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The Jeaning of America

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Title: The Jeaning of America


1
The Jeaning of America
Unit 14
  • Carin Quinn

2
Lesson 1 Overview
  • Pre-reading questions
  • Background information
  • Getting to know the new words
  • Global understanding

3
Pre-reading Questions
  • How many jeans do you have in your wardrobe?
  • Do you like blue jeans? Why/Why not?
  • What do your think are the merits and demerits of
    jeans?
  • Do you know any famous
  • brand names of jeans?

4
Some Famous Designers
  • COMMEdesGARCONS
  • Calvin Klein
  • LEVIS
  • Wrangler
  • DKNY
  • FAIRWHALE
  • Miss sixty
  • Texwood

5
Types of Jeans
  • Acid-wash jeans
  • Designer jeans
  • Double-kneed jeans
  • Boot-cut jeans

6
Types of Jeans
  • Acid-wash jeans
  • Designer Jeans

7
Types of Jeans
Low rise
Relax Loose fit
Overall
Bell-bottomed Flare
Skinny Slim fit
Cuffed ?
8
Fashion Set
  • Boot-cut Jeans
  • Teenage wear

9
Categories of Fashion Design
  • Haute couture (French for high-fashion)
  • Ready-to-wear Ready-to-wear collections are
    usually presented by fashion houses each season
    during a period known as Fashion Week.
  • Mass market The mass market caters for a wide
    range of customers, producing ready-to-wear
    clothes in large quantities and standard sizes.

10
Designing a Collection
  • Planning a collection
  • Predicting trends
  • Choosing a theme
  • Designing a garment
  • Mens Day Wear
  • Womens Evening Wear
  • Teenage Wear
  • Sportswear
  • Knitwear
  • Bridal Wear
  • Accessories

11
Lets Try Fashion Design!
  • Group Work
  • You are to design a collection
  • Choose a theme for your collection
  • Illustrate your design in a fashion show
  • Video record your fashion show

12
Getting to know the new words
  • Pronunciation check (page 199)
  • Concept visualized
  • Word classification
  • Word derivation
  • Word differentiation

13
Concept Visualized
  • Loop
  • Rivet
  • Towrope
  • Hook

14
Coupling
15
Concept Visualized
  • Ditch narrow channel dug at the side of a road
    or field
  • Lode ltBrEgt ????????

16
Concept Visualized
  • Indigo
  • Inseam
  • inside leg
  • Ore

17
Concept Visualized
  • Dude Ranch (in the western US) a cattle ranch
    converted to a holiday centre for tourists
    ????(??)
  • Dude (often as
    a form of

    address) a man
    a guy

18
Meaning Use
  • dude ltAmEgt ltsl.gt a man
  • Hes a real cool .
  • Hey, , whats up?
  • ranch a large farm
  • He went to work on a .
  • dude ranch ????
  • We had an amazing holiday on the ranch in
    Texas.

19
Sundries small articles of various types
20
Classification of Words
  • People of a Certain Kind
  • peddler ltAmEgt pedlar ltBrEgt ??
  • deadbeat ltslanggt ?????
  • lumberjack lumberman ???
  • proletariat ???????? proletarian
  • ltant.gt aristocrat/aristocracy
  • bureaucrat ??(???) bureaucracy ltant.gt democrat

21
Classification of Words
  • ltadj.gt sturdy tough stiff manly
  • Shoes are _______ usually when they are new.
  • With his ________ legs he could keep running for
    hours.
  • Only ________ breeds of sheep can live in the
    mountains.
  • He looked so _________ in his uniform.

stiff
sturdy
tough
manly
22
Classification of Words
  • Nouns
  • ___________ are used to join the carriages of the
    train together. (??)
  • We dont use _________ to sell our products.
    (????)
  • Items such as envelops, paper, and stamps were
    lumped together in the bill as _________. (????)
  • The tree is one meter in ______. (??)

