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AP Psychology Review

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Title: AP Psychology Review


1
AP Psychology Review
  • Chapters 1-9

2
History
  • Early Schools of Psychology
  • Structuralism
  • Functionalism
  • Associationism

3
Structuralism
  • Wilhelm Wundt
  • First psychological laboratory in Leipzig,
    Germany
  • Introspection--look inward
  • Break consciousness into atomic sensations

4
Functionalism
  • Rejected Structuralism
  • Figures William James--Principles of
    Psychology, John Dewey
  • What do people do and Why

5
Associationism
  • Ebbinghaus--Memory study
  • Thorndike-Law of Effect
  • Ivan Pavlov-classical conditioning (many place
    with behaviorism)

6
Behaviorism
  • John Watson
  • Little Albert
  • Stimulus discrimination, stimulus generalization

7
B.F.Skinner
  • Father of operant conditioning
  • Skinner Box

8
Gestalt Psychology
  • Max Wertheimer
  • Kurt Koffka
  • Wolfgang Kohler--insight
  • Whole is greater than the sum of its parts
  • Figure-ground perception

9
Cognitivism
  • Ulric Neisser-Cognitive Psychology
  • Serial processing vs parallel processing

10
Biological Psychology
  • Roger Sperry
  • Split-brain research

11
Evolutionary Psychology
  • Evolutionary bases for behavior
  • Mating preferences, etc
  • Leda Cosmides
  • David Buss

12
Psychodynamic
  • Sigmund Freud
  • Father of the unconscious mind
  • Id, Ego, Superego
  • Dream interpretation
  • Defense mechanisms
  • Neo-Freudians

13
Humanistic
  • Abraham Maslow-hiearchy of basic needs
  • Carl Rogers-unconditional positive regard

14
Chapter 2
  • Research Methods
  • Statistics

15
Research Methods
Methods Pros Cons
Naturalistic Observation Natural context No control
Case Study Detailed info Generalization?
Tests, surveys, etc Scoring, Numbers Real life vs. answers
Experiments Control of IV May not apply to real world
16
Experimental Method
  • Control and Experimental groups
  • Independent variable-administered to experimental
    group only
  • Dependent variable-measured in both experimental
    and control groups
  • Statistical significance to infer causality
  • Reject null hypothesis (IV has no effect)

17
Experimental Design
Type Definition Advantage Disadvantage
Controlled Random assignment IV, DV True causal inference May not apply to population
Quasi-experimental No random assignment, control Naturalistic, larger sample size, etc No causal inference, may not apply to population.
Correlational No manipulation
18
Double-blind and Placebo
Told drug Given drug Told placebo Given drug (Drug Effect)
Told drug Given placebo (Placebo Effect) Told placebo Given placebo
Researcher doesnt know who is in what group
19
Correlation
  • Looks at relationship between two variables
  • Positive correlation Close to 1
  • Negative correlation Close to -1
  • No correlation Close to 0

20
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21
Research Ethics
  • Deception
  • Informed Consent
  • Debriefing
  • Confidentiality
  • Use of Pain
  • Use of Animals
  • IRB (Institutional Review Board)

22
Statistics
23
Descriptive Statistics
  • Information about one set of data
  • Mean
  • Median
  • Mode
  • Frequency distribution
  • Standard deviation
  • Normal distribution

24
Normal Distribution
  • MeanMedianMode
  • If MeangtMedian, Mode, then Positively skewed
  • If Meanltmedian, mode, then Negatively skewed

25
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26
Correlation Regression
  • Correlation Coefficient uses Pearson
    product-moment correlation coefficient
  • Scores from -1(perfect inverse relation) to 0 (no
    relation) to 1 (perfect positive relation)
  • DOES NOT IMPLY CAUSATION

27
Inferential Statistics
  • Needs large population size for higher confidence
  • Sample should be representative
  • Goal Reject null hypothesis
  • Null hypothesis--changes are due to chance and
    not independent variable

28
Type I Type II errors
Null is True Failure to reject null CORRECT Null is False Failure to reject null TYPE II Error
Null is True Reject Null TYPE I Error Null is False Reject theNull CORRECT
29
Chapter 3
  • Biological Bases for Behavior

