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Definition of a Computer

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Title: History of Computers - The Early Days Author: Urquhart Last modified by: Tony DeMars Created Date: 10/17/2012 3:18:29 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Definition of a Computer


1
Definition of a Computer
  • Information Processor
  • Input and Output

2
Definition of Modern Computer
  • Inputs, outputs, processes and stores information
  • Physical Keyboard, monitor, etc. are these
    necessary components?

3
History of Computers - Long, Long Ago
Abacus - 3000 BC
  • beads on rods to count and calculate
  • still widely used in Asia

4
History of Computers - Way Back When
Slide Rule
Slide Rule 1630 based on Napiers rules for
logarithms used until 1970s
5
History of Computers - 19th Century
Jacquard Loom - 1801
  • Joseph Marie Jacquard
  • First stored program - metal cards
  • Did no computing
  • first computer manufacturing
  • still in use today!

6
Charles Babbage - 1792-1871
Analytical Engine
  • Difference Engine c.1822
  • huge calculator, never finished
  • Analytical Engine 1833
  • could store numbers
  • calculating mill used punched metal cards for
    instructions
  • powered by steam!
  • accurate to six decimal places
  • Inspiration for Herman Hollerith for 1890 census

7
Discussion Question
  • What was the biggest advance that led to modern
    computers?
  • Electricity
  • Transistor
  • Microchip
  • Data storage

8
Vacuum Tubes - 1941 - 1956
  • First Generation Electronic Computers used Vacuum
    Tubes
  • Vacuum tubes are glass tubes with circuits
    inside.
  • Vacuum tubes have no air inside of them, which
    protects the circuitry.

9
UNIVAC 1950-51
  • first fully electronic digital computer built in
    the U.S.
  • Created at the University of Pennsylvania
  • contained 18,000 vacuum tubes
  • Cost 487,000
  • ENIAC that preceded it (late 1940s) weighed 30
    tons

10
Grace Hopper (1906-1992)
  • Programmed UNIVAC
  • Recipient of Computer Sciences first Man of the
    Year Award
  • First compiler for a computer programming
    language, led to COBOL

11
First Transistor
  • Used Silicon (semiconductor)
  • developed in 1948
  • won a Nobel prize
  • on-off switch
  • 2nd Generation Computers used Transistors,
    starting in 1956

12
Second Generation 1965-1963
  • 1956 Computers began to incorporate Transistors
  • Replaced vacuum tubes with Transistors

13
Integrated Circuits
  • Third Generation Computers used Integrated
    Circuits (chips).
  • Integrated Circuits are transistors, resistors,
    and capacitors integrated together into a single
    chip
  • First one made by Texas Instruments in 1958

14
Operating System
  • Software Instructions for Computer
  • Operating system is set of instructions loaded
    each time a computer is started
  • Program is instructions loaded when needed

15
Third Generation 1964-1971
  • 1964-1971
  • Integrated Circuit
  • Operating System
  • Getting smaller, cheaper

16
The First Microprocessor 1971
Intel 4004 Microprocessor
  • The 4004 had 2,250 transistors
  • four-bit chunks (four 1s or 0s)
  • 108Khz
  • Called Microchip

17
What is a Microchip?
  • Very Large Scale Integrated Circuit (VLSIC)
  • Transistors, resistors, and capacitors
  • 4004 had 2,250 transistors
  • Pentium IV had 42 MILLION transistors
  • Each transistor 0.13 microns (10-6 meters)

18
4th Generation began 1971
  • MICROCHIPS!
  • Getting smaller and smaller, but we are still
    using microchip technology

19
Birth of Personal Computers - 1975
MITS Altair
  • 256 byte memory (not Kilobytes or Megabytes)
  • 2 MHz Intel 8080 chips
  • Just a box with flashing lights
  • cost 395 kit, 495 assembled.

20
Generations of Electronic Computers
21
Over the past 50 years, the Electronic Computer
has evolved rapidly.
  • Connections
  • Which evolved from the other, which was an
    entirely new creation
  • vacuum tube
  • integrated circuit
  • transistor
  • microchip

22
Evolution of Electronics
Microchip (VLSIC)
Integrated Circuit
Transistor
Vacuum Tube
23
Evolution of Electronics
  • Vacuum Tube a dinosaur without a modern lineage
  • Transistor ? Integrated Circuit ? Microchip

24
First Mass Market PC
25
IBM PC - 1981
  • IBM-Intel-Microsoft joint venture
  • First wide-selling personal computer used in
    business
  • 8088 Microchip - 29,000 transistors
  • 4.77 Mhz processing speed
  • 256 K RAM (Random Access Memory) standard
  • One or two floppy disk drives
  • Open architecture

