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(Textbook) Behavior in Organizations, 8ed (A. B. Shani)

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Title (Textbook) Behavior in Organizations, 8ed (A. B. Shani) Author (PPT) Frank Markham, DBA and Marylin Markham, MBA Last modified by: terryan – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: (Textbook) Behavior in Organizations, 8ed (A. B. Shani)


1
(No Transcript)
2
  • BADM 633 - Wk 3
  • International Business Culture
  • Terry Ryan

3
British Isles Wrap-up
  • Implications for Managers in UK and Ireland
  • two countries, separated by a common
  • language. George Bernard Shaw
  • Language minor challenges
  • Laws ? US legal procedures mostly
  • based on British precedence
  • Regulations many identical, BUT
  • applied differently
  • Openness to New Business very high
  • Inward Direct Investment welcomed

4
Cultural Anthropology International Business
  • Illustrations from Ferraro
  • Friedman communist bloc free world
  • Lowering tariff barriers and explosion of IT
  • Illustrations 12.5 or one in eight US
  • residents are foreign-born
  • Foreign-owned businesses employ gt5MM
  • Outsourcing of jobs
  • Foreign travel

Outsourcing of religious rituals ( ! ! ! )
5
Cultural Anthropology International Business
  • Friedman Lexus and the Olive Tree
  • Berlin Wall
  • Weight replaced by speed
  • Cold War us vs. them replaced by all
  • peoples of the world as competitors
  • Historical fiction of industrial complexes
  • replacing nation-states
  • World-wide production facilities

6
Cultural Anthropology International Business
  • Two views of anthology
  • Indiana Jones
  • Academic
  • Anthropology the study of humanity
  • Anthropology differs from other studies of
  • humans in both geography and history
  • Archeology
  • Physical Anthropology
  • Anthropological Linguistics
  • Cultural Anthropology

7
Cultural Anthropology International Business
  • Cultural Anthropology Business
  • Much of the body of literature features
  • American-trained anthropologists
  • studying American companies.
  • US business organisations are composed of
  • people from diverse backgrounds
  • Organisations must understand their
  • associates just as marketers attempt to
  • identify different target segments
  • Values, attitudes, lifestyles (VALs) plus
  • opinions, expectations and behaviours

8
Cultural Anthropology International Business
  • Cultural Anthropology Intl Business
  • Expertise ? Travels yes or no?
  • Inability to adapt to understand and adapt to
  • foreign ways of thinking and acting
  • Marketing Miscues
  • rendezvous lounges in Brazil
  • Perdue It takes a virile man to make a
  • chicken affectionate ( ! )
  • Got milk?
  • Japan team example
  • Bahrain example

9
Cultural Anthropology International Business
  • Dominance of US Multi-Nationals
  • Changed and continuing to change
  • Trade deficits
  • Unfair trade practices
  • Quintessential consumers
  • Expatriate Attrition
  • Saudi Arabia 68
  • Japan 37
  • London 18
  • Costs of failure

10
Cultural Anthropology International Business
  • International Competency
  • Knowledge of others
  • Knowledge of self
  • Skills to interpret and relate
  • Skills to discover and interact
  • Valuing beliefs an behaviours of others
  • Seeing oneself relative to others
  • Linguistic competency
  • Winthrop recognised need for inter-
  • national awareness both in University-
  • wide GLI and within the CBA.

11
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12
Culture International Business
  • Cultured vs. Culture
  • Finer things in life
  • Interests and tastes
  • Culture is everything that people have,
  • think and do as members of their
  • societies.
  • Have material goods or objects
  • Think ideas, values, attitudes and beliefs
  • Do behave in certain ways (normative or
  • expected patterns of behaviour)

13
Culture International Business
  • Culture is learned
  • Nature or nurture
  • Born into an existing culture
  • Learning abilities are comparable
  • Cross-cultural expertise can be learned
  • Culture influences biological processes
  • Food
  • Pain control
  • Aesthetics ear piercing, tattoos, plastic
  • surgery

