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Theme: Verbs. Tenses of Verbs. Present tense.

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LECTURE 6 Theme: Verbs. Tenses of Verbs. Present tense. Plan 1. Verb. 2. Tenses of Verbs. 3. Speaking practice. Tenses of Verbs Ukrainian verbs have only three basic ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Theme: Verbs. Tenses of Verbs. Present tense.


1
LECTURE 6
  • Theme Verbs. Tenses of Verbs. Present tense.

2
Plan
  • 1. Verb.
  • 2. Tenses of Verbs.
  • 3. Speaking practice.

3
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To study - ?????
5
To sit- ??????
6
To read- ??????
7
To shout - ???????
8
To speak - ????????
9
To buy - ????????
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Tenses of Verbs
  • Ukrainian verbs have only three basic tenses
    present, past, and future.

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Present tense
  • Historically, this is derived from the
    Indo-European present tense. In Common Slavic and
    later Ukrainian, it retained its present meaning
    only for imperfective verbs and developed a
    future meaning for perfective verbs.

16
The present tense
  • The present tense. Remember that it's only
    imperfective verbs that can be in the present
    tense.

17
Example 1 ??????? -- to have lunch
  • ? ?????? I have/am having lunch
  • ?? ??????? You have/are having lunch
    (informal you)
  • ??? He
  • ???? ?????? She has/is having
  • ???? It
  • ?? ???????? We have/are having lunch
  • ?? ???????? You have/are having lunch
    (formal and plural you)
  • ???? ???????? They have/are having lunch

18
  • Two essential things to learn from this
    example Ukrainian personal pronouns and six verb
    endings to match six possible subject persons.
    Note that English verbs in the simple present
    tense do not change regardless of the subject
    person except in third person singular
    (I/you/we/they have, but he/she/it has).

19
Example 2 ?????? -- to write
  • ? ???? I
    write/am writing
  • ?? ????? You write/are writing
    (informal you)
  • ??? He
  • ???? ???? She writes/ is writing
  • ???? It
  • ?? ?????? We
    write/are writing
  • ?? ?????? You
    write/are writing (formal and plural you)
  • ???? ?????? They
    write/are writing

20
  • While the examples above may be considered to
    belong to the same pattern (it is called
    "Conjugation 1" in grammar books), conjugation 2
    verbs have another vowel in their endings.

21
Example 3 ????? -- to learn/teach
  • ? ??? I learn/am
    learning
  • ?? ???? You learn/are learning (informal you)
  • ??? He
  • ???? ????? She learns/is learning
  • ???? It
  • ?? ????? We learn/are
    learning
  • ?? ????? You learn/are
    learning (formal and plural you)
  • ???? ????? They learn/are
    learning

22
Example 4 ?????? -- to stand
  • ? ???? I stand/am standing
  • ?? ????? You stand/are standing (informal you)
  • ??? He
  • ???? ?????? She stands/is standing
  • ???? It
  • ?? ?????? We stand/are standing
  • ?? ?????? You stand/are standing
    (formal and plural you)
  • ???? ?????? They stand/are standing

23
Athematic verbs
  • Ukrainian inherited from Indo-European through
    Common Slavic, the following 3 athematic verbs.
    These verbs have their own conjugation in the
    present. Everywhere else they are regular.

24
  • ???? - to give
  • singular
    plural
  • First Person ??? ????
  • Second Person ???? ?????
  • Third Person ????? ??????

25
???? - to eat
  • Singular
    plural
  • First Person ?? ???
  • Second Person ??? ????
  • Third Person ???? ?????

26
Compounds ending in -?????
  • Singular
    plural
  • First Person -??? -????
  • Second Person -???? -?????
  • Third Person -????? -??????

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  • ????? ?? ?????!

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