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ETHICAL TREATMENT OF ANIMALS

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ETHICAL TREATMENT OF ANIMALS Home Assignment for next week Access the websites on the next . Find at least two other sites, one that promotes animal welfare ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: ETHICAL TREATMENT OF ANIMALS


1
ETHICAL TREATMENT OF ANIMALS
Home Assignment for next week Access the
websites on the next slide. Find at least two
other sites, one that promotes animal welfare and
one that promotes animal rights and bring the url
for each.
  • AGST 3000
  • Agriculture, Society, and the Natural World

2
Some Interesting Sites
http//www.animalagalliance.org/main/home.cfm?Sect
ionMainCategoryHomehttp//www.animalplace.org
/http//www.prorodeo.org/animals/http//www.pe
ta.org/ http//www.nal.usda.gov/awic/index.html
http//www.hsus.org/ace/11513
3
History
  • Animal Ethics issue began in Europe in the 1960s.
  • Ruth Harrisons Animal Machines
  • Brambell Committee 1965
  • 1993 UK Farm Animal Welfare Council published the
    5 new freedoms.

4
HISTORY
1866 Henry Bergh founds American Society for
the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals 1896-1900
Legislation is proposed in Congress to restrict
vivisection via a system of regulations and
periodic inspection of laboratories. 1951
Animal Welfare Institute founded 1954 Humane
Society of the United States founded
5
HISTORY
1958 Federal Humane Slaughter Act is
passed. 1966 Congress passes the American
Welfare Act (AWA) 1990 The Animal Legal
Defense Fund and the HSUS both sue the USDA. The
USDA extends AWA coverage to horses and other
farm animals used in research.
6
A Global Look
  • New Zealand has had an Animal Protection Act of
    1960, but as the issue of animal ethics evolved
    the Act became inadequate.
  • Consumers, both domestic and overseas (the U.S.),
    wanted assurances that animals were being treated
    humanely.
  • Est. Animal Welfare Act of 1999.
  • It focuses on Preventing animal cruelty.

7
A Global Look cont.
  • Switzerland is another example of a country with
    an Animal Welfare Act.
  • 1981 Swiss Animal Protection Act - this act made
    Switzerland the first country to ban cages in egg
    production.
  • Nests perches
  • 800 sq. centimeter
  • Swiss poultry farmers have made profits using
    this method.

8
Two Major Points of View
  • (1) Animal Rights - the goal is ending all animal
    use
  • no food, clothing, entertainment, medical
    research or hunting
  • (2) Animal Welfare demands that animals must be
    treated and used humanely.
  • Animals can be used for any purpose, but the
    responsibility of care and humane treatment lies
    with the human

9
ANIMAL WELFARE THOERY
Animal welfare is the theory which maintains that
it is morally acceptable to use nonhuman animals
for human purposes as long as they are treated
humanely and do not impose unnecessary suffering
on them. The goal of animal welfare is the
regulation of animal use.
10
ORGANIZATIONS
  • The Animal Welfare Information Center (AWIC)
  • Animal Agriculture Alliance
  • The Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service
  • The American Veterinary Medical Association
    (AVMA)
  • The California Veterinary Medical Association
    (CVMA)

11
ANIMAL RIGHTS THOERY
The animal rights theory maintains that we have
no moral justification for using nonhuman animals
for human purposes however humanely we treat
them.n The goal of animal rights activists is
to abolish the use of animals.
12
ORGANIZATIONS
  • People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals
    (PETA)
  • The Animal Place
  • The Humane Society of the United States (HSUS)

13
Understanding Agriculture
  • Animal producers see themselves as more
    understanding of their animals needs than do the
    general public.
  • During WWII farmers still relied on their animals
    for their livelihood.
  • By the 70s there was a move to commercial
    production (industrialization of Agriculture).

14
General Public might not be so well informed
  • Society is concerned with animal well-being and
    depending on who they listen to determines
    peoples impressions
  • this has prompted a response from the food
    industry.
  • Resulted in industry changes
  • McDonalds Animal Welfare Guiding Principles
  • Wendys Animal Welfare Auditing Program

15
Economic Significance
  • Treating animals inhumanely results in economic
    costs.
  • Bruising of animals costs the industries millions
    of dollars each year.
  • Australia 36 million
  • With Pigs, using electric prods causes bruising.
  • Improvements in these areas will improve animal
    welfare as well as human safety.

16
Examples
17
ISSUES
  • Animal Cruelty is against the Law!
  • Difficult Topic, No Easy Answers
  • Very Political
  • Animal Rights vs. Animal Welfare

18
How Animals are used
  • Animals for meat
  • Animals for milk
  • Animals for fiber
  • Animals for pharmaceutical production (live)
  • Animals for pharmaceutical production (organs)
  • Animals for research
  • Animals for companionship
  • Animals for exhibition
  • Other?

19
  • Animal Agriculture
  • Pastoral vs. Confinement
  • Define

20
Pastoral vs. Confinement
21
Example
  • Free-Range System offer chickens a choice between
    large indoor and outdoor runs.