Couplings
gimmicks
sundries
girth
perimeter
23
Classification of Words
  • Nouns
  • The drainage _______ along the sides of the road
    has been covered.(???)
  • Light shone through a ______ under the
    door.(?/??)
  • The metal plates used in making ships used to be
    _______ together, but now theyre usually
    welded.(??)
  • They hit a rich ______ of uranium.
  • (?????)

ditch
slit
riveted
lode
24
Classification of Words
  • Nouns
  • The dog had been trained to jump through
    _______. (???)
  • He tied a ______ of rope around his arm. (?,??)
  • I had a fish on the end of my
    _______. (????)

hoop
loop
hook
25
Classification of Words
  • Adjectives Adverbs
  • Thousands were killed in the ________ battle.
    (following)
  • _________ we had no further communication with
    them. (afterwards)
  • The town was built near a bridge on the River
    Cam _________ the name Cambridge. (therefore)

ensuing
Thereafter
hence
26
Meaning Use
  • beckon ltv.gt to call
  • City life s many a country boy.
  • The peddler ed me to follow him.
  • An entire new era, the era of knowledge economy,
    is ing us on.
  • Coffee houses, fast-food joints, and every kind
    of restaurant ed us to try every kind of food.

27
Meaning Use
  • Pacify ltv.gt
  • He pacified his crying child with a bottle.
  • In spite of my efforts to it the baby continued
    to cry.
  • It was difficult for the police to the angry
    crowd.
  • He tried to pacify his creditors by repaying part
    of the money.

28
Meaning Use
  • Appropriate ltv.gt ?????(??)
  • He is suspected of appropriating government
    funds.
  • Congress d 5 million for International Woman's
    Year.
  • Some of the opposition partys policies have been
    d by the government.

29
Meaning Use
  • Tear ltv.gt
  • He tore his shirt on a nail.
  • The boy tore a page out of the book.
  • The child was torn from its mother's arms.
  • This cloth s easily.
  • Iraq is now a country torn by war.
  • Her heart was torn by grief.

30
Meaning Use
  • Marginal ltadj.gt
  • There's only a difference between the two
    estimates.
  • This once important social group is becoming more
    and more (to the way the country is run).
  • The story will only be of interest to our
    readers.

31
Meaning Use
  • Legitimate ltadj.gt
  • Is this business strictly ?
  • The army must give power back to the
    government.
  • It seemed a perfectly question.
  • Politicians are targets for satire.
  • ltsyn.gtlegal lawful

32
Meaning Use
  • Parallel ltadj.gt
  • His prudence is to his zeal.
  • My experience in selling is to yours.
  • The railway line runs to/with the road.
  • The trees stand in to the road.
  • There came an economic crisis unparalleled in
    modern times.

33
Meaning Use
  • tribute ltn.gt
  • Tributes to the dead leader have been received
    from all around the world.
  • His Nobel Prize is a to the originality of his
    research.
  • The doctor paid to his nurses by praising their
    work.
  • I should like to pay a to the leaders of China
    for the vision and farsightedness of their
    approach to the negotiations.

34
Meaning Use
  • seek after to try to get
  • His paintings are much sought after.
  • One mustnt after comfort, personal fame and
    gains.
  • Obviously they came here to after truth.
  • He is ing after/for something to serve as a
    table.
  • Our fighters are ing after the enemy.
  • The girl is sought after by my friend.

35
Meaning Use
  • stand up to
  • This coat will not stand up to the severe
    winters.
  • It was brave of her to up to those bullies.
  • That cloth is designed to up to a lot of wear
    and tear.
  • The old mans health will not up to the cold
    damp climate.

36
Meaning Use
  • jump at
  • When I heard about Gmail, I ed at the chance to
    get an account.
  • When he was invited to go riding in the country,
    he ed at the chance.
  • She ed at the chance of a trip to Paris.

37
Meaning Use
  • eke out ????????
  • They d out a poor existence by selling flowers.
  • They d out the ensuing months penny by penny.
  • She d out her wages by working Sundays.
  • She d out her small income by working as music
    tutor.

38
Meaning Use
  • break up
  • Meetings have been broken up.
  • He decided to up his dull routine and went on
    an adventure around the world.
  • The police broke up the fight among the two black
    gangs.
  • The crowd started to up when the night fell.

39
Meaning Use
  • bottom line
  • The boss is interested only in the line.
  • In business, if you dont take care of your
    customers, somebody else will. And that is the
    line.
  • I hate to tell you this, but if we dont get more
    customers the next three months, the line is
    that well go out of business.
  • Bottom line We have to ship this order by
    Friday.

