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WORLD WAR ONE

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Title: WORLD WAR ONE


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WORLD WAR ONE
  • Europe, in the early years of the 20th century,
    was a continent facing war.
  • Europe faced
  • Intense competition among the nations.
  • An increase in nationalism.
  • Colonialism.
  • An arms race.

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ENTANGLING ALLIANCES
  • July 23rd The Austrian government issued an
    ultimatum threatening war against Serbia and
    invaded four days later.
  • August 1st As Austrias ally, Germany declared
    war against Russia an ally of Serbia.
  • August 3rd Germany declared war against France,
    an ally of Russia and immediately began an
    invasion of neutral Belgium because it offered
    the fastest route to Paris.
  • August 4th Great Britain, as an ally of France,
    declared war against Germany.

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THE MAJOR ALLIANCES
  • THE ALLIES The Triple Entente
  • Great Britain
  • France
  • Russia
  • Japan
  • Belgium
  • Italy
  • Serbia
  • THE CENTRAL POWERS
  • Germany
  • Austria-Hungary
  • Turkey
  • Bulgaria

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WORLD WAR ONE
  • In Western Europe, most of the fighting took
    place in France, as German armies met British,
    Belgian, and French (and later American) forces
    on the Western Front.
  • During much of the same period, Germany also
    faced Russian soldiers on the Eastern Front,
    until the horrendous casualties helped to provoke
    the Russian Revolution of 1917 and Russias exit
    from the war.

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THE AMERICAN REACTION
  • When war began on the European continent,
    Americans could not imagine its scope and human
    cost, but they condemned its outbreak.
  • Yet it would be very difficult for the American
    public to remain neutral.
  • Many Americans had close ties to each side in the
    war.

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THE AMERICAN REACTION
  • 1914 Nearly one-third of the population of the
    USA was foreign born or the children of
    immigrants.
  • Initially, they tended to sympathize with the
    countries from which their families came, while
    opposing any formal involvement in the war by the
    USA.
  • The majority of Americans favored GB and FR and
    blamed Germany for starting hostilities.

13
THE AMERICAN REACTION
  • German Americans and Irish Americans constituted
    two of the most numerous and influential of the
    non-English groups in the USA.
  • When the war broke out, German Americans
    immediately defended Germanys cause against its
    adversaries.
  • In light of Irelands struggle for freedom from
    GB, Irish Americans were unenthusiastic about
    helping GB, but generally preferred the Allies to
    the Central Powers.

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PRESIDENT WILSON
  • Wilsons decisions on international matters often
    appeared idealistic, but actually combined moral
    diplomacy and practicality.
  • He opposed the old world order and wanted the
    leading nations to embrace a more liberal and
    less imperialistic approach to international
    politics.

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PRESIDENT WILSON
  • In trying to accomplish this, however, he
    distanced himself from many of his own liberal
    supporters.
  • Highly principled and often highly partisan,
    Wilson at times encountered difficulties in
    steering a consistent course.
  • Wilson could also be very rigid in his thinking
    and unwilling to compromise.

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THE USA AND WORLD WAR ONE
  • For the first 2 ½ years of the war, the USA
    remained neutral.
  • Throughout this period, the Allies and Central
    Powers alternately ignored, courted, or
    threatened the American position.
  • Wilson became convinced that a German victory
    would pose a greater menace to US security, yet
    he still continued to avoid US intervention.
  • He was confident he could successfully mediate
    between the warring camps and end the horrors
    that were occurring around the world.

22
THE BLOODBATH OF WAR
23
THE BLOODBATH OF WAR
  • The conflict of 1914-1918 was known as the Great
    War.
  • An unprecedented number of belligerent nations
    fought engagements large and small on three
    continents, six seas, and at least two oceans.
  • Over 65 million military personnel were engaged,
    with 8 million killed in combat and more than 21
    million wounded.

