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Slayt 1


The use of Artemia nauplii as live food for the rearing of fish and crustacean larval stages, has been one of the most important steps in the development of marine ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Slayt 1

The use of Artemia nauplii as live food for the
rearing of fish and crustacean larval stages, has
been one of the most important steps in the
development of marine aquaculture.
Advantages Different size They are visible as
prey and are highly palatable to the larvae With
special feeds can be given to improve its
nutritional value Their carapace are digested
easily with digestive secretion
Disadvantages If nauplii and shell are not
separated well, larvae take them
together Nauplii consume their yolk in a short
Advantages Cysts can be stored for many years
and live nauplii can be obtained after 24 to 36 h
incubation. Incubation is easy They tolerate
wide range of temperatures and salinities applica
bility of disinfection Because of wide range of
size, it can be used for feeding different species
Disadvantages Even if artemia cysts still remain
an expensive product Their market availability
shows fluctuations Sources of artemia cyct are
threatened day by day
Phylum Arthropoda Classis Crustacea Subclassis
Branchiopoda Genus Artemia Species Artemia sp
A. salina Linnaeus 1 7 58 England (extinct ),
Mediterranean A. tunisiana Bowen and Sterling
1978 synonym of A. salina A. parthenogenetica
Barigozzi 1974, Bowen and Sterling 1978 Europe,
Africa, Asia and Australia A.
urmiana Gunther 1990 Iran A. sinica Yaneng
1989 Middle and East Asia A. persimilis
Piccinelli and Prosdocimi 1968 Argentina A.
franciscana America, Carribean and Pacifik
Island, A.(franciscana) franciscana and
A.(franciscana) monica (Mono Lake,
California) Artemia sp. Pilla and Beardmore
1994 Kazakhstan
Morphology Adult Artemia (10-15 mm in length)
have an elongated body with two stalked complex
eyes, a linear digestive tract, sensorial
antennules. The male has a paired reproductive
organ in the posterior part of the trunk region.
Female Artemia can easily be recognized by the
brood pouch or uterus. Eggs develop in two
tubular ovaries in the abdomen. Once ripe they
become spherical and migrate via two oviducts
into the unpaired uterus.
Ecology Artemia populations are found in about
500 natural salt lakes scattered throughout the
tropical, subtropical and temperate climatic
zones, along coastlines as well as
inland. eurythermal and euryhaline 1 0 250
0 30 0 - 35 0 optimal 6 35 C 25-30 C
incubation of cysts Its physiological
adaptations to high salinity provide a very
efficient ecological defense against
predation As Artemia is incapable of active
dispersion, wind and waterfowl (especially
flamingos) are the most important natural
dispersion vectors
REPRODUCTION Parthenogenetic and bisexual Artemia
strains exist, where ovoviviparous and oviparous
reproduction alternates. Cysts hatching gives
ovoviviparous offspring eggs are retained inside
the uterus until embryonic development is fully
In extreme conditions the embryos only develop up
to the gastrula stage. At this moment they get
surrounded by a thick shell, enter a state of
metabolic standstill or dormancy (diapause) egg
(200-300 µm) and are then released by the female
Feeding As a non-selective filter feeding, brine
shrimp feed on particulate matter of biological
origin, bacteria and algae of suitable size (1-50
µm ).
Size, individual dry weight and energy content
of Artemia instar I nauplii from different cyst
sources hatched in standard conditions (35
Cyst source Length (µm) Dry weight (µg) Energy content (10-3 Joule)
San Francisco Bay, CA USA 428 1.63 366
Macau, Brasil 447 1.74 392
Great Salt Lake, UT-USA 486 2.42 541
Shark Bay, Australia 458 2.47 576
Chaplin Lake, Canada 475 2.04 448
Tanggu, Bohai Bay, China 515 3.09 681
Aibi Lake, China 515 4.55 -
Yuncheng, China 460 2.03 -
Lake Urmiah, Iran 497 - -
10 30 g 8 30 g
AF Nauplii length 430 µm High amount HUFA gt
15 mg/g dwt No need extra enrichment
AF 480 Nauplii length 480 µm High amount
HUFA gt 15 mg/g dwt No need extra enrichment
10 / 100g
Original Artemia-Eier in PLATINUM-QUALITÄT!
Schlupfrate 95 - Schlupfzeit 9-18 Stunden
Cyst count/gram 330.000 Protein 61,8 -
Carbohydrate 21,5 - Ash 5,5 - Min. 8,0
area, 205 omega-3 - Min. 3,5 area, 226
omega-3 - Min. 3,0 area, 183 omega-3. Inhalt
Incubation of cysts 25 C 0 30-35
salinity 2000 lux continuous oxygen 2-4
mg/l pH 8-9 strong aeration cylindrical shape
Decapsulation Hydration of egg Addition Calcium
hypochlorite or Sodium hypochlorite Addition
NaOH or NaNO3 Change egg colour Washing
egg Addition Sodium thiosulfate Move to
incubation tank
For decapsulation process Ca(OCl)2 Calcium
hypochlorite NaOCl Sodium hypochlorite
KOCl Potassium hypochlorite
0.5 g active chlorine must be per 1 g egg It
can be used NaOH for supplying pH value higher
than 10 For 1 g egg 10 ml NaOCl, 40, 0.33ml
NaOH 3.67 ml marine water Total 14 ml
solution After Decapsulation, washing tap water
and adding 1 sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3)
  • Advantages decapsulation
  • Nauplii that are hatched out of decapsulated
    cysts have a higher energy content
  • Disinfection of egg
  • Nauplii size near each other and smaller (5 )
    than without decapsulation
  • Increase of hatching rate
  • For decapsulated cysts, illumination requirements
    for hatching would be lower