14
Culture International Business
  • Cultural Universals
  • 850 distinctly different cultures with mutually
  • unintelligible languages in Africa alone.
  • Number of differences between cultures
  • illustrates flexibility adaptability of
    humans
  • Maslows hierarchy
  • Physiological
  • Safety
  • Belonging
  • Esteem
  • Self-actualisation

15
Culture International Business
  • Cultural Universals
  • Economic Systems producing, distributing
  • and consuming essentials
  • Marriage and Family Systems mating,
  • marriage, child-rearing and family formation
  • Educational Systems learn the way of life
  • Social Control Systems most of the peo-
  • ple obey most of the rules most of the time
  • Supernatural Belief Systems explaining
  • the unexplainable religions help shape
  • attitudes towards work, savings, consump-
  • tion, efficiency and personal responsibility

16
Culture International Business
  • Cultural Change - All cultures experi-
  • ence continual change.
  • Internal Forces discovery and invention
  • External Forces cultural diffusion
  • the innovation is superior
  • consistent with existing patterns
  • easily understood
  • can be tested experimentally
  • benefits are clear to a large number of people
  • Lets discuss

17
Culture International Business
  • Cultural Borrowing
  • Two-way street
  • Primitive vs. Civilised Societies
  • Borrowed ideas/items usually not
  • transferred in exact original form.
  • Some cultural traits more easily diffused
  • than others.
  • Dynamism of Cultures - Things, ideas and
    behaviour patterns can undergo additions,
    deletions and modifications.

18
Culture International Business
  • Ethnocentrism Culture-centred
  • Tendency to believe that one's ethnic or
  • cultural group is centrally important and
  • that all other groups are measured in
  • relation to one's own ( S R C )
  • American War of Independence
  • Who were the Rebels?
  • Who were the Patriots?
  • Continentals were the rebels
  • Tories were the Patriots who supported
  • the Red-coats
  • Kings Mountain Col. Patrick Ferguson

19
Culture International Business
  • Ethnocentrism
  • No society has a monopoly on ethnocentrism
  • Our" way is right, proper and normal
  • Their way is wrong and inferior
  • Pronunciations
  • Ugly American (1958)
  • NYC is NOT the center of
  • the universe ?

20
Culture International Business
  • Integrated Culture
  • Cultures thought of as integrated wholes
  • coherent and logical systems
  • some parts are interrelated
  • Marital Practices
  • Polygamy Legal barriers notwithstanding, it
  • takes lotsa s to support multiple
    wives/progeny
  • Polygyny supports social status based on size
  • of household
  • Polyandry-historical examples
  • Ped-rage NYC
  • Iceland - genealogical books

21
Culture International Business
  • Precautions
  • Learned nature of culture
  • Cultural influences on biological processes
  • Cultural universals
  • Ubiquity of cultural change
  • Ethnocentrism
  • Integrated nature of culture
  • Generalizations
  • As with stereotypes, generalisations are
  • helpful, but are ONLY a starting point
  • Ideal vs. actual behaviour

22
Culture International Business
  • Generalizations contd
  • Rigidity in thinking can be disastrous
  • Escalade example
  • Japan example in textbook
  • restaurant food
  • Good vs. real reasons
  • IQ Assessments great debate culturally-
  • biased testing

23
Culture International Business
  • Corporations Have Own Cultures
  • Shared values, behaviours and
  • communications styles
  • Symbols, legends, heroes, non-verbal cues
  • Corporate Culture
  • Identify common beliefs
  • Gain consensus
  • Document essential features
  • Make culture visible to all on a continuing
  • basis
  • Provide explicit training corporate culture

24
Culture International Business
  • Corporations Have Own Cultures
  • Shared values, behaviours and
  • communications styles
  • Symbols, legends, heroes, non-verbal cues
  • Corporate Culture
  • Identify common beliefs
  • Gain consensus
  • Document essential features
  • Make culture visible to all on a continuing
  • basis
  • Provide explicit training corporate culture

25
Culture International Business
  • Cultural Differences in Business
  • Challenges where do we hear about this??
  • Examples?
  • Opportunities how can we capitalise on
  • differences btwn. corporate cultures??

