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APHG Unit Four Review


APHG Unit Four Review Political Organization of Space Political Geography Political Geography is the study of the political organization of the planet Since the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: APHG Unit Four Review

APHG Unit Four Review
  • Political Organization of Space

Political Geography
  • Political Geography is the study of the political
    organization of the planet
  • Since the beginning of history, humans have
    divided the planet into political units, or
  • Territoriality effort to control pieces of the
    Earths surface for political and social reasons
  • Political Culture the collection of political
    beliefs, values, practices, and institutions that
    the government is based on

  • A state is separated from its neighbor by
    boundaries, or invisible lines that mark the
    extent of a states territory and the control the
    leaders have
  • Historically, frontiers separated states
  • Frontier a geographic zone where no state
    exercises power
  • Ex Antarctica and the Rub al-Khali

Types of Boundaries
  • Physical Boundary Rivers, lakes, and oceans are
    the most common also include mountains and
  • Law of the Sea coastal boundaries extend 12
    nautical miles from the coast

Types of Boundaries
  • Cultural Boundaries boundary set by ethnic
    differences such as language and religion
  • Ex India and Pakistan
  • Geometric Boundaries straight, imaginary lines
    that generally have a reason behind them

  • Territorial Morphology is a term that describes
    the shapes, sizes, and relative locations of

Shapes of States
  • .   
  • Compact The most efficient form.
  • A state whose territory is nearly circular.
    Because all places could be reached from the
    center in a minimal amount of time making it the
    most efficient for roads, railway lines, other

Examples Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, and Uganda
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Shape of States
  • The proruption can be a physical (penninsula)
    elongation of land or may have economic or
    strategic significance access to resources,
    sea, establishment of a buffer zone, etc
  • Examples Democratic Republic of the Congo
  • Prorupt - A state that is nearly compact but
    possess one or two narrow extensions of
    territory, which isolates a portion of the state.

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Shape of States
  • Elongated A state whose territory is long and
    narrow. The least efficient shape
    administratively. It may sacrifice national
    cohesion to promote eco strength.

Example Chile, Italy, and Gambia
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Shape of States
  • Fragmented Entirely made up of islands or
    territory, separated by another state, or is a
    state with an offshore island.
  • - contains isolated parts, separate and

Examples Indonesia, United States, former East
and West Pakistan
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Shape of States
  •   Perforated - A state that completely surrounds
    a territory that it does not rule.
  • That area is called an enclave and it may be
    independent or part of another state.
  • (Enclaves are territories or outliers located
    inside another state.)

Example Italy or South Africa
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Size of States
  • Microstates a country with a land size of a few
    square miles
  • Examples Vatican City, Monaco
  • Russia is the largest country in the world,
    followed by Canada, China, the United States, and

Relative Location of States
  • Landlocked State countries lacking an ocean
    coastline, and surrounded by other states
  • Sometimes a landlocked country will try to access
    a foreign port, or become prorupted
  • Kazakhstan is the largest landlocked state

Functions of Boundaries
  • Boundaries serve as symbols of sovereignty, or
    the ability of the state to carry out actions or
    policies within its borders
  • Sovereignty promotes nationalism, or a sense of
    unity with fellow citizens and loyalty to the
  • Internal Boundaries boundaries within a state
  • Ex The United States, Canada, China

Boundary Disputes
  • Almost half of the worlds states have been
    involved in boundary disputes
  • Positional Dispute occurs when states argue
    about where the boundary actually is
  • Ex Argentina and Chile

Boundary Disputes
  • Territorial Disputes arise over ownership of a
    region, usually around mutual border
  • Usually one state claims the other should belong
    to them due to ethnic and language commonalities
  • Ex German invasion of Poland

Boundary Disputes
  • Resource Dispute dispute involving natural
    resources that lie in border areas
  • Ex Iraq and Kuwait
  • Functional Dispute arise when neighboring states
    cannot agree on policies that arise in a border
  • Ex US and Mexico border

The Nation-State
  • State a territorially organized piece of land,
    or country
  • Institution stable, long-lasting organizations
    that help to turn political ideas into policies
  • Nation a group of people that is bound together
    by a common political identity

The Nation-State
  • A nation-state is a state whose territorial
    extent coincides with a group of people, or
  • Examples Denmark, Iceland, The United States
  • Binational/Multinational State a state with more
    than one nation
  • Ex The former USSR
  • Stateless Nation a group of people without a
  • Ex Palestine, the Kurds

Organization of States
  • Core Area the heartland of an area identified
    by levels of population concentration and
    transportation networks
  • Multicore State a state with more than one core
  • Example Nigeria

The Capital City
  • In most states, the capital is not only the
    center of government, but also the economic and
    cultural center
  • Primate City the largest city in a nation and
    one where the second largest city is
    significantly smaller
  • Forward Capital the capital city serves as a
    model for national objectives
  • Ex Japan

