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Castle Architecture

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Title: Castle Architecture


1
Castle Architecture
2
Motte and Bailey Castles
  • The Norman Invasion their Pre-built Castles
  • The Battle of Hastings in 1066 marked the end of
    the Anglo Saxon Kings of England and the Norman
    Invasion led by Duke William of Normandy who
    became King of England, also known as William the
    Conqueror. His strategy of utilising Pre-Built
    Norman Timber Castles with Motte and Bailey
    structures played a highly successful role when
    he conquered England. Three pre-built wooden
    castles were built by the Norman Invaders - the
    Battle of Hastings and the throne of England was
    taken. Each of the following links to Motte and
    Bailey Castles will provided detailed facts and
    information about these famous Norman
    constructions. The Norman strategy of building
    Motte and Bailey Castles began.

3
The definition of the Motte and Bailey Castles
are as follows
  • Definition of a Motte
  • The Motte can be defined as a giant mound of
    earth with a keep, or tower, built on top
  • Definition of a Bailey
  • The Bailey consisted of the outer wall of a
    castle and a courtyard which surrounded the keep
  • Definition of a Motte and Bailey Castle
  • A Motte and Bailey Castle can be defined as a
    Medieval Norman castle which consisted of two
    connecting ditched stockaded mounds with the
    higher mound surmounted by a keep, a tower, and
    the other containing a courtyard, barracks, other
    buildings and livestock

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Norman Strategy of building Motte and Bailey
Castles
  • William the Conqueror employed a strategy of
    quickly building of wooden Motte and Bailey
    Castles. Timber Motte and Bailey Castles could
    not be viewed as permanent castles as the wood
    built on earth rotted quickly and they could
    easily be destroyed by fire. But they were of
    great temporary value! His aim was to build as
    many of these small castles as possible. A Motte
    and Bailey castle could be erected quickly - some
    only took a couple of weeks! It is believed that
    as many as 1000 Medieval Motte and Bailey castles
    were built in England by the Normans.
  • The sites of the castles followed a pattern
    covering some, or all, of the following
    requirements
  • They were built on the highest ground in the area
  • They often adjoined Rivers
  • They often overlooked Towns
  • They made use of existing sites of Roman or Saxon
    forts and Burhs
  • They overlooked harbours
  • The Normans wanted their rule to be confirmed
    completely and quickly. Between the Battle of
    Hastings and the Norman Invasion in 1066 and the
    date that William the Conqueror died in 1087 a
    total of 86 stone castles had been built!
    Eighty-six castles in just 21 years! It is
    believed that as many as 1000 Medieval Motte and
    Bailey castles were built in England. Many of the
    initial wooden constructions of the Motte and
    Bailey Castles were fortified. The first
    fortification was to raise the timber buildings
    on stone walls and once this was complete to
    entirely re-build the Castle Keep in stone. Thus
    emerged the first Stone Castles of the Medieval
    Era - including, of course, the famous Tower of
    London.

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The Purpose of the Motte and Bailey Castles
  • To act as a fortified post
  • To provide a base where men, provisions and
    horses could be housed
  • To overawe and frighten the indigenous population
  • Motte and Bailey Castles provided a base from
    which the Normans could govern the surrounding
    district

8
Storm and capture the Tower
Climb, or crawl up, the embankment of the Motte -
these were extremely steep and designed so that a
horse could not climb it
Storm the gate
  • Take the gate of the Motte

Negotiate the outer ditch and embankment
Negotiate the defences within the Bailey
The most successful form of attack was fire! The
timber buildings would burn easily.
9
Life in the Motte and Bailey Castles
  • The Normans were the victors - the invaders of
    the English Anglo Saxons. Life for the Normans
    was good. Their successful invasion of England
    meant wealth for the Norman invaders. Lands were
    divided between Norman Lords and they built the
    Motte and Bailey Castles. Life in the Norman
    Motte and Bailey Castles depended on the rank of
    the people who inhabited the castle. The Lord of
    the Castle and possibly his family would live in
    the most protected part of the castle - the Tower
    or the Keep. Servants would be expected to
    provide food for the Nobles and soldiers. The
    Soldiers were well paid and lived within the
    Bailey of the castle. Other occupations within
    the castle were the Blacksmiths - to keep a
    supply of arrowheads, the Stable hands to help
    with the horses and the kitchen staff.

10
The History of the Norman Stone Castles
  • The wooden Motte and Bailey castles were seldom
    occupied for long periods. Nearly 1000 wooden
    Motte and Bailey Castles were constructed. Their
    rapid construction enabled the Normans to control
    and subjugate the conquered English. Wooden Motte
    and Bailey Castles were not viewed as permanent
    castles as wood built on earth rotted quickly and
    the castle could easily be destroyed by fire.
    Stone Castles were the solution! But they took
    considerable time to build, requiring a
    significant labour force,  and they were
    expensive. The location of the stone castles were
    therefore carefully chosen for the most
    advantageous political and military purposes.
    Then the Norman strategy of building Stone
    Castles began...

11
Converting wooden castles to stone castles!
  • Many of the initial wooden constructions of the
    Motte and Bailey Castles were strongly fortified
    by converting them to stone castles. The first
    development and fortification was to raise the
    timber buildings on stone walls and once this was
    complete to entirely re-build the Castle Keep
    (tower) in stone. Thus emerged the first Stone
    Castles of the Medieval Era - including, of
    course, the famous Tower of London. William the
    Conqueror's chief stone castle architect and
    builder was called Robert, Lord of Belleme.

