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Imperialism S* France tended to use direct rule the most often, while Britain usually relied on indirect rule. * * S* Although many colonies benefited from the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Imperialism

To Civilize
10 Minutes Introduction to Scramble For Africa
  • 10 Minutes Introduction to Scramble For Africa
  • Scramble for Africa for Handout for handout first
  • Imperialism Video 400

  • Mid-1800s
  • Missionaries and explorers sparked foreign
    interest in Africa

Africa (1880)
  • Scottish missionary
  • 1841-1873 lived in central Africa
  • Explored Africa
  • Named Lake Victoria after the British queen
  • Converted many Africans to Christianity
  • Wrote books on Africa which piqued foreign
  • 1871 reported lost
  • Found by Henry Stanley
  • Dr. Livingstone, I presume?
  • Video
  • Song

ExplorationDr. Livingstone, I Presume?
  • David Livingstone
  • Doctor/Missionary
  • Mapping the Dark Continent because little was
    known about it at the time
  • Open the interior ofAfrica for commerce

David Livingstone
The Scramble for Africa
1. Colonization of Africa by Europeans
1880-1914 3 Great Britain, France, Italy,
Portugal, Spain, Germany, Belgium
King Leopold II of Belgium
Imperialism The policy by a stronger nation to
attempt to create an empire by dominating weaker
nations economically, politically, culturally, or
How Did Imperialism Begin?
A coaling station for steamships, Cape Town,
South Africa
Economic Motives 1
  • Industrialized nations sought
  • Raw materials
  • Natural resources
  • A cheap labor supply
  • New marketplaces for manufactured goods
  • Control means of production

The Industrial Revolution
  • The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain
    in the mid-18th century
  • Britains advantages
  • The spread of industrialization

Technological Advances
  • The steam engine
  • Better transportation
  • Increased exploration
  • Improvements in communication

The steamboat Herald (with mounted machine guns)
on the Zambezi river in Africa
One of the first steam engines
Cecil Rhodes
  • British imperialist who made huge profits from
    Africas natural resources
  • Founder of the state of Rhodesia in Africa

The Rhodes Colossus
This cartoon depicts British imperial ambitions
to control the entire African continent.
Motives 1
  • Religious to spread the benefits of Christianity
    and Western Culture
  • Political competition fuel by Nationalism,
    Empire Building

The strong, industrialized nations of Europe used
imperialism to seize colonies dominate the
local govts economies in Africa Asia
Justification for Imperialism
  • A desire to civilize non-Europeans also spurred
    the development of imperialism 6
  • Social Darwinism
  • Europeans believed in the white mans burden
    that they had a responsibility to civilize the
    world From a poem in support of
    imperialism/Humanitarian help

Herbert Spencer Survival of the Fittest
Darwins handwritten cover page for The Origin of
Christianity Civilization
Describe 3 examples of European ethnocentrism in
the political cartoon.
Imperialism Quote
  • If you woke up one morning and found that
    somebody had come to your house, and had declared
    that the house belonged to him, you would
    naturally be surprised, and you would like to
    know by what arrangement.
  • Jomo Kenyatta 1st President of Kenya
  • How does this quote show an African reaction to
    European Imperialism in Africa? Use 3 examples

Imperialism Quote
  • Desmond Tutu when the missionaries came to
    Africa, they had the Bible and we had the land.
    They said let us close our eyes and pray. When
    we opened them, we had the Bible, and they had
    the land.
  • How does this quote show an African reaction to
    European Imperialism in Africa? Use 3 examples

The Maxim Gun 4
British troops fighting forces in Benin in 1897
The Berlin Conference1884 5
Rules to divide Africa among European powers to
avoid conflict among European powers Artificial
Borders Moral Justification 6 To civilize
European Control of Africa
  • By 1914, only two African nations remained
  • Liberia and Ethiopia 2
  • England and France controlled most of Africa 7

Methods of Management
  • Indirect Rule This form relied on using the
    existing African political rulers.
  • Britain sometimes asked local chiefs to accept
    British rule and legislative councils were formed
    and included colonial (European) officials and
  • The idea was that these councils would train the
    Africans, and at some point in time, these
    territories would be able to rule themselves,
    much like Australia and Canada.