26
Apple Computers
  • Founded 1977
  • Apple II released 1977
  • widely used in schools
  • Macintosh (left)
  • released in 1984, Motorola 68000 Microchip
    processor
  • first commercial computer with graphical user
    interface (GUI) and pointing device (mouse)

27
The first GUI?
  • XEROX PARC

28
Today 2014
  • Traditionally Intel divides the Core platform
    into three segments--Core i3 at the low end, Core
    i5 for the midrange, and Core i7 at the high end.
  • Following that designation is a model number. You
    may also see a suffix at the end of the model
    number K for unlocked processors, S for
    performance-optimized processors, or T for
    power-optimized processors. The S and T
    variants are generally for OEM use only--expect
    to see them in desktops and laptops on retail
    shelves. An unlocked, higher-end Ivy Bridge CPU,
    for example, could be named the Intel Core
    i7-3770K.

29
1990s Pentiums and Power Macs
  • Early 1990s began penetration of computers into
    every niche every desk, most homes, etc.
  • Faster, less expensive computers paved way for
    this
  • Windows 95 was first decent GUI for PCs
  • Macs became more PC compatible - easy file
    transfers
  • Apple effort at licensing OS (Power Computing)
  • Mac conversion to Intel chip
  • Prices have plummeted
  • 2000 for entry level to 400-500
  • 6000 for top of line to 1000-1500

30
21st Century Computing
  • Great increases in speed, storage, and memory
  • Increased networking, speed in Internet
  • Broadband growth
  • Netbooks / iPad / tablets
  • Smart Phones
  • Impact of touch technology
  • 3G to 4G (3-5 Mbps / 8-10 Mbps)

31
Whats next for computers?
  • Use your imagination to come up with what the
    coming years hold for computers.
  • What can we expect in two years?
  • What can we expect in twenty years?
  • Voice interface?
  • Cloud computing growth
  • True ubiquity?
  • Interface to almost all activities?

32
Internet WWW
33
Internet Overview
  • Advanced Research Projects Agency
  • Pentagon / University relationship
  • LANs and WANs
  • Single location / wide geographic area
  • ARPANET combined with LANs and WANs became the
    Internet in 1983
  • TCP/IP protocol (Bob Kahn and Vint Cerf)
  • Packet switching and IP addresses

34
Domain Name System (DNS)
  • IP address 158.135.172.2
  • Text-based DNS translates human language into the
    computers phone number
  • TLD -- .com , .net, .edu
  • ccTLD -- country code -- .ca , .uk (list)
  • Determined by IANA, Internet Assigned Numbers
    Authority
  • Organizational identifier tamuc , google
  • Domain names administered by ICANN -- Internet
    Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers
  • Buy domains from registrars (Mad Dog, GoDaddy,
    1and1

35
Basics
  • Web server holds web site
  • web server software
  • Main page is index.html
  • Html in file interpreted by browser
  • Connectons in page are internal or external
  • Web site creation / hosting
  • Wix, Raptor, Dreamweaver, Cascade
  • CMS

36
Programs on the Internet
  • WWW -- Tim Berners-Lee devised HTML language
    which led to Mosaic
  • A browser interprets the HTML
  • Web page creation...
  • XML--extensible markup language
  • SOAP--simple objects access protocol (based on
    XML
  • XHTML--another form of XML
  • VRML
  • Now HTML5
  • App creation iOS / xCode

37
Programs on the Internet
  • E-mail
  • Newsgroups / Usenet (link)
  • Chat / IM (AIM, iChat, Meebo)
  • Telnet (link)
  • FTP (Fetch, etc.)
  • Internet Phone (Skype, Google Voice)
  • Web 2.0 (blogs, Second Life, podcasts) Video
    streams (Bittorent, Veoh, Hulu, clicker)

38
Whats going on today
  • Blogs / moblogs / vlogs
  • Journalism / bloggers
  • RSS feeds
  • Podcasts, etc. / newsreader software
  • New economic models -- Google
  • Legal issues -- RIAA, MPAA, SoundExchange
  • Other issues
  • Malware, Digital Divide, charging fees to
    Internet sites, net neutrality (Comcast)

39
Web 2.0?
  • Google Docs (YouTube tutorial) / Drive
  • Apple OS X Leopard / Snow Leopard / Lion /
    Mountain Lion
  • What is Digital Media? / New Media -- Canada
    DMS
  • What is Internet 2?
  • Increase speeds
  • Spread technologies and applications
  • Take advantage of digital libraries, virtual
    laboratories, tele-immersion
  • What is Web 2.0?
  • Semantic Web

40
Web 2.0
41
What is
  • Digg?
  • Stumble Upon?
  • Photobucket?
  • Jumpcut?
  • The WayBack Machine?
  • The Machine is using us?
  • Otherwise going on. ?