30
  • Central Nervous System
  • Brain
  • Spinal Cord

31
Sensory Afferent neurons
Interneuorons
To spine
Motor Efferent Neurons
From spine
32
Spinal Reflex Spinal cord acts alone Receives
sensory afferent message Sends motor efferent
message Brain gets message AFTER action
33
Peripheral Nervous System
Somatic
Autonomic
34
Somatic nervous system SomaBody Skeletal/striated
muscles Conscious control
35
Autonomic Nervous System Involuntary Non-skeleta
l muscles
Sympathetic Parasympathetic
36
  • Sympathetic Nervous System
  • STRESS
  • Catabolic--expends energy
  • Pupils dilate
  • Bronchi relax
  • Increase heart rate
  • Inhibits digestion
  • Contracts blood vessels

37
ParasympatheticPEACE Anabolic--stores
energy Contracts pupils Bronchi
constricts Slows heart rate Stimulates
digestion Dilates blood vessels Return to
homeostasis
38
Some suggest that in todays society we have an
in stress related illnesses, like ulcers, heart
disease, etc because we have an active
sympathetic nervous system with little
opportunity to physically release the energy to
return to homeostasis. We cant fight or flee
our boss, work, school.
39
Neurons
40
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41
The neuron communicates electrochemically It
converts chemical energy to electrical energy to
chemical energy
42
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43
Positive sodium ions (Na) rush in, pushing out
Potassium Ions (K)
44
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45
Major Neurotransmitters
46
Acetylcholine (Ach)
  • Memory-in hippocampus
  • Movement--PNS
  • Blocked in Alzheimers patients
  • Excitatory

47
Dopamine
  • Movement
  • Attention
  • Learning
  • Pleasure--cocaine blocks reuptake
  • Too little--Parkinsons disease
  • Too much--Schizophrenia

48
Serotonin
  • Arousal
  • Sleep
  • Mood
  • Appetite
  • LSD inhibits serotonin (waking sleep)

49
GABA (Gamma-aminobutyric acid)
  • Inhibits axons-increasing threshold of excitation
  • Linked to seizures

50
Neurotransmitter fun facts Curare (So. American
poison dart frog) antagonist for A Ch. Causes
paralysis
51
Black Widow Spider Blocks A Ch receptor sites.
Agonists--supercharges NT Causes seizures,
convulsions.
52
Brain Structures and Functions
53
The Hindbrain Medulla Oblongata Pons Cerebellum

54
Medulla Oblongata
  • Necessary for survival
  • Controls
  • Heartbeat
  • Respiration
  • Swallowing
  • Digestion

55
Pons the Bridge
Bridge or relay Sleep Arousal
56
Cerebellum little brain
B alance Coordination Much larger in animals as
a proportion of brain
57
The Midbrain RAS Reticular Activating System
Sleep Arousal Attention Links to the hindbrain
58
  • The Forebrain
  • Cerebral Cortex
  • Limbic System
  • Hippocampus
  • Amygdala
  • Septum
  • Thalamus
  • Hypothalamus

59
The Cerebral Cortex
  • Outer layer of the brain
  • 4 lobes
  • Somatosensory and Motor Cortex

60
The Homunculus If we draw our bodies to the
scale based on the proportion of cortical areas
dedicated to them, we would look like
this lt------------------------- (And you thought
you were having problems finding a date to
Homecoming)
61
The Hippocampus--Greek for sea horse for its
shape Involved in learning and memory
62
Amygdala
  • Anger
  • Aggression
  • Fear
  • PTSD study may be genetic precursor if amygdala
    is slow to turn off

63
Thalamus
  • Relay Center
  • Sends sensory information to cerebral cortex
  • Also linked to RAS for sleep, arousal

64
The Hypothalamus The 4 Fs
  • Food
  • Flight
  • Fight
  • Sex

65
Hemispheres of the Brain
  • Left hemisphere language function
  • Brocas and Wernickes Areas
  • Broca--speak grammatically
  • Wernickes--language comprehension

66
Roger Sperry split-brain
  • Severed corpus callosum in epileptic patients
  • Chimeric face study
  • Verbally say right eye image
  • Points to left eye image