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The process of building
  • The stone used for building medieval castles was
    generally mined in quarries. However, the Romans
    had been great builders in Britain and local
    Roman structures would be pillaged for old Roman
    bricks to be used when building the new stone
    castles. Different types of other materials were
    used in the building and development of stone
    castles
  • Hard Chalk
  • Flint
  • Limestone
  • Sandstone

14
Stone Chart

Type Color Location
Sandstone Purple St Asaph Wales
Stone Light red Cheshire England
Sandstone Yellow Flint Wales
Limestone Grey Rhuddlan Wales
Trassic Sandstone Brown Radyr Wales
Lias Sandstone Blue-grey Glamorgan Wales
Sutton Stone Conglamerate Southern Down and Sutton England
15
Mortar used in Stone Castles
  • Mortar (habarcs) consists of bonding materials
    which are used in masonry, surfacing, and
    plastering that hardens in place and is used to
    bind together bricks or stones. The mortar used
    to bind together the stones when constructing
    medieval castles was made of water, sand, and
    lime mixed together.

16
The Purpose and sites of the Norman Stone Castles
  • To act as a fortified post
  • To provide a base where men, provisions and
    horses could be housed
  • To overawe and frighten the indigenous population
  • To provide a site from which the Normans could
    govern the surrounding district
  • To provide a place from which the Normans could
    dispense justice
  • They were built on the highest ground in the area
  • They often adjoined Rivers
  • They often overlooked Towns
  • They made use of existing sites of Roman or Anglo
    Saxon forts

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  • The Norman Stone Castles were often extensions
    of, or built around the existing Keeps
  • Ditches and banks continued to be a feature
  • Moats were introduced as an added defence feature
  • The stone for the castles were transported
    wherever possible via rivers
  • Roman bricks were also used
  • Limestone was used for the walls ( giving a
    cream-coloured finish )
  • The Norman Castle Keep (tower) was built as the
    most protected part of the castle
  • Massive stone Gateways were introduced
  • A Barbican ( a tower or other fortification on
    the approach to a castle) was erected at the gate
  • The Norman Stone Castles had a rampart - an
    embankment built around a space for defensive
    purposes
  • The wooden Palisades used in the Baileys were
    replaced with stone walls

19
Life in the Norman Stone Castles
  • The Normans were the victors - the invaders of
    the English Anglo Saxons. Life for the Normans
    was good. Their successful invasion of England
    meant wealth for the Norman invaders. Lands were
    divided between Norman Lords and they built the
    Norman Stone Castles . Life in the Norman
    Medieval Castles depended on the rank of the
    people who inhabited the castle. The Lord of the
    Castle and possibly his family would live in the
    most protected part of the castle - the stone
    Tower or the Keep. Servants would be expected to
    provide food for the Nobles and soldiers. Other
    occupations within the castle were the
    blacksmiths - to keep a supply of arrowheads and
    bolts, the Stable hands to help with the horses
    and the kitchen staff.

20
The Number of Norman Stone Castles built in the
Medieval period
  • Between the Battle of Hastings and the Norman
    Invasion in 1066 and the date that William the
    Conqueror died in 1087, 86 stone castles and more
    than 1000 wooden Motte and Bailey castles had
    been built in England!

21
Characteristics of Early English Medieval Gothic
Style
  • Large blocks of stone used by Normans were
    replaced by shaped stone
  • Norman hollow stone were replaced with solid
    walls and pillars
  • Emphasized height
  • Good use of the pointed arch
  • The pointed arch could support greater weight,
    allowing the walls to be thinner with wider
    window openings
  • Introduction of flying buttresses distributed the
    weight of roofs and walls right down to the ground

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Windsor Castle
24
History and Description of Windsor Castle
  • Oldest and largest castle
  • 900 years old
  • Queen Elizabeth II and the Royal family regard
    Windsor Castle as their home
  • In 1694 a bill, in the English parliament ,to
    demolish the castle was defeated by just one vote
  • Has been neglected and declared inhabitable and
    then transformed into a luxurious palace
  • Survived two World Wars, then nearly destroyed by
    an accidental fire
  • Contains about 1000 rooms
  • Occupies 13 acres of land
  • 100 feet above the river Thames
  • The central mound still in the same position as
    William the Conqueror built it

25
Warwick Castle
26
Warwick Castle
  • Warwick means dwellings by the weir
  • A weir was a fence or wattle built across a
    stream to catch or retain fish
  • Important feature its access to the River Avon
  • Equipment and building materials were easily
    transported by boats
  • The wooden castle was replaced by fortified stone
    castle in 1260
  • Guys Tower and Ceasars Tower were added at the
    end of the fourteenth century

27
Interesting facts about Warwick Castle
  • The building of wooden Warwick Castle started in
    1068
  • The architecture /style Norman Romanesque and
    later Medieval
  • Built next to the South side of the River Avon
  • It has over 60 acres ground
  • It has oubliette (várbörtön), a pit prison

28
The changes in Medieval Architecture were made in
response to
  • Social and cultural changes during the Medieval
    era
  • Changing needs of population
  • Changes in technology, in terms of building
    tools, which were available
  • New building techniques, construction methods
  • The desire for more comfort in castle Interiors

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