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THE BLOODBATH OF WAR
  • The losses among civilians were even higher.
  • Additionally, countless others, both uniformed
    and civilian, died from diseases made deadlier by
    war conditions, especially the huge
    influenza-pneumonia epidemics that spread rapidly
    in 1918.
  • The war cost more than 281 billion in military
    expenses and damage to civilian property.

25
TRENCH WARFARE
  • August 1914 German troops marched through
    Belgian on their path to France, where British
    and French forces brought the advance to a halt
    with huge casualties on both sides.
  • To defend against the deadly firepower, soldiers
    took up the shovel and dug in.
  • Oct. 1914 A line to trenches extended from the
    English Channel south to the Swiss border, nearly
    500 miles.

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TRENCH WARFARE
  • For more than two years, the frontline of the
    Western Front remained static.
  • Each side launched costly frontal assaults while
    failing to move forward more than a few miles in
    any direction.
  • Trench warfare came to symbolize the Western
    Front to both Europeans and Americans.

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POISON GAS AND MUSTARD GAS
  • Another horror of the war was poison gas,
    introduced by the Germans and later used by all
    parties.
  • Its effectiveness was limited by the need to rely
    on favorable wind conditions to control its
    direction.
  • The most hazardous was mustard gas.
  • Although few people were actually killed from the
    gases, many were seriously injured.

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CAUSES OF AMERICAN ENTRY INTO WORLD WAR ONE
  • Violations of American neutrality
  • German u-boat warfare
  • Sinking of the Lusitania
  • The Sussex Pledge
  • British Propaganda
  • Economic ties to Great Britain and France
  • Unrestricted German U-boat warfare
  • Zimmerman Telegram

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WILSONS REACTION TO THE SINKING OF THE LUSITANIA
  • At first the president reacted cautiously.
  • He then sent two notes to Germany protesting the
    sinking and demanding protection of American
    lives in the future.
  • The second and stronger note exposed a split in
    the Administration and resulted in the
    resignation of Sec. of State William Jennings
    Bryan, who claimed that the USA was not behaving
    impartially toward Germany.

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THE SUSSEX PLEDGE
  • American negotiations with Germany proceeded
    slowly, while U-boats continued to target
    American ships and cause American casualties.
  • Spring 1916 The Germans torpedoed the French
    ship Sussex, which carried several Americans.
  • This time Wilson publicly threatened to break
    diplomatic relations with Germany, which
    responded by temporarily ending its policy of
    unrestricted submarine warfare.

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BRITISH PROPAGANDA
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BRITISH PROPAGANDA
  • Throughout the USA, the British sponsored
    speaking tours and organized traveling exhibits
    of Allied war posters, which were extremely
    effective at disseminating information and
    influencing the public in an era lacking radio or
    TV broadcasts.

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BRITISH PROPAGANDA
  • The British efforts were enhanced by clumsy
    German actions
  • The invasion of Belgium
  • Episodes of espionage and sabotage committed by
    German and Austrian agents in the USA
    attempting to prevent the flow of American
    supplies to the Allies, they bombed numerous
    factories, depots, and bridges while bungling
    other attempts.

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BRITISH PROPAGANDA
  • More annoying than substantial, German actions
    eventually provoked the Wilson Admin., into
    ousting a number of German and Austrian diplomats
    stationed across America.
  • These episodes contributed to American hostility
    toward the Central powers.

52
ECONOMIC TIES TO ALLIES
  • The Royal Navys surface domination of the
    Atlantic Ocean prevented German ships from
    getting to American ports and within a year of
    the wars start virtually ended trade between the
    Central Powers and the USA.
  • In contrast the value of arms and ammunition
    shipyards from the United States to the Allies
    soared from 14.7 million in August 1915 to 74.9
    million in August 1916.
  • American banks issued loans to the Allies that
    amounted to 10 billion by the end of the war.
  • American investors purchased 2.3 billion in
    British and French bonds in contrast to 20
    million in German bonds.