67
Four Lobes of Brain
  • Frontal--higher level thinking
  • Parietal--primary somatosensory cortex
  • Temporal-audition (hearing)
  • Occipital-vision

68
Brain Imaging
  • EEG--Electroencephalogram
  • Measures brain wave activity
  • ERPs (event-related potentials) minimizes
    interference

69
CAT Scan
  • Computerized Axial tomography
  • Cross-sectional images of the brain
  • Uses x-rays

70
MRI
  • Magnetic resonance imaging
  • Uses magnetic field instead of x-rays
  • fMRI-functional MRI, shows area of activity in
    the brain

71
PET scan
  • Positron emission tomography
  • Traces radioactive glucose
  • Shows brain functions, levels/areas of activity

72
Endocrine System
  • Regulates growth, reproduction, metabolism and
    behavior
  • Controls glands
  • Releases hormones
  • Uses negative-feedback loop

73
Glands
  • Adrenal
  • Secrets epinephrine and norepinephrine
  • Fight or flight response
  • Controls 50 other hormones
  • Thryoid gland
  • Produces thyroxine
  • Too much--hyperthyroidism--weight loss, weak
    muscles
  • Too little--hypothyroidism--slow metabolis,
    weight gain

74
Pituitary Gland
  • Master gland
  • Regulated other endocrine glands
  • Controlled by the hypothalamus
  • ACTH-adrenocorticotropic hormone--stress hormone
  • Begins fight or flight response

75
Chapter 4
  • Sensation Perception

76
Psychophysics
  • Absolute threshold
  • Found using signal detection theory

Present Absent
Yes Hit False Alarm
No Miss Correct Rejection
77
Difference Threshold/ JND
  • Just noticeable difference between two stimuli
  • Webers law
  • JND is a proportion of stimulus intensity

78
Sensory Adaptation
  • Become accustomed to stimulus and no longer
    respond
  • Also called habituation
  • Dishabituation--change in stimulus causes us to
    notice it again

79
Vision
  • As Eye See It

80
Parts of the Eye
  • Iris--color of the eye
  • Pupil-opening
  • Dilates for low light
  • Constricts for high light

81
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82
Focusing
  • The lens thickens or thins to focus
    (accomodation)
  • The muscles of the eye make it elongate or
    shorten
  • The two work together to help us focus

83
The Retina
  • 1. Ganglion cells-axons are the optic nerve
  • 2. Amacrine and horizontal cells-interneurons
    communicate laterally
  • 3. Bipolar-interneurons connect two ways

84
Neuronal paths
  • Rods and cones send information through bipolar
    cells to ganglion cells
  • Ganglion cells are optic nerve
  • Optic nerves of eyes form optic chiasm
  • Optic chiasm crosses hemispheres
  • Routed through thalamus to primary visual cortex

85
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86
Color and Acuity
  • Cones (blue) give us color --greatest
    distribution around the fovea
  • Rods (red) can not see color

87
Two Theories of Color Vision
  • Trichromatic Theory
  • Primary colors (red, green, blue) combine for all
    colors
  • Three specialized cones for each color
  • Color-blindness due to problems with cones
  • Genes discovered that cones produce hue-sensitive
    pigments
  • Opponent-process theory
  • Two sets of opposing colors
  • Red-green and blue-yellow (also black-white)
  • As red increases, green decreases (no
    reddish-green color)
  • Proof-afterimages

88
Perception
89
Depth Perception
  • Monocular Cues
  • Two-dimensional
  • Able to be recognized with one eye

90
  • Relative Size
  • More distant objects are smaller than those in
    foreground

91
Texture Gradient
  • Loss of texture on more distant bricks

92
Interposition
  • Objects blocking other objects are perceived as
    closer

93
Linear Perspective
  • Parallel lines appear to converge at the
    vanishing point

94
Binocular Depth Cues
  • Binocular convergence--as eyes turn inward,
    object is closer
  • Binocular disparity--difference between view of
    two eyes

95
Gestalt Principles
  • Closure
  • Figure-ground
  • Proximity
  • Similarity
  • Continuity
  • Common Fate

96
Closure
  • Fill in the missing blanks-
  • Gestalt principle

97
Figure-Ground Perception
  • Light figures on dark background
  • Dark figures on light background
  • Two ways to see it

