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THE POSTWAR BOOM

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THE POSTWAR BOOM THE AMERICAN DREAM IN THE 1950S Poverty Leads to Activism When the United States entered WWII, a shortage of agricultural workers spurred the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: THE POSTWAR BOOM


1
THE POSTWAR BOOM
  • THE AMERICAN DREAM IN THE 1950S

2
Chapter 19.1 Essential Questions
  • What economic and social problems faced Americans
    after World War II?
  • How did the desire for stability lead to
    political conservatism?
  • What were causes and effects of social unrest in
    the postwar period?
  • How was Trumans domestic policy different from
    Eisenhowers?

3
SECTION 1 POSTWAR AMERICA
  • After WWII, returning vets faced a severe housing
    shortage
  • In response to the crisis, developers used
    assembly-line methods to mass-produce houses
  • Developer William Levitt bragged that his company
    could build a home in 16 minutes for 7,000
  • Suburbs were born

With the help of low-interest loans from the GI
Bill, many veterans moved into suburbs
4
REDEFINING THE FAMILY
  • A return to traditional roles after the war was
    the norm
  • Men were expected to work, while women were
    expected to stay home and care for the children
  • Conflict emerged as many women wanted to stay in
    the workforce
  • Divorce rates surged but were highly frowned upon

5
REMARKABLE ECONOMIC RECOVERY
  • Experts who predicted a postwar depression were
    proved wrong as they failed to consider the 135
    billion in savings Americans had accumulated from
    defense work, service pay, and investments in war
    bonds
  • Americans were ready to buy consumer goods

6
DESPITE GROWTH, ISSUES PERSIST
  • One persistent postwar issue involved labor
    strikes
  • In 1946 alone, 4.5 million discontented workers,
    including Steelworkers, coal miners and railroad
    workers went on strike

7
TRUMAN TOUGH ON STRIKERS
  • Truman refused to let strikes cripple the nation
  • He threatened to draft the striking workers and
    then order them as soldiers to return to work
  • The strategy worked as strikers returned to their
    jobs

8
SOCIAL UNREST PERSISTS
  • African Americans felt they deserved equal
    rights, especially after hundreds of thousands
    served in WWII
  • Truman took action in 1948 by desegregating the
    armed forces
  • Additionally, Truman ordered an end to
    discrimination in the hiring of governmental
    employees

9
THE 1948 ELECTION
Dewey
  • The Democrats nominated President Truman in 1948
  • The Republicans nominated New York Governor
    Thomas Dewey
  • Polls showed Dewey held a comfortable lead going
    into election day

10
TRUMAN WINS IN A STUNNING UPSET
  • Trumans Give em hell, Harry campaign worked
  • Truman won a very close race against Dewey

Truman holds a now infamous Chicago Tribune
announcing (incorrectly) Deweys victory
11
To protest Trumans emphasis on Civil Rights,
Southern Democrats, or Dixiecrats, opted to run
a third candidate, South Carolina Governor Strom
Thurmond
12
Trumans Fair Deal
  • Truman proposed an ambitious economic program- it
    was supposed to be an extension of FDRs New
    Deal
  • He proposed
  • A nationwide system of compulsory health
    insurance (can anyone say Obamacare?) (Def)
  • A crop-subsidy system for farmers (Def)
  • Raising the minimum wage (P)
  • Extending Social Security to more people (P)
  • Initiating flood control and irrigation projects
    (P)
  • Secured federal funding for low-income housing

13
REPUBLICANS PLAN FOR 1952 ELECTION
  • By 1951 Trumans approval rating sank to an
    all-time low of just 23
  • Why? Korean War, rising tide of McCarthyism, and
    a general impression of ineffectiveness
  • Truman decides not to run again

The Republicans (right) were chomping at the bit
in the 52 election
14
STEVENSON VS. IKE 1952 ELECTION
  • The Democrats nominated intellectual Illinois
    Governor Adlai Stevenson while the Republicans
    nominated war hero Dwight David Eisenhower

Ike
Stevenson
15
I LIKE IKE
  • Eisenhower used the slogan, I Like Ike for his
    presidential campaign
  • Republicans used Ikes strong military background
    to emphasize his ability to combat Communism
    worldwide

16
IKES VP SLIP-UP
  • One potential disaster for Ike was his running
    mates alleged slush fund
  • Richard Nixon responded by going on T.V. and
    delivering an emotional speech denying charges
    but admitting to accepting one gift for his
    children a dog named Checkers
  • The Checkers speech saved the ticket notice
    again the power of TV!