42
Mobile Computing Devices
  • PDAs (personal digital assistant Newton)
  • Functions / changes through the years
  • GPS
  • Vehicle fixed / portable
  • Satellite connection vs. most others
  • Cell Phones
  • iPhone example (smart phone)
  • Portable Video Games
  • GameBoy, Nintendo DS, Sony PSP / music, movies
  • Ultra Mobile PCs -- Origami / Microsoft (site)
  • CES -- Microsoft focus on touch technologies
  • Wearable Computers?
  • Tablets

43
Broadcasting vs. streaming
  • DTV multicasting
  • DVB-H (digital video broadcasting - handheld)
    standard for broadcasting to handsets
  • DMB (digital multimedia broadcasting) for
    multimedia broadcasting -- not available in North
    America
  • Streaming allows VOD -- ATT Mobile (MediaFlo),
    Verizon (ending 12/2012)
  • Backseat TV

44
Developing Technologies
  • 3G / 4G cell phones -- packet and circuit
    switching
  • Wi-Fi
  • 802.11 and 802.11x refers to a family of
    specifications developed by the IEEE for wireless
    LAN technology.
  • Institute of Electrical and Electronics
    Engineers, pronounced I-triple-E
  • WiMax
  • Also known as IEEE 802.16--intended for wireless
    "metropolitan area networks". Provides
    broadband wireless access (BWA) up to 30 miles
    (50 km) for fixed stations, and 3 - 10 miles (5 -
    15 km) for mobile stations.
  • WiFi/802.11 wireless local area network standard
    is limited in most cases to only 100 - 300 feet
    (30 - 100m).

45
Why 802?
  • The 802 group is the section of the IEEE involved
    in network operations and technologies, including
    mid-sized networks and local networks. Group 15
    deals specifically with wireless networking
    technologies, and includes the now ubiquitous
    802.15.1 working group, which is also known as
    Bluetooth.

46
(No Transcript)
47
Developing Technologies
  • Bluetooth
  • Name comes from Harald Bluetooth, king of Denmark
    in the late 900s
  • There are lots of different ways that electronic
    devices can connect to one another--Component
    cables, Electrical wires, Ethernet cables, WiFi,
    Infrared signals
  • Bluetooth is essentially a networking standard
    that works at two levels
  • It provides agreement at the physical level --
    Bluetooth is a radio-frequency standard
  • AND, it provides agreement at the protocol level,
    where products have to agree on when bits are
    sent, how many will be sent at a time, and how
    the parties in a conversation can be sure that
    the message received is the same as the message
    sent. (cell phone, GPS, PDA--Starfield example)

48
Developing Technologies
  • ZigBee
  • The set of specs built around the IEEE 802.15.4
    wireless protocol.
  • Name "ZigBee" derived from the erratic zigging
    patterns many bees make between flowers when
    collecting pollen. The standard is regulated by a
    group known as the ZigBee Alliance, with over 150
    members worldwide.
  • Bluetooth focuses on connectivity between large
    packet user devices--laptops, phones, major
    peripherals.
  • ZigBee is designed to provide highly efficient
    connectivity between small packet devices.

49
Developing Technologies
  • WPAN
  • Wireless personal area network
  • Bluetooth and Zigbee
  • Personal hotspots
  • RFID
  • IBM Uses RFID to Track Conference Attendees
  • New chip promises to track kids from miles away
  • Tracks things and people
  • DTV? / HD Radio
  • Multicasting channels -- data transmission?
  • Two way interactivity
  • FCC approval

50
Technical changes
  • Copper wires to fiber optic cable
  • Circuit Switching to packet switching
  • Landline to wireless
  • Convergence of technologies and companies

51
Technical examples
  • Fiber Optic Technicians (jobs promotion)
  • Early telephones (women as operators)
  • Early telephones (dialing a rotary phone)
  • (push button phone)
  • Making free phone calls (discussion VoIP)
  • Skype
  • Netzero Voice / Messenger / iChat
  • Jajah.com
  • Google Voice

52
Cell Phones
  • Early -- 2-way radio type service
  • Phone / cells / towers
  • Ugly towers?
  • Connects to Mobile Telephone Switching Office
    (MTSO)
  • Going to another cell phone in same area on same
    service, routed to another tower
  • To another service or a landline, routed to the
    Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN)

53
Generations
  • two-way radio style
  • cellular process developed by (old) ATT
  • IG -- analog -- 1983 -- AMPS -- advanced mobile
    phone service
  • 2G -- digital introduction -- early 1990s
  • CDMA, TDMA initially in the U.S. (CDMA Sprint,
    Verizon)
  • GSM type adopted first in Europe (ATT / T-Mobile)