40
Word Derivation
N. symbol
V. prosper pacify stuff
A.
N.
V. patent hook
A. tough legitimate
prosperity
pacification
stuff
symbolize
symbolic
prosperous
pacific
stuffy
tough/ toughness
hook
legitimacy
patent
legitimize
tough
patent
hooked
41
Word Derivation
N. immigrant boost
V.
A. stiff faulty
N. legend bureaucrat
N. sundries reliability coupling tribute
A.
stiffness
fault
fault
immigrate
boost
stiffen
legendary
bureaucratic
sundry
couple
reliable
tributary
42
Word Derivation
N. grit loop
V. emigrate confine
N.
V. purchase rivet appropriate haul
N.
A. proletarian ubiquitous marginal manly
emigration
-ment
grit
loop
purchase
rivet
appropriation
haul
proletarian
-ness
margin
manliness
43
Word Differentiation
  • Boost vs. Boom
  • This news has given share prices a big _____.
  • The unexpected win ________ the teams
    morale(??).
  • The big tax cuts fuelled a consumer _______.
  • Living standards improved rapidly during the
    post-war ________.
  • California _________ when gold was discovered
    there.

boost
boosted
boom
boom
boomed
44
Word Differentiation
  • Emigrant vs. Immigrant
  • The ship was full of __________ leaving Liverpool
    for Australia.
  • Illegal __________ will be sent back to their own
    countries if they are caught.
  • Summer _________ nest here.
  • ________ workers move from country to country in
    search of work.

emigrants
immigrants
migrants
Migrant
45
Word Differentiation
  • Dying vs. Dyeing
  • The small town is well known for its printing and
    _________ industry.
  • I will remember it to my _________ days.
  • She looked after her ________ mother for months.
  • This is his dying wish.
  • Susan _______ her hair blonde yesterday.

dyeing
dying
dying
dyed
46
Word Differentiation
  • Study vs. Sturdy
  • Have you any sturdy hiking boots?
  • He is sturdy and so fit for the job.
  • Ensuing vs. Ensuring
  • If you want to ensure that you catch the plane,
    take a taxi
  • A persons high IQ doesnt always ensure success.
  • Following the gas incident, the metro is taking
    steps to ensure public safety..

47
Word Differentiation
  • Stiff vs. Stuff
  • This is too ______ I cant bend it with my
    hands.
  • The ice has made everything _______.
  • _______ the cushion and then sew up the final
    seam.
  • Theyd been _________ themselves with snacks all
    afternoon, so they didnt want any dinner.

stiff
stiff
Stuff
stuffing
48
Word Differentiation
  • Slot vs. Slit
  • I put my money in the _____ and pressed the
    button but nothing came out.
  • She _____ open the envelope with a knife.
  • Hes been given a regular ten-minute ______ on
    the radio.
  • Make a small _____ in each chicken breast and
    push in a piece of garlic.

slot
slit
slot
slit
49
Word-Formation
  • out- beyond further defeat so as to be
    better than
  • I can out-argue you any day.
  • He has out-lived his twin brother by three years.
  • Hes out-grown his clothes.
  • They were busy so I left I didnt want to
    out-stay my welcome.

50
Word-Formation
  • idio- personal distinct
  • Keeping pet snakes is an idiosyncrasy of his.
    (??)
  • A persons particular use of language is often
    referred to as his idiolect.
  • He speaks in the familiar Washington idiom.

51
Background Information
  • Levi Strauss

www.levistrauss.com
52
Abstraction Nominalization
  • To nominalize means to form a noun from a verb or
    an adjective.
  • When such suffixes as -ness, -ing, -tion,
    -ity and -dom are added to a verb or an
    adjective, they can turn the verb or adjective
    into an abstract noun.
  • The word jeaning is an abstraction based on
    jean, meaning the process of making jeans part
    of the American culture.

53
Global Understanding
  • What do you think is the authors purpose of
    writing?
  • To tell how the blue jeans came into being and
    have become an American symbol.
  • What do you think is characteristic of an
    investigative writing?
  • Research-based
  • Factual and objective

54
A Global Picture
  • Jeaning of America" is a prime example of how
    something becomes Americanized.
  • This article is about Levis Strauss, a dirt poor
    immigrant who made his way to America, headed
    west, found a need for a new type of clothing,
    made the first levis, and the rest is history.
  • Who would have thought that a simple, yet tough
    fabric, sewn together, with rivets reinforcing
    the pockets, could have changed the way that
    society dressed?

55
A Global Picture
  • This is a piece of investigative writing which
    explores the history of the blue jeans , one of
    Americas symbols today.
  • The author provides some important information
    concerning
  • who the inventor was
  • when and how the pants came into being
  • why they have become popular
  • what they symbolize.