98
Depth Ambiguity
  • The Necker cube can be seen two different ways

99
Proximity
  • Cluster items perceptually that are next to each
    other or near

100
Similarity
  • Perceptually groups things that are alike

101
Continuity
  • Follow smooth lines rather than disjunct

NOT
102
Common Fate
  • Perceive things moving together as belonging
    together

103
Stroboscopic Motion
  • See movies as movement, not series of individual
    images

104
Perceptual Constancy
Perceptual rules of constancy allow for optical
illusions
105
Size Constancy
  • It appears that the monster in back is larger,
    but is really the same size. We use depth cues
    to assume that farther away is larger.

106
Shape Constancy
  • We know that objects retain their shape even in
    our sensation of the object changes

107
Color Constancy
  • The two squares are actually the same color.

108
Depth Constancy
  • Müller-Lyer Illusion
  • The lines are the same length, but we perceive
    one to be longer.

109
Ponzo Illusion
  • Depth cues make the objects in the back seem
    larger.

110
Zollner Illusion
  • Lines are actually parallel

111
Phi Effect/Phenomenon
  • Blinking lights give the appearance of movement
  • Arrows on road sign, etc

112
Audition
  • Hear, hear

113
Mechanics
  • Amplitude intensity (loudness)
  • Pitch tone (high pitch vs. low pitch)
  • Timbre quality of sound

114
Hearing
  • Auditory Canal
  • Tympanic membrane
  • Malleus, Incus, Stapes
  • Oval Window
  • Cochlea

115
Theories of Hearing
  • Place Theory (Helmholtz)
  • Pitch is determined by what part of the basilar
    membrane is stimulated
  • Frequency Theory
  • Basilar membrane fires the same frequency as
    sound
  • (volley principle--explains who higher
    frequencies are produced)
  • Duplicity Theory
  • Sounds are heard by combination of place and
    frequency

116
Taste
  • Chemical Sense
  • Papillae on tongue are specialized for different
    chemicals
  • Now 5
  • Salt
  • Sour
  • Bitter
  • Sweet
  • Umami

117
Olfaction Stinks!
  • Chemical Sense
  • Direct path to brain
  • Olfactory epithelium has specialized receptors
    take chemical energy from odors and converts to
    electrochemical

118
Skin Sense
  • Haptic--pressure, temperature, pain
  • Pressure--shallow and deep
  • Temperature--warm and cold fibers
  • Pain

119
Kinesthesis
  • Body sense
  • Tells us where our parts our
  • Skeletal

120
Vestibular
  • Vestibular sacs and semicircular canals hold
    fluid
  • Motion moves hairs in fluid
  • Acts like gyroscope

121
Chapter 5
  • Consciousness

122
Attention Please
  • Selective Attention--only attend to one stimulus
  • Cocktail party phenomenon--follow only one
    conversation
  • Mindfulness/mindlessness
  • Stroop effect

123
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124
Filter Theories
  • Sensory filter (Broadbent)-we filter at the
    sensory level
  • Top-down filter--we recognize our names even in
    unattended ears
  • Signal-attenuating mechanism--information is not
    totally blocked, just weakened.

125
Attentional Resource Theories
  • Single pool theory--divide resources from one
    pool limits others while multi-tasking
  • Multiple-pool model--tasks from different
    modalities do not compete as much as tasks from
    same sensory modalities

126
Consciousness
  • Two purposes of consciousness
  • 1. Monitoring--our awareness
  • 2. Controlling--behavior based on monitoring

127
3 levels of Consciousness
  • Preconsciousness--available but not in our
    consciousness
  • Subconscious/unconscious--information not
    available to our conscious mind
  • Consciousness--our awareness

128
Preconscious
  • Tip of the tongue phenomenon--just like the name
    implies. Trying to recall information that we
    know but cant retrieve easily.