Nixon and his dog Checkers
17
IKE WINS 1952 ELECTION
18
Ikes Hits and Misses
  • Pressed hard to bring about a balanced budget and
    tax cuts
  • Raised the minimum wage
  • Extended Social Security and unemployment
    benefits
  • Increased funding for public housing
  • Backed the creation of the Interstate Highway
    System
  • Tried to avoid controversy.
  • Was forced to intervene in the Little Rock (AR)
    Central HS crisis
  • Brown v. Board of Education ruling took place in
    1954
  • Rosa Parks/Montgomery Bus Boycott in 1955
  • Ike did not press for an end to segregation

19
Ike Walks the Middle of the Road
  • Ikes approach to politics- Dynamic
    Conservatism (also known as modern
    Republicanism)
  • He wanted government to be conservative when it
    comes to money and liberal when it comes to human
    beings.

20
Ch.19.2 Essential Questions
  • How did changes in business affect workers?
  • What was the suburban lifestyle like in the
    1950s?
  • What were the causes and effects in the
    automobile industry boom?
  • Why was there an increase in consumerism in the
    1950s?

21
SECTION 2 THE AMERICAN DREAM IN THE FIFTIES
  • After WWII ended, Americans turned their
    attention to their families and jobs
  • New businesses and technology created
    opportunities for many
  • By the end of the 1950s, Americans were enjoying
    the highest standard of living in the world

Ozzie and Harriet reflected the perfect American
family
22
THE ORGANIZATION AND THE ORGANIZATION MAN
  • During the 1950s, businesses expanded rapidly
  • More and more people held white-collar jobs -
    clerical, management, or professional jobs
  • The fields of sales, advertising, insurance and
    communications exploded

White Collar jobs expanded greatly in the 1950s
23
SOCIAL CONFORMITY
  • American workers found themselves becoming
    standardized
  • Called the Organization Man, the modern worker
    struggled with a loss of individualism
  • Businesses did not want creative thinkers, rebels
    or anyone that would rock the boat

24
Despite their success, some workers questioned
whether pursuing the American dream exacted too
high a price, as conformity replaced
individuality
25
CONGLOMERATES EMERGE
  • Conglomerates, major corporations that include a
    number of smaller companies in unrelated fields,
    emerged in the 1950s
  • One conglomerate, International Telephone and
    Telegraph (ITT), bought rental car companies and
    hotel chains

26
FRANCHISES EMERGE
  • Another strategy for business expansion was
    franchising
  • A franchise is a company that offers similar
    services in many locations
  • Fast food restaurants developed the first
    franchises in America

McDonalds is one of the leading franchises in
the world
27
THE SUBURBAN LIFESTYLE
  • Most Americans worked in cities, but fewer and
    fewer of them lived there
  • New highways and the affordability of cars and
    gasoline made commuting possible
  • Of the 13 million homes built in the 1950s, 85
    were built in suburbs
  • For many, the suburbs were the American Dream

The American Dream complete with a white picket
fence
28
THE BABY BOOM
  • During the late 1940s and through the early 1960s
    the birthrate in the U.S. soared
  • At its height in 1957, a baby was born in America
    every 7 seconds (over 4.3 million babies in 57
    alone)
  • Baby boomers represent the largest generation in
    the nations history