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ECONOMIC TIES TO THE ALLIES
  • Besides the huge armament dealings with the
    Allies, American exporters supplied increasing
    quantities of wheat, corn, processed foods,
    factory and farm machinery, pharmaceuticals, and
    countless other products that were needed by both
    military forces and civilian populations.

54
ECONOMIC TIES TO THE ALLIES
  • From the perspective of the Central Powers, the
    USA had, by late 1916, clearly become a
    belligerent on the side of the Allies.
  • The Central Powers considered the increasing
    economic commitment to the Allies to be equally
    damaging as any potential use of American forces.

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1917 GERMAN UNRESTRICTED U-BOAT WARFARE
56
PEACE WITHOUT VICTORY JANUARY 22, 1917
57
THE ZIMMERMAN TELEGRAM
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WILSON DECLARES WAR APRIL 2, 1917
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OPPOSITION TO WAR
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AMERICAN MOBILIZATION
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THE WAR INDUSTRIES BOARD
  • Regulated munitions.
  • Oversaw industrial growth, allocation of
    resources, and price-fixing.
  • One-fourth of civilian production was converted
    to war production.

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FOOD ADMINISTRATION
  • Provide food for needy Allied nations as well as
    for American Army and Navy units in the European
    war zone.
  • Used voluntary rather than coercive methods to
    increase the amount of food available to send to
    Europe.
  • Rejected the option of rationing, campaigning
    instead for voluntary self-sacrifice.

65
FUEL ADMINISTRATION
  • Directed efforts to save coal.
  • Nonessential factories were closed.
  • Daylight saving time went into effect for the
    first time.

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WAR FINANCE CORPORATION
  • The Wilson Admin. managed to raise 33 billion in
    two years by a combination of loans and taxes.
  • It conducted four massive drives to convince
    Americans to put their savings in Liberty Bonds.
  • Congress also increased both personal and
    corporate taxes and placed an excise tax on
    luxury goods.

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THE WAR AND PUBLIC OPINION
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THE COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION
  • Also known as the Creel Committee.
  • The most controversial of war agencies.
  • Mobilizing the mind of the world.
  • Focused on the war will of the American people
    through a massive propaganda campaign of news
    releases, pamphlets, films and speeches.
  • Championed the righteousness of the Allied cause
    while depicting the Germans as nefarious, warlike
    people descended from barbarians.
  • Helped to build the wartime spirit of national
    unity, but also contributed to the widespread
    intolerance of dissent across the country.

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THE FOUR MINUTE MEN
  • Some 75,000 people volunteered to give brief
    patriotic talks on such topics as war bonds,
    draft registration, food conservation and
    Maintaining Morals and Morale.
  • They often spoke in motion picture theaters while
    the silent film reels were being changed they
    also led groups in singing The Star Spangled
    Banner.
  • Others spoke at schools, civic meetings, and
    various public gatherings.

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THE WAR AND CIVIL LIBERTIES
  • THE ESPIONAGE ACT 1917
  • Punished violators with prison sentences of up to
    20 years and fines of 10,000.
  • Covered loosely defined crimes as encouraging
    others to be disloyal, aiding the enemy, refusing
    to serve in the military and sending
    treasonable materials through the mail.
  • THE SEDITION ACT OF 1918
  • Prohibited disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or
    abusive language about the government, the flag,
    the Constitution, or the armed forces.

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SCHENCK v. THE UNITED STATES
  • The Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of
    the Espionage Act in a case involving a man
    (Charles T. Schenck) who had been imprisoned for
    distributing pamphlets against the draft.
  • Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes concluded that the
    right to free speech could be limited when it
    represented a clear and present danger to the
    public safety.

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THE SELECTIVE SERVICE ACT 1917
  • System devised by Sec. of War Newton D. Baker.
  • Envisioned as a democratic method for ensuring
    that all groups in the population would be called
    into service.
  • About 2.8 million men were eventually called by
    lottery.
  • The draftees provided for over half the total of
    4.7 million Americans who served during the war.
  • More than 2 million of these were transported
    overseas to join the British and French in the
    trenches on the Western Front.