Examples?
26
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27
  • 2-1 Sam Lucas, a construction supervisor for an
    international engineering firm, had
  • been chosen to supervise construction on a new
    hotel project, in Jidda, Saudi Arabia,
  • primarily because of his outstanding work record.
    On this project, Sam supervised the
  • work of about a dozen Americans and nearly one
    hundred Saudi laborers. It was not
  • long before Sam realized that the Saudi laborers,
    to his way of thinking, were nowhere
  • as reliable as the workers he had supervised in
    the United States. He was becoming
  • increasingly annoyed at the seeming lack of
    competence of the local workforce.
  • Following the leadership style that held him in
    such good stead at home, he would
  • reprimand any worker who was not doing his job
    properly, and he would make certain
  • that he did it publicly so that it would serve as
    an object lesson to all the other workers.
  • He was convinced that he was doing the right
    thing and was being fair, for after all, he
  • reprimanded both Americans and Saudis alike. He
    was troubled, however, by the fact
  • that the problems seemed to be growing worse and
    more numerous.
  • What advice might you give Sam?

28
  • 2-1 In the United States, public humiliation is
    one of a number of techniques that can be
  • used quite effectively to change peoples
    behavior. In the world of Islam, however, where
  • the preservation of dignity and self-respect is
    absolutely essential, public reprimand will
  • be totally counterproductive. If Arabs feel that
    they have suffered a loss of personal
  • dignity because they have been criticized in
    public, they take it as a dishonor to both
  • themselves and their families. And when Sam
    insisted on using this motivational
  • technique, he alienated not only the individual
    to whom the reprimand was directed but
  • also all his fellow workers, who felt hurt on his
    behalf. When this happens, the person
  • giving the reprimand loses the respect of those
    witnessing it.

29
  • 2-2 George Burgess was a chief engineer for a
    machinery manufacturer based in
  • St. Louis. His company had recently signed a
    contract with one of its largest customers
  • in Japan to upgrade the equipment and retrain
    mechanics to maintain the equipment
  • more effectively. As part of the contract, the
    Japanese company sent all ten of their
  • mechanics to St. Louis for a three-month
    retraining course under Georges supervision.
  • Although George had never lived or worked abroad,
    he was looking forward to the challenge
  • of working with the group of Japanese mechanics,
    because he had been told that
  • they were all fluent in English and tireless
    workers. The first several weeks of the training
  • went along quite smoothly, but soon George became
    increasingly annoyed with the constant
  • demands they were making on his personal time.
    They would seek him out after the
  • regularly scheduled sessions were over for
    additional information. They sought his advice
  • on how to occupy their leisure time. Several even
    asked him to help settle a disagreement
  • that developed between them. Feeling frustrated
    by all these demands on his time,
  • George told his Japanese trainees that he
    preferred not to mix business with pleasure.
  • Within a matter of days, the group requested
    another instructor.
  • What was the principle operating here?

30
  • 2-2 The employeeemployer relationship in Japan
    is very different than in the United
  • States. When a Japanese firm hires an employee,
    he or she becomes part of the
  • corporate family. Whereas labor and management in
    the United States operate largely
  • from an adversarial perspective, the relationship
    between the Japanese worker and the
  • company is based on loyalty and a long-term
    commitment to one another. Not only do
  • most employees expect to stay with the firm for
    the duration of their careers, but the firm
  • also takes an active role in the personal lives
    of its employees and their families. Housing,
  • recreation, and schooling for the children are
    just some of the areas arranged by the
  • employers for their workers. Moreover, far less
    separation of business and personal
  • matters occurs between Japanese employees and
    their supervisors. Thus, it is little
  • wonder that the Japanese mechanics thought that
    George was not acting like a
  • responsible supervisor because he was unwilling
    to become involved in their personal
  • lives.