29
What are the official years of the Baby Boom Generation?
1946 - 1964 saw a marked increase in the number of births in North America.
How did the birthrate rise and fall during the baby boom years in the US? How did the birthrate rise and fall during the baby boom years in the US?
1940 2,559,000 births per year
1946 3,311,000 births per year
1955 4,097,000 births per year
1957 4,300,000 births per year
1964 4,027,000 births per year
1974 3,160,000 births per year
30
WHY SO MANY BABIES?
  • Why did the baby boom occur when it did?
  • Husbands returning from war
  • Decreasing marriage age
  • Desirability of large families
  • Confidence in economy
  • Advances in medicine

31
WHAT IT WILL MEAN TO YOU
Your generation will be supporting an
increasingly aging American population
32
ADVANCES IN MEDICINE AND CHILDCARE
  • Advances in the treatment of childhood diseases
    included drugs to combat typhoid fever and polio
    (Jonas Salk)

Dr. Salk was instrumental in the eradication of
polio
33
DR. SPOCK ADVISES PARENTS
  • Many parents raised their children according to
    the guidelines of pediatrician Dr. Benjamin Spock
  • He thought children should be allowed to express
    themselves and parents should never physically
    punish their kids

Dr. Spocks book sold 10 million copies in the
1950s
34
IMPACT OF BABY BOOM
  • As a result of the baby boom 10 million students
    entered elementary schools in the 1950s
  • California built a new school every 7 days in the
    late 50s
  • Toy sales reached an all-time high in 1958 when
    1.25 billion in toys were sold

35
Symbols of the Baby Boom in Suburbia 1950 1960
Hot Dog Production (millions of lbs) 750 1050
Potato Chip Production (millions of lbs) 320 532
Sales of lawn and porch furniture (millions of dollars) 53.6 145.2
Sales of power mowers (millions of dollars) 1.0 3.8
Sales of floor polishers (millions of dollars) 0.24 1.0
Sales of Encyclopaedia (millions of dollars) 72 300
Number of Children age 5-14 24.3 35.5
Number of baseball Little Leagues 776 5,700
36
Fads of the Baby Boomers
Hula Hoops
Frozen Foods
Poodle Skirts and Saddle Shoes
Panty Raids
Barbie and GI Joe Dolls
Bikinis
Frisbees
Yo-yos
Ouija Boards
Dune Buggies
What celebrity deaths have most affected the Baby Boomers?
John F. Kennedy
Marilyn Monroe
Martin Luther King
John Lennon
37
WOMENS ROLES IN THE 1950S
  • During the 1950s, the role of homemaker and
    mother was glorified in popular magazines, movies
    and television

38
WOMEN AT WORK
  • Those women who did work were finding job
    opportunities limited to fields such as nursing,
    teaching and office support
  • Women earned far less than man for comparable jobs

39
LEISURE IN THE 1950s
  • Americans experienced shorter work weeks and more
    vacation time than ever before
  • Leisure time activities became a multi-billion
    dollar industry
  • Labor-saving devices added more spare time

Labor-saving devices provided more leisure time
for Americans
40
POPULAR LEISURE ACTIVITES
  • In 1953 alone Americans spent 30 billion on
    leisure
  • Popular activities included fishing, bowling,
    hunting and golf
  • Americans attended, or watched on T.V., football,
    baseball and basketball games

Bowling remains one of the top leisure activities
in the U.S.
41
THE AUTOMOBILE CULTURE
  • After the rationing of WWII, inexpensive and
    plentiful fuel and easy credit led many to buy
    cars
  • By 1960, over 60 million Americans owned autos

42
INTERSTATE HIGHWAY ACT 1956
  • In 1956 Ike authorized a nationwide highway
    network 41,000 miles of road linking America

43
THE INTERSTATE HIGHWAY SYSTEM
  • Automania spurred the construction of roads
    linking major cities while connecting schools,
    shopping centers and workplaces to residential
    suburbs

44
IMPACT OF THE HIGHWAY
  • The Interstate Highway system resulted in
  • More trucking
  • Less railroad
  • More suburbs, further away

