NYC)
  • Football (1820, Rutgers/Princeton 1869 Camp)
  • Basketball (Naismth, 1891, Springfield, MA)
  • Volleyball (Morgan, 1895, Holyoke MA)
  • Mountain Biking (Californnia)
  • Pickleball (Bell and Pritchard, 1965, WA state)
  • Ultimate (1968, Joel Silver, a student at
    Columbia High School in Maplewood, NJ )

33
La-crosse
34
Basketball History
http//www.youtube.com/watch?vIo35RCBMQJw
1909
35
Depends on You
36
WCU PE History

37
Brownie Points
  • How old is West Chesters PE program?
  • 1889 to Today

38
1871
  • First formal PE classes were conducted by Mrs.
    Ann Morris, wife of Normal School principal.

39
1889
  • Principal of the Normal School, Dr. George
    Philips commissioned the construction of a new
    gymnasium. During that same time period Dr.
    Philips announced the creation of the department
    of physical training and introduced its new
    directors Dr Ehinger and his wife Ella. These two
    events mark the beginning of a formal department
    of physical education at West Chester University.

40
  • Dr. Ehinger and his wife served as co-directors
    of the physical training department for thirty
    years

41
  • Dr. Ehinger and his wife introduced yearly
    Gymnastics demonstrations in 1892, wrestling
    1892, Women's Tennis 1892, Bicycling 1893, Boxing
    1894, Swimming 1894, Annual Men's Field Sports
    Day 1894, Men's Athletic Association 1895,
    Women's Golf 1898, Men's Basketball 1898, Men's
    Gymnastics Team 1899, Women's Track and Field
    1910, Compulsory Swimming for women 1914

42
1926
  • First degrees in health education were awarded

43
1950
  • Dr. Sturzebecker was appointed director of HPE.
    Over the next 20 years under Dr. Sturzebecker's
    leadership added programs in Safety Education,
    Health, Recreation, Physical Education for the
    Disabled, and Graduate Studies.

44
1961
  • West Chester State Teachers College and the
    Department of Health and Physical Education
    gained national recognition when the Russian
    gymnastics team came to West Chester to compete
    against the USA

45
1971
  • As the university expanded, became part of the
    State System of Higher Education (SSHE), and
    enrollment increased, buildings and playing
    fields were lost. To compensate, South Campus
    was built and later renamed Sturzebecker HSC.

46
1990s
  • Faculty of the Physical Education Department
    voted to change its name to the Kinesiology
    Department. This action was taken in light of the
    change in programs other than teacher
    certification, changes in the University and
    Department mission, and national trends

47
West Chester University -- 125 Years
Campus - Aerial View - 1936 Old Main The
large "T" shaped structure in the photograph. The
top of the "T" is facing High Street. Old Main
was demolished in the Fall of 1971 Philips
Memorial Building The large structure on the
right side of the photograph. Recitation Hall
The structure opposite the base of the "T". Old
Library The structure to the left of Recitation
Hall Model School The structure to the right of
Recitation Hall. The building is now known as
Ruby Jones Hall Old Gymnasium The structure
between Recitation Hall and the North Wing (right
side) of Old Main. The Old Gymnasium was
demolished in the Fall of 1971.
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