54
Generations
  • 3G -- higher data transmission speeds -- switch
    to packet switching (Interim -- 2.5G Edge)
  • Verizon, ATT, Sprint T-Mobile all offer high
    speed 3G wireless networks. All moving to
    4G...but, interim technologies
  • 3G -- about 3 mbps throughput 4G about 10 mbps
    (about 10x faster)
  • Based on phone AND network infrastructure

55
3G vs. 4G
  • Explanation
  • Direct link

56
Cell phone as hybrid medium
  • Delivery of video to cellular phones is becoming
    more widespread voice / data and
  • Verizons V-Cast service (3G EV-DO) MobiTV
    service.
  • Both use the cellular network to deliver the
    content.
  • New service and technology, MediaFlo, developed
    by Qualcomm, uses part of the television
    broadcasting spectrum (channel 55) to send
    multi-media content to mobile phones (as noted
    before).
  • Allows wireless carriers to offer video content
    without taking up much needed bandwidth in their
    cellular network.

57
What is broadband?
  • ITU -- minimum speed of 256 kilobits/second
  • FCC -- 1996 Telecommunications Act 200 Kb/s
    bidirectionally
  • Wired
  • Wireless
  • Satellite
  • Alternate DTV multicast channels (etc.)

58
Broadband delivery -- wired
  • DSL
  • DSLAM / extenders (digital subscriber line access
    multiplexer)
  • IPTV (ATT U-verse, Verizon FiOS)
  • Dedicated line (no slowdown)
  • Cable modem (DOCSIS -- 1.0 / 2.0 / 3.0)
  • Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification
  • Shared down trunk line (slowdown)
  • Information service / no open access
  • Fiber to the home/premises (FTTH/P)
  • FTTN -- fiber to the node (last mile is coaxial
    cable for cable twisted-pair copper for DSL
  • Broadband over power line (BPL)
  • Interference
  • State approval

59
Broadband delivery -- wireless
  • Fixed wireless broadband (FWB) (from MMDS)
  • 3G mobile wireless (4G / pre-4G)
  • Wi-Fi (IEEE 802.11) (WLAN)
  • Wi-Max (802.16)
  • Satellite
  • HughesNet WildBlue (several now)
  • Latency problem (VoIP, games) a time delay
    between the moment something is initiated, and
    the moment one of its effects begins or becomes
    detectable

60
Home Networks
  • Residential gateway (aka - cable/DSL router)
  • the key device in most home networks
  • Wired (server / hub / router) LAN
  • Wireless (wi-fi / WLAN / 802.11)
  • Interconnects all computers and other IP devices
  • Connects the home network to the broadband
    connection

61
Specs Technical specifications or standards
  • Like all issues establish technical standards
  • HPNA -- Home Phoneline Networking Alliance --
    technology, built on Ethernet, allows all the
    components of a home network to interact over the
    home's existing telephone wiring without
    disturbing the existing voice or fax services
  • IEEE -- Institute of Electrical and Electronics
    Engineers

62
Proprietary or agreed-upon?
  • VHS vs. Beta (home)
  • DVD-R / DVD-RW vs. DVDR / RW vs. RAM
  • SD cards or compact flash cards
  • HD-DVD vs. BluRay
  • WMA vs. RealPlayer vs. Quicktime etc. codecs
  • HDTV (8-VSB / COFDM)

63
Home hot spot Applications?
  • Multiple networked computers
  • Computers share one printer
  • Integration of phone / cable or satellite systems
    / DVR, Slingbox, etc. with IP
  • Security system connections

64
Home hot spot Applications?
  • Control any IP device -- Microsoft has been
    working with Whirlpool to allow users to monitor
    their laundry with their home network, computer,
    TV, and cell phone.
  • Continuing growth in American homes operating a
    wireless network, making the US the leader in
    adoption of wireless home networks.

65
What else?
  • RFID (ubiquitous?)
  • Smart Home (video) / robotics
  • Speech recognition
  • Types Discrete, continuous complete
  • Speech recognition gone awry
  • Better success demo (click screen when page
    loads)
  • Ultra HD video (cinema--replace film projection)
  • Electronic paper (Kindle, iPad) (e-paper demo)
  • Wikis
  • GIGO conundrum?
  • LA Times experiment
  • Google docs as collaborative authoring?

66
Virtual / Augmented Reality (RWWW)
  • Second Life (promo/commercial)
  • Google Earth and other competitors
  • Education, Entertainment, etc. in a virtual
    world?
  • Computer speed, power and storage
  • How to simulate touch, smell, taste
  • HMD, haptics, immersive environment
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