Trucking is the 1 means of moving cargo in the
United States today
45
HIGHWAYS HOMOGENIZE AMERICA
  • Another effect of the highway system was that the
    scenery of America began to look the same
  • Restaurants, motels, highway billboards, gas
    stations, etc. all began to look similar
  • The nation had become homogenized

Anytown, USA
46
Our new roads, with their ancillaries, the
motels, filling stations, and restaurants
advertising eats, have made it possible for you
to drive from Brooklyn to Los Angeles without a
change of diet, scenery, or culture. John
Keats, The Insolent Chariots 1958
47
DOWNSIDE TO MOBILITY
  • While the car industry boom stimulated
    production, jobs, shopping centers, and the
    restaurant industry, it also had negative effects
  • Noise
  • Pollution
  • Accidents
  • Traffic Jams
  • Stress
  • Decline of public
  • transportation

48
RISE OF CONSUMERISM
  • By the mid-1950s, nearly 60 of Americans were
    members of the middle class
  • Consumerism (buying material goods) came to be
    equated with success and status
  • Keeping up with the Joness

49
NEW PRODUCTS
  • One new product after another appeared in the
    marketplace
  • Appliances, electronics, and other household
    goods were especially popular
  • The first credit card (Diners Club) appeared in
    1950 and American Express was introduced in 1958
  • Personal debt increased nearly 3x in the 1950s

50
THE ADVERTISING AGE
  • The advertising industry capitalized on runaway
    consumerism by encouraging more spending
  • Ads were everywhere
  • Ad agencies increased their spending 50 during
    the 1950s

Advertising is everywhere today in America
51
Ch.19.3 Essential Questions
  • How did television programs in the 1950s reflect
    middle-class values?
  • How did the beat movement and
  • rock n roll music clash with middle-class
    values?
  • How did African-American entertainers help to
    integrate the media in the 1950s?

52
SECTION 3 POPULAR CULTURE
  • A new era of mass media led by television emerged
    in the 1950s
  • In 1948, only 9 of homes had T.V
  • In 1950, 55 of homes had T.V.
  • By 1960, 90 of American homes had T.V.

53
THE GOLDEN AGE OF TELEVISION
  • Mass media- the means of communication that reach
    large audiences
  • The 1950s was known as the Golden Age of
    Television
  • Comedies were the main attraction as Milton
    Berle, Lucille Ball and Desi Arnaz were very
    popular

Desi Arnaz and Lucille Ball starred in I Love Lucy
54
TELEVISION EXPERIMENTS WITH VARIOUS FORMATS
  • The FCC (Federal Communications Commission) did
    its best to regulate television and radio
  • Television innovations like on-the-scene-news
    reporting, interviews, westerns and sporting
    events offered the viewer a variety of shows
  • Kids shows like The Howdy Doody Show and The
    Mickey Mouse Club were extremely popular

55
TV ADS, TV GUIDES AND TV DINNERS EXPAND
  • TV advertising soared from 170 million in 1950
    to nearly 2 billion in 1960
  • TV Guide magazine quickly became the best selling
    magazine
  • Frozen TV dinners were introduced in 1954 these
    complete ready-to-heat meals on disposable
    aluminum trays made it easy for people to eat
    without missing their favorite shows

56
A Downside to TV???
  • Critics objected to its effects on children
    (exposure to violence)
  • Women appeared in stereotypical roles
  • Male characters outnumbered female by 3 to 1
  • African-Americans and Latinos rarely appeared in
    television programs at all
  • 1950s television portrayed an idealized white
    America, with no references to poverty, diversity
    or contemporary conflicts

57
Would the Birth of Television Lead to the Death
of Radio and the Movies?
  • Radio and movies survived because they adapted
    and evolved.
  • Radio stations now offered news, weather, and
    more importantly- rock n roll
  • Movie theatres also had some advantages over TV-
    size, color, and sound

James Dean, a teenage idol, died at the age of
24 in a car accident.
58
A SUBCULTURE EMERGES
  • Although mass media and television were wildly
    popular in the 1950s, dissenting voices emerged
  • The Beat Movement in literature, art and poetry
    celebrated a nonconformist lifestyle and attitude
  • Rock n roll clashed with tidy suburban views of
    life and was originally called race music.