129
Preconscious
  • Subliminal Perception
  • Information introduced below level of conscious
    awareness
  • Drive-in Movie Hoax
  • Subliminal tapes
  • Priming
  • Backwards music
  • Wizard of Oz

130
Preconscious
  • Blind-sight
  • Visual cortex of the brain is damaged so cant
    consciously see but can respond

131
Subconscious
  • Freud-the unconscious mind--home of repressed,
    unpleasant conflicts, desires, skeletons
  • Jung--collective unconscious

132
Sleep
  • Stage 1 Beta, theta
  • Stage 2 Theta, sleep spindles, K-complexes
  • Stage 3 lt50 delta waves
  • Stage 4 gt50 delta
  • REM beta, theta paradoxical sleep

133
Sleep disorders
  • Insomnia--difficulty sleeping
  • Narcolepsy--falls asleep unexpectedly
  • Sleep apnea--stop breathing while sleep
  • Somnambulism--sleep walking (usually during stage
    3 4)

134
Dream Theories
  • Psychodynamic--royal road to the unconscious
    mind
  • Cognitive--problem-solving
  • Activation-synthesis---attempt to make sense of
    random neural firing

135
Hypnosis
  • Deep relaxation theory
  • Epiphenomenon theory role-playing by subject is
    genuine
  • Neodissociative theory separate part of
    conscious mind hidden observer

136
Psychoactive Drugs
  • Narcotics--opiates
  • CNS depressants--alcohol, barbituates
  • CNS stimulants--Caffeine, cocaine, etc
  • Hallucinogens--LSD, mescaline, MDMA

137
Chapter 6
  • Learning

138
Classical Conditioning
  • Ivan Pavlov
  • Conditioned Stimulus
  • Unconditioned Stimulus
  • Conditioned/
  • Unconditioned Response

139
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140
Types of Conditioning
  • Forward--CS is before the US
  • Delay--Time between CS and US
  • Trace--CS presented, removed, before US
  • Simultaneous-CS, US same time
  • Backward-US then CS ineffective

141
Stages of Classical Conditioning
  • Acquisition
  • Extinction
  • Spontaneous Recovery
  • Savings

142
More terms
  • Stimulus discrimination
  • Stimulus generalization
  • Garcia--modality of CS/US
  • CER-conditioned emotional response (Garcia effect)

143
Operant Conditioning
  • Thorndikes Law of Effect
  • Skinner
  • Reinforcers--increases likelihood behavior will
    repeat/continue
  • Punishers--decreases likelihood behavior will
    repeat/continue

144
Operant Conditioning
Positive (Give) Negative (Take)
Reinforce (Continue) Give wanted Take unwanted
Punish (Extinguis) Give unwanted Take wanted
145
Schedules
Fixed Variable
Ratio (Attempts) After X attempts, gets prize After ? Attempts, Gets prize
Interval (Time) After X time, gets prize After ? Time, Gets prize
146
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147
Tolman Latent learning
  • Rats in a maze
  • Kept cognitive map
  • Showed hidden learning

148
Bandura Social learning
  • Observational learning
  • Bobo the clown
  • TV violence

149
3's of 3 of Memory
150
Three Kinds of Memory
  • Episodic
  • Declarative
  • Procedural

151
Episodic
Events people have experienced or witnessed
  • Flashbulb memory

Where were you when.?
152
Declarative
  • Memory of general knowledge

What is 3 times 2? When was the Declaration of
Independence signed?
153
Procedural
  • Skills or procedures learned

Riding a bike Playing a game
154
Three Processes of Memory
  • Encoding
  • Storage
  • Retrieval

155
Encoding
  • Visual codes
  • Acoustic code
  • Semantic codes

Recall image
Repeat it silently, outloud
Make it have meaning (mnemonic devices)
156
Storage
  • Maintenance rehearsal
  • Elaborative rehearsal
  • Organizational Systems

Repeat it over and over
Pairing and using
Making it fit into existing categories
157
Retrieval
  • Context-Dependent Memory
  • Place, situation
  • State-Dependent Memory
  • Mood, state of consciousness
  • Tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon
  • Its uh, umm, starts with a p or t..