Disadvantages decapsulation When the
temperature reach to 40C, embryo or egg may
Egg 200-300 µm A0 350-500 µm A1 700-800
µm A2 800-900 µm
Factors of affecting hatching rates -
Physicochemical factors Ion composition Temperat
ure Salinity pH amount of oxygen Illumination
Water quality -Artemia Strain/Origin Density
Enrichment of Artemia
Some stocks of Artemia nauplii have shown a
deficiency in EPA (205n-3) and DHA
(226n-3) Nauplii are harvested, washed, counted
and moved to enrichment tank Prepared enrichment
solution according to enrichment time and
kind During enrichment operation, oxygen level
has to be higher than 3-4 mg/l Larger
quantities of enriched nauplii can be produced
but require storage at 5C at a density of 5
000/ml with appropriate aeration
Dolphus - cuve
Larval feeding of gilthead sea bream
Microdiet (2-10 biomass)
Artemia metanauplii (0.5-2 ind/ml)
Artemia nauplii (0.5-2 ind/ml)
Rotifer (8-12 ind/ml)
Algae (20-40 x 104 cell/ml )
0 10 20
30 40
References Akbary, P., Hosseini, S. A. and
Imanpoor, M. 2011. Enrichment of Artemia nauplii
with essential fatty acids and vitamin C effect
of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) larvae
performance. Iranian Journal of Fisheries
Sciences, 10(4)557-569. Conceiçao, L. E.,
Yufera, M., Makridis, P., Morais, S., Dinis, M.T.
2010. Live Feeds For Early Stages of Fish
Rearing. Aquaculrure Research, 41,
613-640. Lavens, P., Sorgeloos, P. 1996. Manual
on the production and use of live food for
aquaculture. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper,
361. Lakshmanasenthil, S. Vinothkumar,T., D.
Geetharamani, D., Maruthupandi, T. 2013.
Influence of micro algae in enrichment of Artemia
salina for aquaculture feed enhancement. J. Algal
Biomass Utln. 2013, 4 (2) 6773 Pechmanee, T.
1989. Food Organisms For Seabass Larval Rearing.
Report on the Training Course on Seabass Breeding
and Culture. Project reports (not in a Series)
No.9 FAO. Schwarz, M., Delbos, B., Mclean, E.,
Craig, S. 2009. Intensive Marine Finfish
Larviculture. Virginia Cooperative Extension.
Publication 600-050. Tamaru,C.S., Ako, H.,
Paguirigan, R. Pang, L. Enrichment of Artemia For
Use in Freshwater Ornamental Fish Production.
Center for Tropical and Subtropical Aquaculture
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