Methods of Management
  • Direct Rule The French and most other European
    countries preferred stronger control because they
    felt that Africans were not civilized enough to
    rule themselves.
  • They adopted a policy of paternalism, in which
    the Europeans acted like the Africans parents in
    providing for their survival, but denying them
  • They avoided training locals, and instead,
    brought along Europeans to rule the Africans.
  • The French also supported a policy of
    assimilation, in which the native population
    would take on French customs and culture and be
    like them. 9
  • African customs and culture were looked at as
    inferior, or not as good as French culture. 9
  • Africans no political voice

Direct vs. Indirect Rule 8
  • European nations chose one of two different paths
    when it came to colonial rule

Indirect rule colonies were ruled through
existing traditional rulers Example Nigeria
Direct rule the colony was directly administered
by the colonizer Example Senegal
Result loss of power and influence By
Traditional rulers
Cash Crop/Money Economy 10
  • Africans sold labor to make money to pay taxes
  • Problems
  • Created dependence on Colonial rulers

11 Purpose of the Railroads was to extract wealth
12 Aim of Colonial Rulers
  • To benefit Colonial economies accomplished by
    cash crop system and forced labor
  • King Leopold II of Belgium
  • Cecil Rhodes

5-8 Million Victims! (50 of Popul.)
It is blood-curdling to see them (the soldiers)
returning with the hands of the slain, and to
find the hands of young children amongst the
bigger ones evidencing their bravery...The rubber
from this district has cost hundreds of lives,
and the scenes I have witnessed, while unable to
help the oppressed, have been almost enough to
make me wish I were dead... This rubber traffic
is steeped in blood, and if the natives were to
rise and sweep every white person on the Upper
Congo into eternity, there would still be left a
fearful balance to their credit. --
Belgian Official
13 African Resistance and failure
  • Many Africans resisted European rule
  • Millions of Africans died
  • Europeans superior military technology
  • North Africa Algerians fought French
  • West Africa Ibo and Fulani fought British
  • Congo Free State 20 years of fighting
  • Ethiopia exception European training preserved

African Resistance 13
  • Africans Confront Imperialism
  • Broad resistance, but Europeans have superior
  • Unsuccessful Movements
  • Algeria fights the French for 50 years
  • German East Africa resistance results in 75,000
  • Successful Movements
  • Ethiopia under Emperor Menelik II
  • Plays Europeans against each other
  • Stockpiles modern weapons
  • Defeats Italy and remains independent

African Resistance
  • Unsuccessful Attempts Africans resisted
    Europeans in both military conflict, and through
    religious resistance.
  • Algeria was able to resist French rule for 50
  • French West Africa held out for 16 years because
    it had a strong king named Samori Toure that had
    modernized his military.
  • In the end, only famine could beat Toure.

African Resistance
  • German East Africa Natives in this region used
    religious faith as defense.
  • German colonizers had forced them to grow cash
    crops, such as cotton, instead of food.
  • Natives came to believe that if magic water
    called maji-maji were sprinkled on their bodies,
    they would be bullet-proof
  • Furthermore, they believed that God had approved
    of their struggle, and that their dead ancestors
    would rise from the grave and help them against
    the Germans.
  • As many as 75,000 were mowed down by German Maxim
    machine guns, and 150,000 more starved to death

Maji-Maji prisoners captured by Germans.
African Resistance
  • Ethiopia A Successful Resistance Ethiopia was
    the only country that successfully resisted
  • Its king, Menelik II, played all of the European
    countries off of each other (tricked them) as
    they tried to convince him to be under their
    sphere of influence,
  • While he tricked them, he bought modern weapons
    from the French and Russians.