158
Three Stages of Memory
  • Sensory Memory (SM)
  • Short-term Memory (STM)
  • Long-term Memory (LTM)

159
Sensory memory
  • Iconic memory
  • image
  • Eidetic imagery
  • photographic
  • Echoic memory
  • sounds

160
Short-term memory
  • Primacy Effect--first thing received
  • Recency Effect-last thing received
  • Chunking-groups
  • Interference
  • Proactive Inhibition(PI)-new material learned
    makes it difficult to remember previously learned
    material
  • Retroactive Inhibition (RI)-previously learned
    material makes it harder to learn new material

161
Long-term memory
  • Can be retrieved much later
  • Benefits from rehearsal
  • Schemas

162
Memory Tasks
  • Recognition
  • Recall
  • Relearning

163
Recognition recognizing what is in memory
164
Recall
  • Cued recall--given a prompt
  • Serial recall--repeat in order (Presidents)
  • Free recall--any order
  • Paired-associates--two lists of matched things
    (friends order for snacks)
  • Total recall

165
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166
Chapter 8
  • Language, Thinking and
  • Problem-Solving

167
Language Terms
Term Definition Example
Phones Smallest discernible unit of speech sounds. Some are culturally unique. Rolling rs, nasal a, etc
168
TERM DEFINITION EXAMPLE
Phonemes Speech sounds users of a language can identify Vowel and consonant sounds H, I, T in hit
169
TERM DEFINITION EXAMPLE
Morphemes Smallest unit of sound that denotes meaning. Walked has 2 Walk and ed. Suffixes, prefixes, etc.
170
TERM DEFINITION EXAMPLE
Syntax The way users put together words in a sentence, like word order. Subject-gt verb-gt object. I lost the key, but in Spanish, the key is lost to me.
171
TERM DEFINITION EXAMPLE
Semantics The study of the meaning of words. Call me a cab. Youre a cab.
172
TERM DEFINITION EXAMPLE
Crying First form of verbal expression. Distinct cries for hunger, dirty diaper, tired.
173
TERM DEFINITION EXAMPLE
Cooing Infant vocalization that produces all the phones. Universal, even for deaf students.
174
TERM DEFINITION EXAMPLE
Holophrastic speech One word utterancesholophrases. Juice, ball, Mama
175
TERM DEFINITION EXAMPLE
Telegraphic speech Articles, prepositions and functional morphemes are omitted. Me juice. Daddy up.
176
TERM DEFINITION EXAMPLE
Overextension Application of word to more things, ideas, situations than is appropriate for the word. All four legged animals are doggy
177
TERM DEFINITION EXAMPLE
Over-regularization Over-application of language rules. I runned from the mouses.
178
TERM DEFINITION EXAMPLE
LAD Language Acquistion Device Innate human predisposition to acquire language during a critical period. The movie Nell Feral children Genie
179
TERM DEFINITION EXAMPLE
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis Cultural differences in language influence thoughts and cognitive systems. Incorrectly, Inuits do NOT have many words for snow.
180
Thinking and Problem-Solving
181
Types of Thinking
  • Analysis
  • Synthesis
  • Divergent thinking
  • Convergent thinking

182
Analysis
  • Breaking down into smaller parts
  • For example, critiquing a movie, you consider the
    story, plot, acting, etc

183
Synthesis
  • Combining individual components into a whole
  • For example, using knowledge of learning theories
    and language acquisition to create new theory
    combining the two concepts

184
Divergent thinking
  • Brainstorming
  • Create as many different solutions as possible

185
Convergent Thinking
  • Narrow down from many to one, best solution.

186
Problem-Solving
  • Well-structured clear way to find solution
  • Ill-structured no clear path to solution. For
    example What college should I attend? Who
    should I marry?

187
Strategies
  • Algorithms guarantee a solution to
    well-structured problems, but may be
    time-consuming. Recipes, formulae, etc
  • Heuristics Short cuts

188
Types of heuristics
  • Representativeness--use of patterns from
    population to make predictions (base
    rate--odds)
  • Availability--uses available data that comes to
    mind

189
Problems with problem-solving
  • Mental set--cant see beyond normal way of
    thinking
  • Functional fixedness--cant see different uses
    beyond norm
  • Transfer--old learning may interfere (or help)
    new learning

190
Decision Theory
  • Utility-maximization theory we make decisions
    that bring us the most pleasure/least pain
  • Subjective-utility theory different for each
    individual
  • Satisficing consider our options and select
    first one that is satisfactory.