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WILSON AND THE PEACE
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WILSON AND THE PEACE
  • Long before the war in Europe ended, Wilson
    announced his idealistic war aims and peace
    program to the nation and the world.
  • Addressing both houses of Congress in 1/1918, the
    president enunciated his Fourteen Points, most of
    which had been mentioned previously by him or
    European leaders but never so eloquently.

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WILSON AND THE PEACE
  • What we demand in this war is nothing peculiar
    to ourselves. It is that the world be made fit
    and safe to live in and particularly that it be
    made safe for every-peace loving nation which,
    like our own, wishes to live its own life,
    determine its own institutions, be assured of
    justice and fair dealing, by the other peoples of
    the world as against force and selfish
    aggression.

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THE FOURTEEN POINTS
  • Open covenants of peace openly arrived at
  • Freedom of the seas
  • Abolition of international trade barriers
  • Reduction of national armaments
  • An impartial adjustment of all colonial claims
  • Self-determination for the various nationalities
    within the Austro-Hungarian Empire
  • A general association of nations for the
    purpose of affording mutual guarantees of
    political independence and territorial integrity
    to great and small states alike.
  • This was Wilsons most valued point. The
    international association he envisioned would
    soon be named the League of Nations.

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WILSON AND THE PEACE
  • Reaction to Wilsons Fourteen Points was
    generally favorable, even by congressmen who
    would later oppose the president in his call for
    US membership in the LoN.
  • In Germany, civilians and soldiers read a
    translation of Wilsons words, due to the efforts
    of the Creel Committee which printed the
    presidents speech and distributed leaflets by
    plane behind enemy lines.

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WILSON AND THE PEACE
  • Wilsons Fourteen Points were printed in
    newspapers around the world, even in Russia,
    where Lenin was said to consider them a great
    step toward the peace of the world.

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WILSON AND THE PEACE
  • Acclaim for the Fourteen Points was not
    universal.
  • Prime Minister Clemenceau of France reportedly
    responded The Good Lord had only ten!

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WILSON AND THE PEACE
  • The govt., of Kaiser Wilhelm of Germany
    subsequently requested a peace on the basis of
    Wilsons Fourteen Points.
  • Germany hoped their appeal to Wilsons principles
    might lead to a softer, negotiated peace, as
    opposed to the vindictive conditions the Allies
    sought to impose.

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WILSON AND THE PEACE
  • Instead, the Allies interpreted the collapse of
    the Central Powers as a victory that did not
    require them to accept a peace by compromise and
    negotiation.
  • In spite of Wilsons noble efforts to direct the
    postwar settlements onto a higher ground, the
    conditions in the major Allied countries and on
    the battlefronts of Europe dictated the harsh
    peace that provided the seedbed for war again
    within two decades.

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WILSON AND THE PEACE
  • By the time of the armistice on Nov. 11, 1918,
    Wilson was virtually obsessed with the crusade he
    intended to lead personally at the upcoming Paris
    Peace Conference, which would set forth the terms
    of peace for Germany and to formulate the charter
    for the League of Nations.

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WILSON AND THE PEACE
  • He wanted to act as a broker among the
    vengeance-minded Allied leaders in obtaining a
    fairer, more generous peace settlement than most
    of them desired.
  • He also wanted to create an effective
    international organization, led by the USA, to
    ensure a postwar world that would be peaceful,
    free, and no longer handicapped by secret
    treaties and balance-of-power considerations.

95
WILSON AND THE PEACE
  • When Wilson traveled to Paris in mid-December
    several factors severely limited his chances of
    success
  • Election of 1918 Republicans won control of the
    House and Senate
  • Wilson failed to include a prominent Republican
    to his peace delegation Henry Cabot Lodge
    Chair of Sen. Foreign Relations Committee left
    off commission
  • Wilson alienated his own party by not including
    one Democratic member of Congress on the peace
    delegation.
  • Despite widespread opposition, Wilson decided to
    head the peace commission.