56
Structure of the Text
  • Part I (para.1)
  • Status of blue jeans
  • Part II (para.2-3)
  • Introduction of Levis Strauss
  • Part III (para.4-5)
  • Birth of the first blue jeans
  • Part IV (para.6)
  • Growth and popularity of the blue jeans
  • Part V (pa.7)
  • Merits of the blue jeans

57
Thank you!
  • To be continued.

58
Lesson 2 Overview
  • Word review
  • Background information
  • Text analysis

59
Which word means ?
  • Sturdy
  • Stiff
  • Faulty
  • Increase
  • Reliability
  • To beckon
  • Legitimate
  • Mean-tempered
  • Grit
  • Strong and firm
  • Rigid and firm
  • Defective
  • Boost
  • Dependability
  • To call
  • Lawful
  • Bad-tempered
  • Determination

60
Which word means ?
  • To buy
  • A thing of value
  • A lazy aimless person
  • Barely adequate
  • To change into
  • To exist longer than
  • To take for oneself
  • Afterwards
  • Following
  • To limit or restrict
  • purchase
  • Commodity
  • Deadbeat
  • Marginal
  • convert into
  • Outlive
  • Appropriate
  • Thereafter
  • Ensuing
  • Confine

61
What does it mean in Chinese?
  • Proletarian
  • Bureaucrat
  • Patent
  • Canvas
  • Ore
  • Acid
  • Rivet
  • Coupling
  • Loop
  • hook
  • ?????
  • ??
  • ??
  • ??
  • ??
  • ?
  • ??/?
  • ????
  • ???
  • ??

62
Word Review
  • Complete the following sentences.
  • She is writing a thesis on Irish l_______ and
    mythology.
  • Millions of Germans e_______ from Europe to
    America in the 19th century.
  • Our language is now under the pressure from the
    u__________ spread of English.
  • A UN force has been sent in to try and p______
    the area worst affected by the civil war.
  • He b________ her to sit but then ignored her.

legend
emigrated
ubiquitous
pacify
beckoned
63
Word Review
  • They have been given permission to run gambling
    halls, the only l____________ gambling in the
    area.
  • A p_______ will be refused if details of the item
    have already been released to the public.
  • The promise of lower taxation may have been just
    an election g__________ to gain votes.
  • There was a tremendous c______ for elaborate
    hairstyles in 1980s.
  • The partys power base was c_________ to one
    province.

legitimate
patent
gimmick
craze
confined
64
Idiom Review
  • When he was invited to go riding in the country,
    he ______________ the chance.
  • They _____________ a poor existence by selling
    flowers.
  • The old mans health will not ____________ the
    cold damp climate.
  • The minister _______________ the men who had
    fought the earthquake.
  • He was much ______________ on account of his wide
    readings and brilliant conversational powers.

jumped at
eked out
stand up to
paid tribute to
sought after
65
Idiom Review
  • He _________ his dollars ______ pounds upon
    arriving in London.
  • The man _______________ the small branches before
    cutting down the tree.
  • __________________ is that recycling isn't
    profitable.
  • They _______________ a long-running legal battle
    with their neighbours.
  • Tropical plants ____________ the jungle.
  • They threw him out because word __________ that
    he was taking drugs.

converted into
chopped off
The bottom line
are engaged in
abound in
got around
66
Background Information
  • American Heritage (opening remarks)
  • a monthly magazine dedicated to covering the
    history of the United States for a mainstream
    readership. Up to 2007, the magazine was
    published by Forbes(???).

67
Background Information
  • Alexis de Tocqueville (18051859) was a French
    political thinker and historian best known for
    his books
  • Democracy in America
  • (appearing in two volumes 1835 and 1840)
  • The Old Regime and the Revolution (1856)
  • In both of these works, he explored the effects
    of the rising equality of social conditions on
    the individual and the state in western societies.

68
Background Information
  • Nevada (para.5)
  • Its largest city is Las Vegas.
  • The state's nickname is the Silver State," due
    to the large number of silver deposits that were
    discovered and mined there.
  • well known for its easy marriage and divorce
    proceedings, entertainment, legalized
  • gambling and legalized
  • active brothels(??).

69
Background Information
  • Nîmes(??)(para.5)
  • a city in southern France noted for its many
    well-preserved Roman remains. Nîmes has a rich
    history, dating back to the Roman Empire, and it
    is a popular tourist destination.

70
Background Information
  • Smithsonian Institute (para.7)
  • a US foundation for education and scientific
    research in Washington D. C. opened in 1846
  • originated in a ?100,000 bequest(??) in the will
    of the English chemist and mineralogist James
    Smithson (1765-1829)
  • now responsible for administering many
    museums, art galleries, and other
    establishments.