African Resistance
  • In signing a treaty with Italy, Menelik II
    realized that he had been tricked by differences
    in translation between languages, and that he had
    given up control of his country.
  • Menelik declared war on Italy, and was able to
    beat Italy at the Battle of Adowa. 1896
  • Menelik II continued to stockpile weapons to
    resist any other attempts to take over his

African Resistance
Africans did not passively accept European claims
to rule over them. As European troops advanced on
African territory, they met stiff resistance.
Even without modern weapons, other Africans still
fiercely resisted European powers.
French and Germans
  • French West Africa
  • West Africa, leader of Malinke peoples, Samory
    Touré, formed army to fight against French rule
    fought for 15 years proclaimed self king of
  • 1898, French defeated Touré, ended resistance to
    French rule in West Africa
  • German East Africa
  • Africans called on gods, ancestors for spiritual
    guidance in resistance
  • 1905, several African peoples united to rebel
    against Germans order to grow cotton for export
    to Germany
  • Rebellion Put Down
  • To combat Germans, spiritual leader encouraged
    followers to sprinkle magic water over bodies to
    protect selves from German bullets did not work
  • Rebellion quickly put down Germans killed tens
    of thousands of Africans

The Legacy of Imperialism
Caricature of former Ugandan dictator Idi Amin

Mozambican war refugees, 1978
How do the pictures show how life changed for
Africans after the arrival of Europeans? 3
A Closer Look at Imperialism in Africa
  • European quest to control natural resources
  • Doing so led to drastic changes in the
    infrastructure of the continent

The port of Zanzibar around 1900
Transportation, Communication, Education, Medical
Care, Sanitation
  • New political systems
  • Direct and Indirect Rule
  • New Economic pattern
  • money economy, cash crops, taxes, dependence,
    lack of diversity
  • Transportation
  • Communication
  • Education
  • Sanitation and water systems
  • Medical Care
  • migrant workers, chibaro (forced labor)
  • breakdown of Family
  • New attitude towards land
  • Land ownership

  • Racism
  • Christianity
  • Artificial boundaries
  • Educated African elite
  • Nationalism
  • Westernization
  • Generalization change and breakdown of
    traditional values and organizations

Economic Consequences
  • Cash Crops
  • depleted the soil and made it difficult to grow
    subsistence crops.
  • undermine local industries because they sucked
    up most of the labor force.
  • once colonies gained their independence, years of
    dependence on a single cash crop made it
    difficult to modernize and diversify their

Result Slowed development and modernization
15 Effects of WWII in Africa
  • Turning point to the Rise of Nationalist
  • Europe made some reforms but too late ex.
    African govt official
  • Why?
  • African saw the human side of European while
    serving together not superior destroyed their
  • An increasing number of Africans reasoned that a
    war in which Europeans slaughtered fellow
    Europeans, meant that colonial regimes had little
    right to lecture African leaders and people about
    how to conduct their affairs

Effects of European Imperialism on
Africa Directions Using your answers from
question 14 from Scramble for Africa sheet and
pages 102-104 from the text, categorize the
effects of European Imperialism on Africa an
improvement or disruption to African culture.
Improvement/Benefit Disruption

Was European Imperialism in Africa more
disruptive or beneficial to the African culture
and its people? Support your answer with
  • Material Improvements
  • Transportation and communication
  • RR and Telegraphs
  • Hospitals
  • Sanitation and water systems
  • Formal education system (western)
  • Educated African elite
  • Nationalism

  • Disruption
  • Disruption of Traditional African Life
  • New political systems
  • New Economic pattern money economy, cash crops,
    taxes, economic dependence, lack of diversity
  • migrant workers, chibaro breakdown of Family
  • New attitude towards land
  • Racism
  • Christianity
  • Artificial boundaries
  • westernization
  • Generalization change and breakdown of
    traditional values and organizations

Improvement Disruption
Material improvements Transportation and communication RR and Telegraphs Hospitals Sanitation and water systems Formal education system (western) Nationalism westernization Disruption of Traditional African Life New political systems New Economic pattern money economy, cash crops, taxes, dependence, lack of diversity migrant workers, chibaro breakdown of Family New attitude towards land Racism Christianity Artificial boundaries Educated African elite Generalization change and breakdown of traditional values and organizations