191
Problems with Decision Making
  • Overconfidence
  • Gamblers fallacy false belief that sequential
    events are not random
  • Sunk-cost fallacy continue to invest with hopes
    of recovering loss

192
Reasoning
  • Deductive
  • Inductive

193
Deductive Reasoning
  • Use premises to reach conclusions
  • Syllogisms
  • All birds have wings
  • The penguin is a bird
  • Therefore, a penguin has wings
  • From generalizations to specific cases

194
Inductive reasoning
  • From individual cases, make general conclusions
  • Science can only prove theories false. It cant
    prove them.

195
Intelligence
  • Are you smarter than a WWI private?

196
History of Intelligence
197
Francis Galton (Darwins cousin)
  • Psychophysical skills
  • Eugenics
  • James McKeen Cattell brings it to US

198
Alfred Binet 1904
  • French public schools
  • Mental Age

199
William Stern 1912
  • Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
  • ___Mental Age__ X 100 IQ
  • Chronological Age

200
Louis Terman 1911
  • Rewrote Binet/Simon test in English
  • Stanford-Binet
  • Created scalesstandard to determine highest and
    lowest

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David Weschler (1974)
  • WAIS-III Adult Intelligence Scales
  • WISC-III Intelligence Scale for Children
  • WPPSI Preschool and Primary Scale of
    Intelligence
  • Verbal
  • Performance
  • Overallcombination of both

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Aptitude vs Achievement
203
Aptitudepredictive
  • SAT changed from Scholastic Aptitude Test to
    Scholastic Achievement Test
  • Origins
  • Now

204
3 Necessary principles
  • Standardized (bell curve)
  • All test conditions the same
  • Normative scores (norms) are scaled raw scores
  • IQmean, median, mode100 SD15
  • SATmean500, SD100

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(No Transcript)
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Old Scale for IQ
IQ Range Classification
70-80 Borderline Deficiency
50-69 Moron
20-49 Imbecile
Below 20 Idiot
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IQ Range Classification
50-69 Mild (Educable MR)
35-49 Moderate (Trainable MR)
20-34 Severe
Below 20 Profound
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Reliability
  • Consistent, dependable
  • Test-retest
  • Split-half score
  • Comparison to other measure

209
Validity
  • Does it measure what it is supposed to measure?
  • Content (face validity)items on test represent
  • PredictiveDo results meet with future tasks?
  • Concurrenttest compared to other criterion

210
Five Approaches to Intelligence
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1. Psychometric
  • Spearman (1927)
  • g-factors general factor
  • s-factors specific factors

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Psychometric (cont)
  • Thurstone (1938)
  • Primary mental abilities
  • Verbal comprehension
  • Verbal fluency
  • Inductive reasoning
  • Spatial reasoning
  • Spatial visualization
  • Number
  • Memory
  • Perceptual speed

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Psychometric (cont)
  • Cattell and Carroll (1971)
  • Hierarchical model
  • Fluid intelligence speed, flexibility,
    acquisition
  • Crystallized intelligence cumulated knowledge

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2. Computational model
  • Process of intelligence--cognitive
  • Information processing speed
  • Hi IQ, more time for global planning, less local
    planning

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3. Biological Model
  • Electrophysiological
  • Speed of neural activity correlates with IQ
  • Metabolic
  • Hi IQ has lower glucose metabolism
  • With practice, lower overall but higher in
    specific areas--more efficient

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4. Contextual Model
  • Cultural differences
  • Kpelle tribe--sort by function, not hierarchy
  • Kenyans--4 types of intelligence
  • Italian immigrant study (1917)

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5. Systems Model
  • Howard Gardner (1983)
  • Multiple intelligence
  • Linguistic
  • Logical-mathematical
  • Spatial
  • Musical
  • Bodily-kinesthetic
  • Interpersonal
  • Intrapersonal
  • Naturalist
  • Brain is modular

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Systems (cont)
  • Robert Sternberg (1985)
  • Triarchic model
  • Practical--apply, use, do
  • Creative--create, invent, design
  • Analytic--analyze, compare, evaluate

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Heritability of Intelligence
Identical Twins Reared Together 0.85
Identical Twins Reared Apart 0.71
Fraternal Twins reared together 0.6
Siblings reared together 0.45
Unrelated individuals reared together 0.31
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Heritability Graph
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