71
Smithsonian Institute
72
Smithsonian Museum
73
Language Points
  • Sew up (opening remarks)
  • Her mother ed up a rip in her night gown.
  • He was completely sewn up after a days work.
    (exhausted)
  • Dick thought he had the job ed up, but another
    boy got it. (have exclusive control over)
  • Proletarian (opening remarks)
  • Our friend ship is built on internationalism. 
  • ?????????????????????
  • P revolutionaries always cleave to
    Marxist-Leninist principles.
  • ???????????????????

74
Language Points
  • Seek ones fortune
  • He majored in political science before ing fame
    and fortune in New York.
  • The purpose many people practice job-hopping is
    to their fortune most of the time.
  • Heritage
  • These beautiful old churches are part of our
    national .(??)
  • World Cultural ??????
  • This stone axe is a relic of ancient times.(??)

75
Language Points
  • Draw distinction (para.1)
  • Its important to draw a between the policies
    of the leaders and the views of their supporters.
  • She draws an important between the different
    kinds of illness.
  • We draw no between the two kinds of spelling.
  • Authority (para.1)
  • The government is the highest in the country.
  • The ies in Spain have refused to allow him to
    enter the country.

76
Language Points
  • Black market (para.1)
  • Gangs are buying assault(????) weapons on the
    black market.
  • Theres quite a big black market in foreign
    currency.
  • A woman selling black cigarettes was beaten on
    the street.
  • They bought dollars on the black market.

77
Language Points
  • Have been around (para.1) have a lot of varied
    experience and understanding of the world
  • That guys been around. ?????????
  • Bavaria (para.2) ?????a state of southern
    Germany, formerly an independent kingdom
  • Lowly (para.3) low in status humble
  • Shed been too good for her position.
  • It was unheard of for a tradesman of such
    status to threaten his customers in such a
    fashion.

78
Language Points
  • Turmoil (para.3) state of confusion
  • She couldnt think her mind was in (a) complete
    .
  • His assassination threw the country into .
  • Take a chance/ take chances (on sth) / take ones
    chance(s) (para.3)
  • They decide to take a chance with weather.
  • Although he knew the odds were against him, he
    decided to take his chances in the game.
  • The store closes in half an hour. Lets take our
    chances and see if we can make it in time.

79
Language Points
  • The main chance (para.3)
  • Mr. Brown is a developer with an eye on the main
    chance.
  • I feel called upon to do it this may be my main
    chance.
  • ???????,???????????
  • Push (para.3) promote the sale or use
  • Dont her to join in if she doesnt want to.
  • The company are ing their new products.
  • He used the sales conference to his latest
    ideas.

80
Sentence Highlight
  • For two years he was a lowly peddler, hauling
    some 180 pounds of sundries door to door to eke
    out a marginal living. (para.3)
  • For two years, he worked as a peddler of low
    social status, dragging heavy bags of various
    articles from door to door and trying to sell
    them. But he could barely manage to support
    himself.

81
Language Points
  • Bolts of canvas (para.3) large quantities of
    rolled cloth
  • The room was stacked with bolts of cloth.
  • Tenting (para.3) something used for making
    shelters for campers
  • The refugees had been living in makeshift s for
    a year.

82
Language Points
  • Mother lode (para.4) origin sth from which
    others of the same type derive
  • The initiatives were based on the experience of
    the mother company.
  • Rigor (para.4) severe and harsh conditions
  • At the beginning stage, we suffered the s of
    fund raising.????,???????????
  • The expedition suffered all the s of a Canadian
    winter.

83
Language Points
  • On the spot (para.4)
  • Anyone breaking the rules will be asked to leave
    on the . (at once)
  • When the fighting started police and reporters
    were soon on the . (arrive at the place)
  • The gym teacher made us do running on the .
  • His direct question put me on the I couldnt
    make an excuse or lie.

84
Language Points
  • Gold dust (para.4) gold in the form of a fine
    powder
  • Good computer personnel
  • are like gold dust.
  • Word get around (para.4)
  • words spread
  • Word got around that he was
  • on the verge of retirement.
  • The word got around that he
  • had resigned.

85
Language Points
  • In business (para.4) operating, esp in commerce
  • They will have to import from overseas to remain
    in .
  • The 15-member committee is expected to be in by
    early June. (start working)
  • Serge (para.5) a durable
  • twilled woolen or worsted
  • fabric ??
  • Genoa (para.5) a city in
  • Northwest of Italy ???

