Promoting student success Mantz Yorke Liverpool John Moores University m.yorke@livjm.ac.uk London South Bank University 21 January 2005 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Promoting student success Mantz Yorke Liverpool John Moores University m.yorke@livjm.ac.uk London South Bank University 21 January 2005

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Title: Promoting student success Mantz Yorke Liverpool John Moores University m.yorke@livjm.ac.uk London South Bank University 21 January 2005


1
Promoting student successMantz YorkeLiverpool
John Moores Universitym.yorke_at_livjm.ac.ukLondo
n South Bank University21 January 2005
2
The general plan
  1. Policy context
  2. Retention/completion
  3. What the Action on Access studies found
  4. Formative assessment
  5. Employability
  6. Who can do what? (Emphasis on institutions)

3
The impossible pentagon
  • Five policy desirables
  • Widened participation
  • High completion rates
  • Higher quality of HE provision
  • Higher standards of student performance,
  • including employability
  • Lower cost

4
What drives institutions?
Fear of poor performance indicator
statistics? Funding streams? Desire to enhance
students achievement?
5
non-continuation, 02-03, English HEIs
30 25 20 15 10 5 0
SEG IIIm - V, 01-02
0 5 10 15 20 25
30 35 40 45
6
non-continuation, 02-03, English HEIs
30 25 20 15 10 5 0
SEG IIIm - V, 01-02
0 5 10 15 20 25
30 35 40 45
7
non-continuation, 02-03, English HEIs
30 25 20 15 10 5 0
SEG IIIm - V, 01-02
0 5 10 15 20 25
30 35 40 45
8
non-continuation, 02-03, English HEIs
30 25 20 15 10 5 0
SEG IIIm - V, 01-02
0 5 10 15 20 25
30 35 40 45
9
non-continuation, 02-03, English HEIs
30 25 20 15 10 5 0
r 0.65
SEG IIIm - V, 01-02
0 5 10 15 20 25
30 35 40 45
10
US degree attainment rates
completing bachelors
degree Institution type within 4 years
within 6 years Private university 67.1
79.6 Public university 28.1
57.7 Public college 24.3
47.4 Nonsectarian college 56.3
66.2 Catholic college 46.4 60.2 Other
Christian college 51.0
61.3 All 36.4 57.6 Astin Oseguera
2002
11
Why do students leave?
12
Why do students leave?
13
Voices 1
My A-levels were geared towards accounts and
economics, and I just carried on in that
direction and didnt think of anything else. I
should have researched it all a bit more. HD,
in Davies Elias (2003, p.32) I wasnt having
a particularly happy time personally and I just
thought Ill do what the school says, and once I
actually got to it the institution I realised
that maybe it wasnt the only option and maybe I
could be happier doing something else Irene
in Longden (2001, p.30)
14
Voices 2
Academic staff, on occasions, had a tendency to
project themselves as being very pushed for
time, stressed out and could not fit you into
their timetable of work. No matter who you
turned to, or when you seeked (sic) someones
aid, they seemed to be busy. Student reading
Science, in Yorke (1999a, p.40).
15
Voices 3
My main reason for leaving was finance. I soon
realised that once I had paid my rent for the
year, I would have no money left. Didnt want
to leave the university owing 000s of . So
got a job. Student reading Humanities, in Yorke
(1999a, p.44) I was forced to work PT which
ate into my studying time and my relaxation
time. This generated a lot of stress for me
My commitment to the course was affected. I
didnt feel that studying an Art degree subject
with little career/job assurance justified the
severe three-year struggle required to achieve
it. Student reading Art and Design, in Yorke
(1999a, p.45)
16
Voices 4
I was amazed by the big city. I started
clubbing regularly, took more and more drugs,
became increasingly more ill, lost weight,
became paranoid. I messed up in a very big way.
One minute I was on top, the next rock bottom.
I came from a cushioned background and believe
if I had maybe waited a year or two and learnt
more about the reality of life, then it would
have been a different story. Student reading
joint Arts and Social Science, in Yorke (1999b,
p.32)
17
I n t e g r a t i o n
Academic experiences
Intentions, goals, commitments
Intentions, goals, commitments
Departure decision
Pre-entry attributes
Social experiences
Tinto, 1993
18
Entry Envir
Psychological Intermed Attitudes
Intentn Behav Chcs Interact
Process Outcome Outcomes
Institutional Environment
Past Behav Persony Initial Attribs Normat Beli
efs Coping Strategs Motivn Skills Abilities
ve S-E Stress Confid Internal Attrib
Motiv
Self-Eff Coping Process Approach /
Avoidce Attribs L of C
Acad Integ Perf Social Integ
Instl Fit Loyalty to Inst
Bureau Academ Social External
Intent to Persist
Persist
Bean Eaton, 2000
19
  • Problems with models
  • Slippery concepts and terminology
  • Multiple theories
  • Varied foci of attention
  • Linearity
  • Rationality
  • Predictiveness

20
Weak empirical support
I n t e g r a t i o n
Academic experiences
Intentions, goals, commitments
Intentions, goals, commitments
Departure decision
Pre-entry attributes
Social experiences
Stronger empirical support
21
Adventitious happenings
Psych of Indiv
Institutional context
Broader society
22
Understanding
I meant, theres no end to understanding a
person All one can do is understand them
better, To keep up with them so that as the
other changes You can understand the change as
soon as it happens Though you couldnt have
predicted it. TS Eliot The confidential clerk
23
Action on Access
Studied what HEIs with high proportions of WP
students were doing 6 HEIs that were beating
retention benchmarks 9 other HEIs with high WP
levels
24
Action on Access studies
  • Demonstrated the potential in
  • Commitment to the student experience
  • Pre-entry and early engagement with students
  • Curricula attuned to widened participation
  • Making the curriculum a social arena
  • Allocating resources preferentially to 1st year
  • Emphasising formative assessment, esp. in Sem.
    1

