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Nonhazardous, Hazardous and Nuclear Waste

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Nonhazardous, Hazardous and Nuclear Waste 1965 Solid Waste Disposal Act Attempt by Congress to encourage better disposal of solid waste through grants to the states. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Nonhazardous, Hazardous and Nuclear Waste


1
Nonhazardous, Hazardous and Nuclear Waste
2
  • 1965 Solid Waste Disposal Act
  • Attempt by Congress to encourage better disposal
    of solid waste through grants to the states.
  • 1976 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
    RCRA
  • Designed to primarily manage hazardous waste
    management, though solid waste is addressed as
    well.
  • Amended several times since 1976, most
    significantly in 1984.
  • 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments
    HSWA
  • Significantly expanded the scope and requirements
    of RCRA

3
RCRA Goals
  • Protect human health and the environment from the
    potential hazards of waste disposal
  • Conserve energy and natural resources
  • Reduce the amount of waste generated
  • Ensure that wastes are managed in an
    environmentally sound manner

4
RCRA Programs
  • Solid waste management
  • Hazardous waste management
  • Underground tank management
  • Medical waste

5
RCRA Responsibilities For Hazardous Waste
  • The generator is responsible for the material
    from cradle to grave
  • Tracked using a uniform hazardous waste manifest
  • Monitored by the EPA using generator ID numbers
    and permits
  • Restricted from land disposal (under HSWA)

6
Hazardous Waste
  • A subset of solid waste
  • Often generated by industrial processes
  • Possess one or more of these characteristics
  • Ignightability
  • Corrosivity
  • Reactivity
  • Toxicity
  • Or may be on a Source-Specific List

7
Cradle to Grave
  • EPA regulations address
  • Generation
  • Transportation
  • Treatment
  • Storage
  • Disposal

8
TSD facilities
  • Treatment
  • Storage
  • Disposal

9
Hazardous Waste Generators
  • Hazardous waste generation is divided into
    separate categories
  • Large quantity generators gt2,200 lbs/month
  • Small quantity generators lt2,200 lbs/month
  • Can only hold waste for 90 days
  • Need permit to generate hazardous waste
  • Transporters, permit required
  • TSD facilities, permit required
  • If generate lt220 lbs/month then no permit required

10
Hazardous Waste Manifests
  • To track waste, EPA requires generators to
    prepare a Uniform Hazardous Waste Manifest
  • Manifests must accompany waste where ever it
    travels
  • This form, and its multiple copies, ties
    generator, all transporters, storage facilities,
    and disposal facilities with the waste
  • Each individual handler must sign and mail copies
    of the manifest to EPA or authorized state
    authority

11
The Solid Waste Problem
  • Our per capita waste generation is over double
    that of any other country
  • Current methods of managing and disposing are not
    expected to be adequate for anticipated future
    volumes
  • Primary methods are landfilling, recycling and
    incineration

12
Solid Waste Problem cont.
  • We have a throw-away economy.
  • Things are built to become obsolete
  • Packaging amounts to half of all household waste
  • We generate about 4-5 pounds of solid waste a day

13
Incineration
  • Possible alternative to landfills
  • What are some advantages and disadvantages?

14
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15
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16
Solid Waste Problem cont.
  • Largest generators are industry, mining and
    agriculture
  • Although agricultural and mine waste are usually
    disposed of on site, the is a potential for
    pollution of groundwater and surface runoff

17
NIMBY Implications
  • It is difficult to find sites for new landfills,
    materials recovery facilities and recycling
    centers
  • There is a trend toward fewer and bigger
    landfills
  • All are heavily regulated

18
NIMBY Implications cont.
  • Moving to rail based regional landfills
  • Examples Seneca Meadows for NYC
  • Utah for Los Angeles
  • http//www.lacsd.org/swaste/Facilities/MRF_TS/PHMR
    F/WastebyRailProgram.htm
  • Largest landfill is in LA County, Puente Hills
    landfill in the San Gabriel valley

19
Seneca Meadows Landfill, Waterloo NY
20
Puente Hills Landfill, LA County
21
Medical Waste
  • Any solid material generated in the diagnosis,
    treatment, or immunization of human beings or
    animals, in related research, biologicals
    production, or testing

22
Radioactive Materials and Waste
  • Nuclear energy and medical facilities are the
    largest users of radioactive materials
  • Practically every industry uses radioisotopes in
    some form
  • EPA and DOE are involved in regulation
  • Atomic Energy Act regulates the management and
    disposal of radioactive materials
  • Exposure increases the risk of cancer and genetic
    defects

23
Radioactive Waste
  • High level waste high radioactivity, long
    half-life, low volume
  • Low level waste low radioactivity, short
    half-life, high volume
  • Transuranic waste low radioactivity, long
    half-life, low volume

24
High Level Radioactive Waste
  • Plutonium and uranium from energy plants, defense
    industry, and defense department
  • Requires heavy shielding and long term isolation
  • DOE is in the process of constructing a long term
    depository at Yucca Mountain
  • DOD is in the process of constructing a long term
    depository (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico
  • The 70 nuclear power plants in the US had
    generated 20,000 metric tons of spent fuel by
    1990
  • Currently being stored at generation sites
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