96
WILSON AND THE PEACE
  • Wilson received a tumultuous welcome in Paris.
  • At that time, he was the most popular American in
    the world since Abraham Lincoln.
  • Upon his arrival, he campaigned publicly for his
    Fourteen Points, angering several Allied
    officials by appealing directly to their citizens.

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WILSON AND THE PEACE
  • On the eve of the peace conference, Wilsons high
    visibility and his personal advocacy of his
    Fourteen Points sparked unrealistic hopes in many
    parts of the world.
  • Many downtrodden peoples in many areas believed
    that the president could secure for them freedom,
    democracy, and prosperity. Vietnam and Korea
  • Many Germans viewed him as a protector against an
    unjust peace.

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WILSON AND THE PEACE
  • When the Paris Peace Conference convened in
    mid-January, thirty-two Allied and associated
    powers were represented.
  • Germany did not participate in the negotiations.
  • The Conference was led by the Big Four -
    although the major decisions were made by Wilson,
    Lloyd George of England, and Clemenceau of Paris.
  • The Allies were out for revenge and punishment.

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WILSON AND THE PEACE
  • Most of the crucial decisions were decided by
    Wilson, George and Clemenceau.
  • They met frequently in secret, leading to
    criticism by journalists, by representatives of
    smaller countries, and by their own countrymen
    who were excluded from the sessions.
  • The press accused Wilson of violating his own
    principle of open covenants of peace, openly
    arrived at by conducting such vital negotiations
    in private.

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WILSON AND THE PEACE
  • Wilson and the American delegation had prepared
    to take the high road at Versailles while
    implementing the Fourteen Points.
  • To Wilson, the major accomplishment of the peace
    settlement was the successful establishment of
    the League of Nations.
  • He was also pleased that, in line with his
    wishes, parts of the map of Europe were redrawn
    along somewhat more ethnographic lines. Future
    implications
  • Otherwise, Wilson had to compromise on virtually
    all his principles, especially regarding the
    severity of the peace imposed on Germany.

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THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES
  • Germany was disarmed and stripped of its
    colonies.
  • Germany forced to accept the war guilt
    clause.
  • Germany forced to pay 31 billion in war
    reparations.
  • The map of Europe was re-drawn.
  • Signers of the treaty would join an
    international peacekeeping organization the
    League of Nations.
  • Article X of the League covenant called on
    each member nation to stand ready to protect the
    independence and territorial integrity of other
    nations.

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WHY DID WILSON COMPROMISE?
  • Wilson accepted the harsh provisions against
    Germany mainly to get FR and GB support for the
    terms of the League Covenant and its inclusion in
    the peace treaties with all the Central powers.
  • He was supremely confidant that whatever seeds of
    future discord might have been planted by the
    Treaty, his League of Nations would adequately
    guarantee global peace and order in decades to
    come.

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WILSON AND THE PEACE
  • The Big Four summoned the rest of the Allies and
    the Germans to accept their final handiwork,
    which in the end consisted of 440 articles
    including the German Peace Treaty and the League
    Covenant.
  • With great formality, the Treaty of Versailles
    was signed on June 28, 1919, in the Hall of
    Mirrors in the palace of Versailles.

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THE RATIFICATION BATTLE
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THE RATIFICATION BATTLE
  • By the conclusion of Wilsons work in Paris,
    Senate approval of the treaty was already in
    doubt.
  • In mid-February he had returned to the USA for a
    month to promote the League of Nations.
  • The American public, at that time, strongly
    favored American participation in the League and
    nearly ¾ of state legislatures endorsed the
    treaty.
  • But the US Senate, where approval of 2/3 majority
    was required for ratification, was sharply
    divided.
  • Democratic senators agreed with Wilson, while the
    Republican majority largely opposed the League
    unless major revisions were made.

