Research Methods II - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Research Methods II PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 6348b2-NGRlZ



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Research Methods II

Description:

Research Methods II The Research Process .and research questions Dream is the spark of passion; talent is the firework of its expression; perseverance, the sacred ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:21
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 32
Provided by: JulieC93
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Research Methods II


1
Research Methods II
  • The Research Process.and research questions

Dream is the spark of passion talent is the
firework of its expression perseverance, the
sacred fire of its accomplishment. Daniel
Chabot
2
Game Plan
  • Review Thesis assignment What is a CC thesis?
  • An introduction to the research process
  • Types of research and methods
  • Getting Started
  • Generating a Research Question
  • BREAK
  • Library Session 1030 and 1230 Searching
    electronic databases (we will divide into 2
    groups 22 at 1030 13 at 1230)

3
CC Thesis
  • Average Length?
  • References?
  • Books
  • Articles
  • General Interest
  • Websites
  • Footnotes per page
  • Table of contents
  • Topic
  • Research Question
  • Method

4
How did they get there?....the research process
Formulate and clarify your research
question Chapter 1
Review the Literature/Theory Chapter 2
Formulate your research design Chapter 3
Answer research question
Measure
Sample
Analyze your data Chapter 4
Qualitative Methods
Quantitative Methods
Write your Results and Discussion Chapter 5
5
Goals of Research
  • Exploratory
  • Examine feasibility for further study, to provide
    illumination on a process or problem
  • Descriptive
  • To understand a common or uncommon occurrence by
    observing the details
  • Explanatory
  • Explain the cause or non-occurrence of a
    phenomenon
  • Show causal connections and relationships between
    variables

6
The Research Onion
Time horizons
Choices
Strategies
Approaches
Philosophies
Techniques and procedures
Positivism
Realism
Interpretivism
Deductive
Experiment
Objectivism
Survey
Case study
Cross- sectional
Mono-method
Subjectivism
Action research
Data collection and data analysis
Mixed methods
Grounded theory
Multi-method
Longitudinal
Pragmatism
Ethnography
Archival research
Functionalist
Inductive
Interpretive
Radical humanist
Radical structuralist
7
Research Strategies Experimental research
  • Create a hypothetical situation and observe
    behavior to test an hypothesis (typically using
    an experimental group and a control group)
  • Example What is the impact of a buy two, get
    one free promotion on consumer purchasing
    behavior?

8
Research Strategies Survey research
  • Collecting data from a sample population to test
    theory
  • Allows collection of a large amount of data from
    a sizeable population in highly economical way
  • Example Employees attitude on a new personnel
    system, Organizations implementation of
    innovative practices

9
Research Strategies Case Study Research
  • In depth investigation of an individual, group or
    institution
  • Widely used in business to analyze successes and
    failures
  • Aimed at finding out why.
  • Example How has Starbucks managed its rapid
    expansion in the 1990s? How are strategy models
    implemented in organizations?

10
Research Strategies Action Research
  • Research in action (versus research about action)
  • Typically a researcher is working on a problem in
    an organization
  • Involves practitioners as partners
  • Iterative nature of process (diagnose, plan, take
    action, evaluate, diagnose, plan, take action,
    evaluate..)
  • Results can inform other contexts

11
Research Strategies Archival Research
  • Makes use of administrative records and documents
    as the principle source of data
  • Allows research questions which focus on the past
    and changes over time to be answered
  • Can be exploratory, descriptive or explanatory
  • Example relationship between money supply and
    interest rates

12
The Research Onion
Time horizons
Choices
Strategies
Approaches
Philosophies
Techniques and procedures
Positivism
Realism
Interpretivism
Deductive
Experiment
Objectivism
Survey
Case study
Cross- sectional
Mono-method
Subjectivism
Action research
Data collection and data analysis
Mixed methods
Grounded theory
Multi-method
Longitudinal
Pragmatism
Ethnography
Archival research
Functionalist
Inductive
Interpretive
Radical humanist
Radical structuralist
13
Data Analysis
  • Inferential Statistics
  • Correlation
  • Regression
  • T-test, Chi-Square or Analysis of Variance
    (ANOVA)
  • Qualitative Analysis