31
  • 2-4 Bob Mitchell, a retired military attaché with
    considerable experience in the Middle
  • East, was hired by a large U.S. computer software
    company to represent it in a number
  • of Persian Gulf countries. Having received an
    introduction from a mutual acquaintance,
  • Bob arranged to meet with Mr. Saade, a wealthy
    Lebanese industrialist, to discuss the
  • prospects of a joint venture between their
    companies. Having spent many years in
  • the Middle East, Bob knew that they would have to
    engage in considerable small talk
  • before they would get down to business. They
    talked about the weather, Bobs flight
  • from New York, and their golf games. Then Saade
    enquired about the health of Bobs
  • elderly father. Without missing a beat, Bob
    responded that his father was doing fine, but
  • that the last time he saw his father at the
    nursing home several months ago he had lost
  • a little weight. From that point on, Saades
    demeanor changed abruptly from warm and
  • gracious to cool and aloof. Though the rest of
    the meeting was cordial enough, the
  • meeting only lasted another two hours, and Bob
    was never invited back for further
  • discussions on the joint venture.
  • What went wrong?

32
  • 2-5 A U.S. fertilizer manufacturer headquartered
    in Minneapolis decided to venture into
  • the vast potential of third-world markets. The
    company sent a team of agricultural
  • researchers into an East African country to test
    soils, weather conditions, and topographical
  • conditions in order to develop locally effective
    fertilizers. Once the research
  • and manufacturing of these fertilizer products
    had been completed, one of the initial marketing
  • strategies was to distribute, free of charge, one
    hundred-pound bags of the fertilizer
  • to selected areas of rural farmers. It was
    thought that those using the free fertilizer
  • would be so impressed with the dramatic increase
    in crop productivity that they would
  • spread the word to their friends, relatives, and
    neighbors.
  • Teams of salespeople went from hut to hut in
    those designated areas, offering
  • each male head of household a free bag of
    fertilizer along with an explanation of its
  • capacity to increase crop output. Although each
    head of household was very polite, they
  • all turned down the offer of free fertilizer. The
    marketing staff concluded that these local
  • people were either uninterested in helping
    themselves grow more food and eat better or
  • so ignorant that they couldnt understand the
    benefits of the new product.
  • Why was this an ethnocentric conclusion?

33
  • 2-6 While on a short business trip to Bolivia,
    Dr. Susan Henry, an organizational consultant
  • from Atlanta, is invited to the home of one of
    her Bolivian business associates.
  • Wanting to express her gratitude, Susan brings
    the host a couple of dozen purple tulips.
  • When Susan presents them with the flowers,
    however, she notices that both the husband
  • and the wife look startled. After the flowers had
    been taken to the kitchen, Susan feels
  • somewhat insulted because they never displayed
    the flowers nor thanked her for them.
  • What happened?

34
  • 2-7 As an organizational consultant from
    Philadelphia working with a Mexican company,
  • Dan Shaver has been traveling to Mexico City
    every other week for months to help his
  • client develop more-effective management systems.
    On this occasion, Dan scheduled a
  • three-day trip, during which he planned to meet
    with a number of employees. But on the
  • first day of scheduled meetings, Dan was informed
    that everyone would be leaving work
  • at 200 P.M. because it was a fiesta day. Dan was
    furious because he had come all the
  • way to Mexico just to have his first day of work
    cut short. As it turns out, Dans Mexican
  • colleagues failed to understand why he was so
    angry.
  • What was behind this misunderstanding?

35
  • 2-8 As an international organizational consultant
    from Toronto, Melissa Post was working
  • on a two-month project in Quito, Ecuador. After
    several weeks on the project, Melissa had
  • become a very good friend with Maria, a local
    employee of her client. Melissa had noticed
  • that whenever Maria greeted her other female
    friends from Ecuador, they would kiss each
  • other on the cheek. Since Melissa was feeling
    very good about her relationship with Maria,
  • she decided that the next time they ran into one
    another outside the office, she would greet
  • Maria with a kiss on the cheek. So, several days
    later Melissa unexpectedly met Maria at
  • a coffeehouse and greeted her with an
    enthusiastic kiss on the cheek. Much to Melissas
  • surprise, Maria seemed startled and somewhat put
    off by the greeting.
  • Had Melissa done something inappropriate?

36
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