86
Background Information
  • Jacob W. Davis was born in Latvia(????)in 1831
    and came to Nevada in 1868. A tailor, Davis used
    small copper rivets to reinforce and strengthen
    items including harnesses(??). In 1871, a woman
    approached Davis to make pants for her husband,
    who was quite large. Davis decided to use the
    copper rivets to reinforce the pants for men.
  • At the time, Davis used white duck, a canvas-type
    material he had bought from Levi Strauss Co a
    San Francisco merchant. Worried about others
    pirating his product, he asked Levi Strauss to
    support him in a patent application. He offered
    to share the patent rights with the San Francisco
    company.

87
Background Information
  • Levi Strauss agreed, and the patent was granted
    on May 20, 1873.
  • Davis not only partnered with the company, he
    moved his family to San Francisco and became
    production manager for a line of Levi's
    copper-riveted clothing, a
  • position he held until
  • his death in 1908.

88
Language Points
  • Prominence (para.6) importance
  • The young fashion designer is rising to/coming
    into .
  • She came to national as an artist in the 1960s.
  • And the like (pa.6)
  • There is a big sports hall for tennis, badminton,
    and the .
  • He enjoys all kinds of sports, running, swimming,
    and the .

89
Language Points
  • Dude ranch craze the enormous interest of the
    Easters in spending their vacation on ranches in
    the West
  • Force (para.6) a group of people trained for
    some kind of action
  • She joined the police .
  • A small of doctors and nurses was rushed to the
    scene of the big fire.
  • The British air fighting is called the Royal
    Air Force.

90
Sentence Highlight
  • They draw no distinctions and recognize no
    classes they are merely American. (para.1)
  • They do not show differences in the wearers'
    professions and social status. They are just an
    American symbol.

91
Language Points
  • Pacify (para.5) calm or soothe the anger or
    distress of (sb) ?(??)??,?? ??
  • He tried to his creditors by repaying part of
    the money.
  • ?????????????.
  • In spite of my efforts to it the baby continued
    to cry.
  • Appropriate (para.5)
  • He is suspected of ing government funds.
  • Congress d 5 million for International Woman's
    Year.

92
Language Points
  • Patent (para.5) ltv.gt obtain a patent for (an
    invention)
  • An invention is not your own until it is ed.
  • A will be refused if details of the item have
    already been released to the public.
  • Gimmick (para.5)
  • A quality newspaper shouldnt have to resort to
    s like bingo.
  • The promise of lower taxation may have been just
    an election to gain votes.

93
Language Points
  • Prominence (para.6) importance
  • The young fashion designer is rising to/coming
    into .
  • She came to national as an artist in the 1960s.
  • And the like (pa.6)
  • There is a big sports hall for tennis, badminton,
    and the .
  • He enjoys all kinds of sports, running, swimming,
    and the .

94
Language Points
  • Craze (para.6) an enthusiasm for a particular
    activity
  • There was a tremendous for elaborate
    hairstyles.
  • The actor is quite the . ??????????
  • Dude ranch craze the enormous interest of the
    Easters in spending their vacation on ranches in
    the West
  • Force (para.6) a group of people trained for
    some kind of action
  • She joined the police .
  • A small of doctors and nurses was rushed to the
    scene of the big fire.
  • The British air fighting is called the Royal
    Air Force.

95
Word Differentiation
  • Cloth, clothe, clothes, or clothing?
  • It costs a lot to feed and ________ five
    children.
  • She usually wears causal ________.
  • You can only take three articles/items of
    ________ into the changing room.
  • This jacket is made from woolen _____.

clothe
clothes
clothing
cloth
96
Language Points
  • Marketing (para.6) the action or business of
    promoting and selling products or services,
    including market research and advertising
  • Word of mouth (para.6)
  • That restaurant is well known by word of mouth.
  • Folk tales are stories passed down by word of
    generation after generation.
  • All the orders were given by word of so that no
    written evidence could be discovered later.

97
Language Points
  • Pre-washed ltadj.gt (para.6) washed by the
    manufacturer so as to impart a softer texture or
    faded appearance. Used of textiles or clothing
  • Pre-faded ltadj.gt (para.6) (of color) made less
    bright before being sold
  • Pre-shrunk ltadj.gt (para.6) made to shrink before
    being sold in order to prevent shrinking after use

98
Language Points
  • So much so that (para.7) to such a degree that
  • He is rich, so much so that he doesnt know what
    he is worth.
  • The children were over-protected, so much so that
    they could not fend for themselves at school.
  • He got angry, so much so that he smashed up the
    television set.