Electoral Geography
  • Electoral Process the methods used in a country
    for selecting its leaders
  • Electoral Geography the study of how the spatial
    configuration of electoral districts and voting
    patterns reflect and influence social life
  • Gerrymandering the attempt to redraw boundaries
    to improve chances of winning election
  • Minority/Majority Districting rearranging
    districts to allow a minority representative to
    be elected
  • Ex North Carolina

Colonialism and Imperialism
  • Colonies Dependent areas given fixed and
    recorded boundaries where none existed before
  • Imperialism empire building

Systems of States
  • Unitary System one that concentrates all
    policymaking powers in one central geographic
    place (European States)
  • Confederal System spreads the power among many
    sub-units and has a weak federal government
  • Federal System divides power between strong
    central government and sub-units (US, Canada,

Supranational Organizations
  • Cooperating groups of nations that operate on
    either a regional or international level for all
    major decisions and rules

Challenges to the Modern State
  • Centripetal Forces bring people together
  • Includes Nationalism, Institutions, Television,
    and Transportation
  • Centrifugal Forces destabilizes the government
    and encourages the country to fall apart
  • Includes Multinationalism, Religious Conflicts,
    and Separatist Movements

  • Devolution is the tendency to decentralize
    decision-making to regional governments

Devolution-Ethnic Forces
  • Ethnic forces that can cause devolution usually
    occur because of multinationalism an ethnic
    group sees itself as a separate unity from the
  • Examples Canada and Ireland

Devolution-Economic Forces
  • Economic forces can devolve a state if the
    economic activities of the state vary by region
    one region of the state does better economically
    than the rest of the state
  • Examples Italy and Spain

Devolution-Spatial Forces
  • Spatial forces cause devolution if a part of the
    state is separated from the rest of the state due
    to physical or other barriers
  • Examples East and West Pakistan and Puerto Rico

  • The study of the spatial and territorial
    dimensions of power relationships within the
    political-territorial order
  • Friedrich Ratzel developed the study of
    geopolitics compared the state to an organism
    with a predictable rise and fall of power
  • Used by Hitler

  • Halford Mackinder was concerned with the power
    relationship around Britains empire believed
    Britains empire revolved around the sea, but
    eventually a land-based power would rule the
  • Heartland Theory the pivot area of the world
    (Eurasia), hold the resources to dominate the
  • Used by Russia after WW II

  • Rimland Theory challenges the Heartland Theory
    says the Eurasian Rim holds the power to dominate
    the world rim includes land that encircles the
    Heartland and includes China, Korea, Japan, SE
    Asia, India, the Arabian Peninsula, and Europe
  • Developed by Nicholas Spykman

Supranational Organizations
  • The United Nations (UN)
  • 191 Member States
  • Membership is voluntary
  • UN Peacekeeping Forces
  • Security Council (US, Britain, France, China, and
  • World Bank and International Court of Justice
  • Anyone for Model UN next year?

Supranational Organizations
  • North American Treaty Organization (NATO)
  • 28 Member Nations including the US, Canada, and
  • Developed as a political association
  • The combined spending of NATO on defense is 70
    of the worlds defense spending

Supranational Organizations
  • Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
  • 12 Member Countries including Venezuela, Ecuador,
    and Nigeria
  • Purpose is to control the worldwide supply of oil
  • Powerful political force as well

Supranational Organizations
  • North Atlantic Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
  • Agreement between the United States, Canada, and
  • Trade bloc designed to promote economic prosperity

Supranational Organizations
  • European Union (EU)
  • 27 Member States
  • Economic and Political agreements
  • Three Pillars of the EU
  • Trade and other economic matters including a
    single currency and European Central Bank
  • Justice and home affairs asylum, border
    crossing, immigration, and international justice
  • Common foreign and security policy joint
    positions and actions, common defense policy

Forces of Change
  • Democratization
  • Movement toward Market Economies
  • Revival of Ethnic or Cultural Politics

  • The movement of a countrys government towards a
  • First Wave developed gradually over time
  • Second Wave occurred after the Allied victory in
    WW II
  • Third Wave began in the 1970s and is continuing
    today characterized by defeat of dictator or
    totalitarian rule in South America, Eastern
    Europe, and Africa Samuel Huntington

Movement Towards Markets
  • Many countries are moving from socialism towards
  • Command Economy supply determined by the state
  • Market Economy demand determined by consumer
  • Mixed Economy Government has a say in what is
    produced, but competition still exists
  • Ex Germany
  • Privatization the transfer of state-owned
    property to private ownership

Revival of Ethnic of Cultural Politics
  • Fragmentation divisions based on ethnic or
    cultural identities
  • Nationalism identities based on nationhood
  • Politicization of Religion the domination of
    religion in World Politics
  • Samuel Huntington claims our next worldwide
    conflict will be based on clashes of civilizations
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