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THE RATIFICATION BATTLE
  • Prominent among the opposition was a group of
    isolationist senators from both parties, who
    called themselves Irreconcilables and rejected
    any American participation in the LoN, regardless
    of whether its charter was amended.
  • Their leader was Rep. Sen. William E. Borah of
    Idaho.

110
THE RATIFICATION BATTLE
  • Borah had supported American entry into the war.
  • But now he was strongly against further American
    entanglement in world politics.
  • He charged that American membership in the LoN
    would transfer the power to declare war from the
    Congress of the United States to some tribunal
    not controlled by the American people. Article
    X
  • He argued that American soldiers could be sent
    into battle/war that did not affect the USA at
    all.

111
THE RATIFICATION BATTLE
  • Another group of opponents were led by Sen. Henry
    Cabot Lodge of MA chair of the powerful Senate
    Foreign Relations Committee.
  • This group called themselves Reservationists.

112
THE RATIFICATION BATTLE
  • Lodge demanded that a series of reservations,
    initially fourteen in number, be added to the
    treaty before he would support it.
  • Lodges changes would substantially restrict
    American participation in the League and would,
    in Wilsons view, nullify the treaty.

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THE RATIFICATION BATTLE
  • 3/1919 39 Sen. Republicans declared in a public
    round-robin letter that they opposed Wilsons
    treaty without major revisions and that the
    Allies should approve peace treaties with the
    Central Powers before considering any charter for
    an international organization.
  • While Wilson returned to Paris, the Republican
    dominated Senate and its Foreign Relations
    Committee conducted almost interminable hearings
    on the document, allowing much time to
    anti-treaty spokesmen.
  • Support by the public for the treaty also started
    to wane.

114
THE RATIFICATION BATTLE
  • 9/1919 The Sen. Foreign Relations Comm.,
    presented 45 amendments and 4 reservations to the
    treaty to the Senate for approval.
  • The principle reservation would have guaranteed
    the independence and territorial integrity of the
    US and the protection of the Monroe Doctrine.
  • Some analysts believe that if Wilson had yielded
    on these changes, a 2/3 majority might have voted
    for the treaty.
  • But Wilson insisted on a treaty without
    reservations.
  • None of the 3 groups reservationists,
    irreconcilables, pro-administration, could alone
    or in combination command the votes to secure
    passage of a measure expressing their position.

115
THE RATIFICATION BATTLE
  • Desperately striving to save his fading treaty
    support, Wilson took his case directly to the
    people.
  • Traveling by train, he undertook an extensive
    speaking tour across the nation.
  • His health, which had been weakened by the strain
    of the Paris Peace Conference, worsened
    dramatically.
  • 9/19 He became seriously ill and returned to DC
    a stroke soon left him an invalid and ended his
    crusade.
  • The League was left without its strongest
    supporters.

116
THE RATIFICATION BATTLE
  • 11/19/1919 The Senate voted twice on the Treaty.
  • First rejecting the treaty with the Lodge
    Reservations by a vote of 55-39.
  • Then defeating the treaty in its original form
    with 53 votes for and 38 against.
  • A third vote was taken. Wilson sent word to
    Democrats to stand firm for the unchanged treaty.

117
THE RATIFICATION BATTLE
  • 3/20/1919 The Wilson loyalists and Borahs
    Irreconcilables sided with each other and downed
    the treaty with the Lodge reservations 49 for
    and 35 against.
  • If 7 more Democrats had abandoned Wilsons
    uncompromising position, the necessary 2/3 for
    passage would have been achieved.

118
THE RATIFICATION BATTLE
  • Despite the Senate votes, Wilson strongly
    believed the American people favored
    participation in the LoN.
  • He saw the Presidential Election of 1920 as a
    referendum on the League.
  • When Warren G. Harding (R) defeated Jon Cox (D)
    the quest for membership in the League was dead.
  • The USA would never join the League of Nations.
  • A bitter and sad Wilson declared another world
    war in 20 years.
  • The Second World War would come in 1939.

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WORLD AT WAR AGAIN
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