22
Agriculture as the target
  • Why? Unscrupulous Producers
  • Media sensationalism
  • PETA, ALF
  • Again, what is justified, scientific, and valid
  • Continues to be a difficult area for most people

23
  • Specific Food and Fiber Specie Issues
  • Husbandry practices
  • Based primarily on safety and health, consumer
    preference, and economics.
  • Some specific practices, poorly understood by the
    public and are sources of misinformation
    disseminated by opponents of animal agriculture

24
CATTLE
  • 1. Restraint
  • 2. Management practices
  • a. branding
  • b. dehorning
  • c. castration
  • d. ear tagging/marking
  • 3. Dairy Industry
  • a. BST (Bovine Somatotropin)
  • b. Genetics (bio-engineering)
  • c. Calf rearing (confinement)
  • d. Veal production (abuses)

25
Industry Conflicts
  • BEEF Industry
  • Practices such as dehorning, castration and
    branding which cause some pain and can be seen as
    animal cruelty.
  • Dehorning benefits both cattle and human
    handlers
  • Castration unwanted breeding, reduces male
    aggressiveness and produces better quality meat
  • Branding used for identification mainly in the
    Western States

26
BEEF cont.
  • Another issue is the Feedlot vs Pastoral
    grazing.
  • Carefully managed feed, receive the best health
    care, all their needs are met.

27
Dairy Industry Issues
  • Pastoral vs Confined
  • Animal activists lean towards pastoral grazing
  • In Sweden they passed legislation that says that
    grazing is a right.
  • Problems with pasturing are
  • short grazing season
  • inefficient nutrients required for high milk
    yield
  • Tail Docking is an emerging issue (new Zealand).

28
Example
29
Sheep
  • a. Castration
  • b. Ear tagging/marking
  • c. Docking
  • d. Shearing

30
POULTRY
  • 1. Confinement production
  • a. caged laying hens
  • b. large scale broiler
  • 2. Production
  • 3. Force molting
  • 4. Beak Trimming

31
SWINE
  • 1. Confinement production
  • a. farrowing crates
  • b. market hog production
  • c. gestation stalls
  • 2. Management practices
  • a. ear notching
  • b. tail removal
  • c. needle teeth removal

32
HORSES
  • 1. Confinement
  • 2. PMSG production
  • (Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotropin)
  • increases the number of follicles developing in
    the ovary of non-horse species
  • Used to induce labor in horse and some other
    species
  • 3. Show strategies

33
Groups Involved
  • American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) -
    focus on animal welfare
  • proper housing, nutrition, humanely handling and
    humane deaths
  • Promote point of view
  • advocate their policy on Federal legislation
    (they have a Governmental Relations Division)
  • In Process Amendment to the Humane Methods of
    Slaughter Act.

34
Groups involved cont.
  • Animal Welfare Institute (AWI) - animal welfare
    supporter
  • work to protect endangered species, improve lives
    of animals used in experiments and advocate
    humane farm practices
  • Promote
  • established Animal Welfare Approved the program
    focuses on the animal in food production
  • the standards try to emulate the animals natural
    behavior

35
Example
  • Animal Welfare Approved Standards for Beef Cattle
    and Calves
  • must be allowed to graze
  • room to walk around and lay down on side
  • Also promote through their legislative division,
    Society for Animal Protective Legislation (SAPL).
  • They are dedicated to promoting and protecting
    animal welfare in local, Federal and
    International Legislation.

36
Groups Involved cont.
  • PETA (People for the Ethical Treatment of
    Animals) - animal rights supporter
  • work to stop animal abuse
  • compare animals to human children
  • Promote they get involved directly
  • consumer boycotts
  • recognition internationally due to the media and
    have been able to bring about long term changes

37
Groups Involved cont.
  • Animal Liberation Front (ALF) - animal rights
    advocate
  • fighting the injustice which they compare to the
    fight to abolish slavery
  • consider themselves the ultimate freedom
    movement.
  • Promote through direct action
  • damage and destroy property and equipment
  • free animals from laboratories
  • use arson

38
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39
Laws and Regulations
  • The Animal Welfare Act of 1966, 1970.
  • Defines how animals are used, treated, housed,
    transported, processed, etc.
  • Many different organizations have established
    rules and regulations
  • Professional Rodeo Association - have 60 rules
    and regulations.
  • Humane Slaughter Act 1958

40
  • Humane Methods of Slaughter Act 1978
  • extended the 1958 policy to all Federally
    inspected slaughter plants
  • Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS)
    enforces the Act
  • veterinarian and inspectors present

41
Animals used for Research
  • Medical Research
  • Consumer Research
  • Agriculture Research
  • Psychological and Social Research
  • Environmental Research
  • Are there alternatives?

42
  • Laboratory Animals for Research
  • 23 million mice are used in research each year
    (95)
  • Rats make up the second largest group
  • Followed by birds

43
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44
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45
Companion Animals
  • Animal Cruelty
  • Neglect
  • Abuse
  • Pet Shops
  • Puppy mills
  • Fighting

46
Tough one
  • It is up to the individual as to how they feel
    personally.
  • Research the issues
  • What are the alternatives?
  • Vegetarian, human research subjects, no companion
    animals?
  • No easy answers!

47
Journal
  1. What is the difference between Animal Rights and
    Animal Welfare?
  2. What are some of the organizations that promote
    animal rights and what is their recurring
    theme(s)?
  3. What are some of the organizations that promote
    animal welfare and what is their recurring
    theme(s)?
  4. There are a large number of animals utilized for
    research. Do you think this is right ? Are
    there alternatives, what are they?
  5. Do you think that people should be allowed to
    have pets?
  6. Should we be concerned about how farm animals are
    treated?
  7. Where do you stand on this issue and why? (I
    believe that)
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