99
Background Information
  • Wyoming (para.7)
  • a state in the northwestern region of the United
    States. The majority of the state is dominated by
    the mountain ranges and rangelands of the Rocky
    Mountain West, while the easternmost section of
    the state includes part of a high altitude
    prairie region known as the High Plains.

100
Language Points
  • Tribute (para.7) a proof (of its good quality)
  • His Nobel Prize is a to the originality of his
    research.
  • Ive never known a 5-year-old as well-behaved as
    your son --- hes a to you!
  • The minister paid to the men who had fought the
    blaze/earthquake.
  • I should like to pay a to the leaders of China
    for the vision and farsightedness of their
    approach to the negotiations.

101
Illustrations
  • Belt loop ?
  • Construction worker ?
  • Dangling (para.7)

102
Thank you!
  • To be continued.

103
Lesson 3 Overview
  • Duty report
  • Translation practice
  • Oral practice Fashion Show

104
Students Duty Report
  • American West

105
Students Duty Report
  • Coca-Cola
  • It is produced by The Coca-Cola Company in
    Atlanta, Georgia, and is often referred to simply
    as Coke or (in European and American countries)
    as cola, pop, or in some parts of the U.S., soda.
  • Originally intended as a patent medicine when it
    was invented in the late 19th century by John
    Pemberton, Coca-Cola was bought out by
    businessman Asa Griggs Candler, whose marketing
    tactics led Coke to its dominance of the world
    soft-drink market throughout the 20th century.

106
Comprehension Check
  • What, according to the text, has made the blue
    jeans an Americans symbol?
  • Blue jeans are an American symbol, because they
    are " a manly and legitimate passion for
    equality" they draw no distinctions and
    recognize no classes, so they are favored by
    people from all walks of life.

107
Comprehension Check
  • How did Levis Strauss find his opportunity in the
    West?
  • Levis Strauss invented his blue jeans largely by
    chance. He brought some canvas which he hoped to
    sell for tenting in the West, but it was the
    wrong kind. After learning that the Western
    miners needed tough and sturdy pants in their
    work, he had the canvas tailored into a pair of
    stiff but rugged pants, which was an immediate
    success.

108
Comprehension Check
  • How did Leviss rugged pants get the name blue
    jeans?
  • The word "jeans" derives from Genes, the French
    word for Genoa, where a similar tough cotton
    cloth was produced Levis Strauss had this cloth
    dyed indigo (blue), hence "blue jeans".

109
Comprehension Check
  • When did the blue jeans obtain their nationwide
    popularity in America?
  • Blue jeans gained more popularity in the Second
    World War when they became an essential commodity
    and were only used by those in military service.

110
Comprehension Check
  • What is the main reason that makes the blue jeans
    favored by men and women alike?
  • At first, blue jeans were popular among the
    working people in the West. They came to the East
    during the dude ranch craze in the 1930s when
    those vacationing Easterners brought them back
    and spread the word about the wonderful pants.
    Blue jeans gained more popularity in the Second
    World War when they became an essential commodity
    and were only used by those in military service.

111
Comprehension Check
  • How do you understand the title of the essay The
    Jeaning of America?
  • The title suggests how an American symbol, namely
    the jeans, came into being. Note the basic
    meaning of the structure "the -ing of
    noun". In the text, the title literally means
    "how America is jeaned". Since the jeans are a
    symbol, it should be interpreted as " how America
    came to be symbolized by the jeans" or "how that
    American symbol was invented".

112
Translation Practice
  • A wedding ring symbolizes the union of husband
    and wife.
  • ????????????????
  • ???????????????
  • ???????????
  • ??????????
  • A dove and olive leaves generally symbolize peace
    and safety.
  • The poet has symbolized his lover with a flower.
  • The cross is a symbol/symbolic of Christianity.

113
Translation Practice
  • Such examination will draw a distinction of
    students between memory capability and analysis
    ability.
  • Philosophers didnt use to draw/make a
    distinction between arts and science.
  • ??????????????
  • ??????????????????????
  • ????????????????????
  • He draws a clear distinction between his hobbies
    and his work.

114
Translation Practice
  • Confine your remarks to the subject of the
    meeting.
  • Please confine your use of the telephone to
    business calls.
  • They succeeded in confining the fire to a small
    area.
  • The tour group is confined to the planned
    activities.