59
BEATNIKS FOLLOW OWN PATH
  • Centered in San Francisco, L.A. and New Yorks
    Greenwich Village, the Beat Movement expressed
    social nonconformity
  • Followers, called beatniks, tended to shun work
    and sought understanding through Zen Buddhism,
    music, and sometimes drugs

Beatniks often performed poetry or music in
coffeehouses or bars
60
MUSIC IN THE 1950s
  • Musicians in the 1950s added electronic
    instruments to traditional blues music, creating
    rhythm and blues
  • Cleveland DJ Alan Freed was the first to play
    this music in 1951 he called it rock and roll
  • First called race music- the early performers
    were mostly black, but the audience was mostly
    white

FREED
61
ROCK N ROLL
  • In the early and mid-fifties, Richard Penniman,
    Chuck Berry, Bill Haley and the Comets, and
    especially Elvis Presley brought rock and roll to
    the forefront
  • The driving rhythm and lyrics featuring love,
    cars,
    and problems
    of being
    young ---
    captivated
    teenagers
    across the
    country

62
THE KING OF ROCK AND ROLL
  • Presleys rebellious style captured young
    audiences
  • Girls screamed and fainted, and boys tried to
    imitate him

63
SECTION 4 THE OTHER AMERICA
  • In 1962, nearly one out of every four Americans
    was living below the poverty level
  • Most of these poor were the elderly, single
    women and their children, and/or
    minorities

64
WHITE FLIGHT
  • In the 1950s, millions of middle-class white
    Americans left the cities for the suburbs
  • At the same time millions of African American
    rural poor migrated to the cities
  • The so-called White Flight drained cities of
    valuable resources, money and taxes

65
Urban Renewal
  • Most African Americans, Native Americans and
    Latinos in the cities had to live in dirty,
    crowded slums.
  • One proposed solution was urban renewal. The
    National Housing Act of 1949 called for the
    tearing down of rundown neighborhoods and
    constructing low-income housing
  • Although the tearing down did occur, parking
    lots, shopping centers, highways, parks and
    factories were constructed on much of the cleared
    land
  • Urban renewal simply became urban removal as
    many people simply had to move from one ghetto to
    another.

Dodger Stadium- An example of urban renewal
66
Poverty Leads to Activism
  • When the United States entered WWII, a shortage
    of agricultural workers spurred the government to
    initiate a program in which Mexican braceros, or
    hired hands, were allowed into the U.S. to
    harvest crops from 1942-1947
  • They were expected to return to Mexico once their
    employment ended but many remained in the U.S.
    illegally to escape the poor economic conditions
    in Mexico.
  • As a result, prejudice against Mexicans and
    Mexican-Americans rose dramatically

67
The Longoria Incident
  • Felix Longoria was a Mexican-American WWII hero
    who had been killed in the Philippines.
  • The only undertaker in his Texas hometown refused
    to provide his family with funeral services
  • Outraged Mexican Americans stepped up their
    efforts to stamp out discrimination by creating
    the G.I. Forum and the Unity League of
    California
  • Both were designed to register Mexican American
    voters and to promote candidates who would
    represent their interests.

68
Native Americans Continue Their Struggle
  • From 1887 to 1934, the government policy towards
    Native Americans was one of Americanization and
    assimilation.
  • In 1953 the federal government announced it would
    give up its responsibility for Native American
    tribes.
  • The new approach, known as the termination
    policy eliminated federal economic support,
    discontinued the reservation system, and
    redistributed tribal lands to individual Native
    Americans.
  • Native Americans were encouraged to resettle in
    cities.
  • The policy was a dismal failure. Most couldnt
    find jobs because of poor training and racial
    prejudice. In 1963, the termination policy was
    abandoned
  • The National Congress of American Indians was
    formed to 1) Ensure civil rights for Native
    Americans and 2) enable Indians on reservations
    to retain their own customs
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