25
  • Work on
  • formative assessment
  • employability
  • offers some pointers

26
Formative assessment implies no more (and no
less) than a discerning judgement about a
learners progress it is on-going in the
sense that it goes on all the time and it is
formative in so far as its purpose is
forward-looking, aiming to improve future
learning (as distinct from the retrospective
nature of summative assessment). Greenwood et
al. (2001, p.109)
27
A typology of formative assessment
From Formal
Informal
Probably the main approach in HE
Where circumstances permit
Teachers Peers Others Self
Via peer assessment activities
Over coffee or in the bar
In work-based situations
Problems if assessor is mentor, supervisor
Only if an assessment requirement
Where student is acting self-critically
28
Formative assessment Black and Wiliams
meta-analysis showed a size effect of 0.7
formative assessment does improve learning The
gains in achievement are among the largest
ever reported for educational interventions. Bla
ck and Wiliam (1998, p.61)
29
Weaknesses (Subject Review etc.) In 49 per cent
of cases, marking systems could be improved
particularly in respect of feedback to
students. This sometimes lacked a critical edge,
gave few helpful comments and failed to indicate
to students ways in which improvement could be
made. QAA (2001, para 28 Subject overview
report, Education) See also QAA (2004) Learning
from Subject Review, Learning from higher
education in further education colleges in
England and QAA (2003) Review of 33 Foundation
Degrees
30
Towards greater autonomy
From Formal
Informal
Probably the main approach in HE
Where circumstances permit
Teachers Peers Others Self
Via peer assessment activities
Over coffee or in the bar
In work-based situations
Problems if assessor is mentor, supervisor
Only if an assessment requirement
Where student is acting self-critically
31
Employability
Its development is aligned with good learning,
and hence with the development of student
success The four-component USEM approach has
been found useful in thinking about student
development
32
USEM
U Understanding of subject and broader
situations S Skilful practices in subject,
employment and life E Efficacy beliefs and
personal qualities M Metacognition
33
S
USEM
Skilful practices in context
Employability broader personal effectiveness
E
Personal qualities, including self-theories and
efficacy beliefs
Subject under- standing
Meta- cognition
M
U
34
Some relevant theorists
Bourdieu Passeron (1977) cultural and social
capital Flavell (1979) metacognition Salovey
Mayer (1990) emotional intelligence Pintrich
Schunk (1996) motivation Bandura (1997)
self-efficacy Sternberg (1997) practical
intelligence Dweck (1999) self-theorising Biggs
(2003) constructive alignment in pedagogy
35
This theoretical plurality suggests
why simplistic attempts to improve
student success are unlikely to be successful
36
This theoretical plurality suggests
why simplistic attempts to improve
student success are unlikely to be
successful There is no simple causality
37
Evidence for E and M effect sizes Meta-analyses
Size N studies Self-system (E
of USEM) 0.74 147 Metacognition (M) 0.72
556 Marzano (1998)
38
Who can do what?
  • The system
  • Institutions
  • Students

39
The system
  • Operate a post-qualification admissions system
  • Do not over-privilege research
  • Use the QA system to ensure threshold quality
  • Relax about completion statistics
  • Make student funding system simpler
  • Ensure that policy initiatives do not conflict

40
What can institutions do?
Wrong choice Academic
difficulties Financial problems Poor
student experience Dislike environment Poor
institutional provision
41
What can institutions do?
  • Assist student decision-making
  • Enhance the student experience
  • Promote student engagement
  • Help students to cope with the demand
  • and with failure
  • Deal sympathetically with adventitious events

42
Student decision-making
  • Provide good information to prospective students
  • Welcome all students in the information provided
  • Recruit realistically
  • Advise according to the students best interests

43
The student experience general
  • Be welcoming
  • Engage with students before they arrive
  • Encourage a sense of belonging
  • Make induction effective
  • Provide a one stop shop for support services
  • Help students to become streetwise
  • Treat HE as a predominantly social process
  • Promote the development of teaching expertise

44
The student experience academic
  • A culture of learning
  • Programme structures likely to engender success
  • Teaching approaches likely to engender success
  • Assessment for learning
  • Make the 1st year/level relatively resource-rich

45
Helping students to cope
  • Respond to students existing knowledge-level
  • Ensure that students know what is expected
  • Use formative assessment early
  • See failure as a developmental opportunity
  • Be supportive when disaster strikes
  • Understand the pressures on todays students

46
What students should do
  • Choose programmes wisely and unhurriedly
  • If uncertain, take time out
  • Be motivated towards their programmes, engage
  • Understand that regurgitation is not enough
  • Take note of, and act on, formative assessments
  • Be prepared for low initial grades
  • Use poor performance as a stimulus for learning

47
Remember
that change is easy to propose
48
Remember
that change is easy to propose but not so easy
to implement
49
Epilogue
Institutions cannot guarantee student success,
not least because students have to contribute
their effort
50
Epilogue
Institutions cannot guarantee student success,
not least because students have to contribute
their effort We can, however, bend the odds in
favour of success
51
Epilogue
Institutions cannot guarantee student success,
not least because students have to contribute
their effort We can, however, bend the odds in
favour of success We have to act with
intelligence in the ways in which we design our
educational provision, and in the ways in which
we respond to our students needs
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