14
Data Analysis Correlation Analysis
  • Provides an indication as to how 2 or more things
    are related to one another
  • Involves collecting and analyzing data to
    determine whether, and to what degree variables
    move together
  • Does not imply causality although often
    interpreted that way
  • Examples family wealth and educational
    attainment, height and weight

15
Data Analysis Regression Analysis
  • More sophisticated form of statistical analysis
    which controls for the effects of other variables
    in a relationship hypothesized to be causal
  • Examples relationship between money supply and
    interest rates, relationship between leadership
    and satisfaction

16
Data Analysis Test of differences
  • T-tests, Chi-Square, ANOVA
  • Used for comparing means among groups- often used
    in demographic comparisons
  • ANOVA Example does the level of training impact
    the speed of completing a task?
  • Level of training n mean
  • Advanced 10 24.2
  • Intermediate 15 27.1
  • Beginner 12 30.2

17
Data Analysis Qualitative Analysis
  • Content Analysis
  • Categorize data
  • Recognize relationships
  • Pattern Matching
  • Time-series/chronological analysis

18
So where do you start? Research Ideas/Topics
  • How do I get research ideas?
  • Your own strengths and interests
  • Look at past projects
  • Discuss with peers/advisor
  • Keep a notebook of ideas
  • Mind mapping/brainstorming
  • Explore personal preferences

19
Attributes of a Good Research Topic/Idea
  • Capability is it Feasible?
  • Are you fascinated by the topic?
  • Do you have the research skills?
  • Achievable in the time frame?
  • Do you have the access to the data you need to
    study the topic?
  • Appropriateis it worth while?
  • Can you find a link to theory?
  • Can you state your objectives clearly?
  • Will your research topic provide fresh insights?

20
Test your idea.
  • Goldilocks test
  • Too big, too small, too hot, too cold
  • Russian Doll
  • Breaking down the original statement to the very
    heart of the idea

Its pay me now or pay me later..
21
The next step develop a research question
  • How do I develop a good research question?
  • Review current literature
  • Unanswered questions
  • Conflicting results
  • Interesting contexts

22
Characteristics of a good research question
  • Problem-oriented
  • Analytical (versus descriptive)
  • Interesting and significant
  • Amenable to analysis
  • Feasible

23
Examples of research questions
  • How do different levels of education affect
    unemployment rates?
  • How does watching television commercials affect
    the buying behavior of adolescents?
  • Will students who know how to take a test
    improve their scores?
  • How does parental employment affect childrens
    cognitive development?

24
Exercise
  • Write down 2 good research questions and 1 bad
    question on the following topics
  • Group 1 Beer consumption
  • Group 2 Graduate salaries
  • Group 3 Energy conservation
  • Group 4 Employee loyalty/turnover
  • Group 5 Text messaging

25
Administration
  • Homework
  • Research topic assignment
  • Literature Review reading/assignment
  • Focus on the structure of the lit review (how was
    it organized, what method did they use, how did
    they use figures, tables). Also what did you
    like about the review, what did you dislike?
  • Be prepared to present your findings to the class
    tomorrow
  • 1030 and 1230 today Library TLC-1 basement
    of library. MANDATORY

26
Homework Reading Assignments
27
Back-up
28
From Idea to Research Question to Hypothesis
  • Idea Student learning
  • Research Question How does faculty sleep
    deprivation impact student learning?
  • Hypothesis There is a negative relationship
    between faculty sleep deprivation and student
    learning

29
What is an hypothesis?
  • A proposition that is empirically testable
  • Example Increasing flex time options increases
    quality of life
  • Need to concretely define concepts (e.g.,
    quality of life (QOLI) )
  • Hypothesis testing can lead to support or
    refutation of a theory

30
Attributes of a good hypothesis
  • Stated in declarative form
  • Posits a relationship between variables
  • Reflects a theory or body of literature
  • Is brief and to the point
  • Is testable

31
Examples of Hypothesis
  • Publicly traded firms will have higher growth
    rates than privately held firms
  • State-owned firms will have a greater share of
    the domestic market than publicly traded or
    privately held firms
  • Job satisfaction will be positively related to
    organizational citizenship behaviors
About PowerShow.com