115
Translation Practice
  • Mother is much better, thank you, shes able to
    get round a bit more.
  • She get around with the help of a stick.
  • The quickest way to get round the city is by
    underground train.
  • News of Helens pregnancy soon got around the
    office.
  • Stories have been getting round concerning the
    governments secret intentions.

116
Translation Practice
  • ???????????.
  • Lets get round to the back of the house.
  • ????????????
  • She could always get round him in the end.
  • News soon got around that he had resigned.
  • ???????????
  • A taxi will get you round the city faster.
  • ????????????

117
Translation Practice
  • Can you give me a cigarette? Sorry, Ive run
    out.
  • Im afraid weve run out of petrol.
  • Hes running out of patience.
  • Hes always running out of money before payday.
  • Mary never runs out of ideas for clever party
    decorations.

118
Translation Practice
  • The company is engaged in a legal dispute with
    one of its suppliers.
  • The government and the trade unions are engaged
    in a war of words.
  • Politicians should not engage in business affairs
    that might affect their political judgment.

119
Translation Practice
  • The two governments have agreed to engage in a
    comprehensive dialogue to resolve the problem.
  • ?????????
  • ???????????????
  • ????????
  • ??????????????????
  • The Minister has been engaged in politics all his
    life.
  • Tom is engaged in planning his next book.
  • They were engaged in conversation.

120
Translation Practice
  • A large organization can be slow to adapt to
    change.
  • Can you adapt your way of thinking to the new
    life-style?
  • Eggs are extremely well adapted to mans needs.
  • It is difficult to adapt oneself to sudden
    changes of temperature.
  • The hospital was quickly adapted to the special
    needs of the sick children.
  • Both trees are well adapted to Londons dry
    climate and dirty air.

121
Translation Practice
  • What rate will I get if I convert my dollars into
    euros?
  • How much does it cost today to convert pounds
    into dollars?
  • The hotel is going to be converted into a nursing
    home.
  • I wonder how the team has converted the defeat
    into a victory.
  • The oil revenues have been converted into other
    forms of wealth.

122
Translation Practice
  • The explanation converted him to our point of
    view.
  • This project is to convert coal into pipeline
    gas.
  • ??????????
  • ???????????
  • Whats the formula for converting pounds into
    kilos?
  • ?????????????????
  • ?????????????????
  • This sofa converts into a bed.
  • He tried to convert me to Christianity.
  • ??????????????

123
Grammar havedone/doing
  • He _____ his leg ________ (break) in a fall.
  • They soon ____ the engine ____ (go) again.
  • I wont _____ you _______ (smoke) in the sitting
    room.
  • We ought to ____ her _________ (examine) by the
    doctor.
  • I must _____ this suit _________ (dry-clean).
  • He _____ his trousers _____ (tear) by a nail.

had
broken
had
going
have
smoking
have
examined
have
dry-cleaned
had
torn
124
Grammar havedone/doing
have/get
printed
  • Where can I __________ this material _____
    (print)?
  • Please ______ the car ________ (wait) at the
    entrance.
  • Youd better _____ that soldier ___________
    (discipline).
  • I cant _____ my son _____ (do) such a thing.
  • I tried to ____ my son ______ (learn) English.
  • Those plants are not suitable for that part of
    the garden. I should ______ them
    __________ (pull up).

have
waiting
have
disciplined
have
doing
learning
have
have
pulled up
125
Translation Exercises (1)
  • ??????????????????????????(draw a distinction)
  • Its important to draw a distinction between the
    policies of the leaders and the views of their
    supporters.
  • ?????????, ?????????????.(symbolize)
  • In Europe , the color white symbolize purity but
    in Asia it is often the symbol of mourning.

126
Translation Exercises (2)
  • ????????????.(confine to)
  • The tutor group is confined to the planned
    activities.
  • ??????,??????????????(get around)
  • Once the rumor gets around, hell never work in
    this town again.

127
Translation Exercises (3)
  • ???????????????????
  • Hes always running out of money before payday.
  • ????????????,????????????
  • He got the Nobel Prize for peace because he was
    engaged in the promotion of world peace all his
    life.

128
Translation Exercises (4)
  • ??????????????-??????????
  • The children have found it difficult to adapt to
    living in an apartment----they want a garden to
    play in.
  • ????????????????????????
  • A Swiss company has found a way to convert
    animal waste into fuel.

129
Oral Practice
  • Its time for you to share with us your fashion
    design

130
Thank you!
  • The end.
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