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Using Data to Improve Student Learning in the Classroom

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Title: Using Data to Improve Student Learning in the Classroom Author: Denise Last modified by: Megan Monson Created Date: 1/31/2009 3:37:50 PM Document presentation ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Using Data to Improve Student Learning in the Classroom


1
Making the Connection How to Use Assessment to
Increase Learning
The Oregon DATA Project
2
As to methods, there may be a million and then
some, but principles are few. The man who grasps
principles can successfully select his own
methods. The man who tries methods, ignoring
principles, is sure to have trouble.
  • Ralph Waldo Emerson

3
Objectives
  • Establish the intended connection between testing
    and teaching.
  • Compare current assessment practices to those
    recommended for identifying student needs,
    learning goals, and subsequent instructional
    strategies.
  • Practice linking analysis of assessment results
    with instructional planning to increase learning.

4
Formative Assessment
  • Living Likert
  • Read the following statement.
  • Stand at your place along the line.
  • Strongly agree -------gt Strongly Disagree

5
Evidence exists that formative assessments
positively impact student achievement.
6
Does formative assessment lead to improved
student achievement?
  • Most frequently cited analysis is Black and
    Wiliam, 1998.
  • Looked at classroom formative assessment
    practices defined as point-in-time daily and
    weekly assessment of student learning in the
    classroom.
  • Consisted of informal and formal observation,
    questioning, quizzes, rubrics, unit exams, etc.
  • Curriculum based measurement (CBM) and progress
    monitoring were studied for groups needing
    intensive intervention or belonging to special
    populations.

7
Unpacking formative assessment
Where the learner is going
Where the learner is
How to get there
Providing feedback that moves learners forward
Engineering effective discussions, tasks, and
activities that elicit evidence of learning
Teacher
Clarifying, sharing and understanding learning
intentions
Peer
Activating students as learning resources for one
another
Activating students as ownersof their own
learning
Learner
8
And one big idea
Where the learner is going
Where the learner is
How to get there
Using evidence of achievement to adapt what
happens in classrooms to meet learner needs
Teacher
Peer
Learner
9
Evaluating the Evidence John Hattie (2009)
meta-analysis of over 800 studies...Teacher
Student relationships - .72 Professional
development (as a PLC)- .63 Effective Teacher
Instruction- .75 Vocabulary programs -
.67Assessment as Formative Feedback - .73
10
The CCSS require a paradigm shift toward
assessment as a multi-faceted process of
formative assessment development.How will you
know if each student is learning, becomes a
significant question for you and the
collaborative team.
Tim Kanold, 2012
11
Definitions
Assessment refers to all those activities that
provide information to be used as feedback to
modify teaching and learning activities. Such
assessment becomes formative assessment when the
evidence is actually used to adapt the teaching
to meet student needs.
Black and Wiliam
12
Balancing of and for
Assessment for learning to make instructional
decisions and monitor student progress i.e.,
formative. Assessment of learning to evaluate
studentsachievement and overall program
effectiveness i.e., summative.
13
Key Ideas
  • Formative assessment is much closer to
    instruction than to assessment.
  • Formative assessment is something you DO, not
    something you GIVE.
  • You have done formative assessment when you can
    answer the question Does each of my students
    know and can they do what I expect them to have
    learned today? with evidence.

14
At the heart of assessment
  • We use tests or assessments to collect overt
    (visible) evidence to make inferences about
    covert (unseen) status of student skills and
    knowledge.
  • Restated-we use a limited sample of test items so
    that we can generalize student performance on a
    content standard.
  • Different ways of interpreting and
    operationalizing content standards. These may
    require different types of instruction.

15
Assessment for the sake of assessment? Or,
  • Assessment with a purpose!

16
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17
Testing/Teaching Connection
  • What are the advantages of connecting testing and
    teaching?

18
Classroom use of assessments
  • Decisions about curriculum alignment
  • Decisions about students prior knowledge
  • Decisions about how long to teach something
  • Decisions about effectiveness of instruction

19
Use of assessment What assessments do you have in place? Frequency
Decisions about curriculum alignment
Decisions about students prior knowledge
Decisions about how long to teach something
Decisions about effectiveness of instruction
20
What happens when we are not clear on the
standard or common curricular goal?
21
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22
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23
What is the target?
24
Discuss
  • How is Test-triggered Clarity different from
  • Teaching to the Test?

25
Advantage of using tests to clarify curricular
goals
  • More accurate task analysis-what are my students
    expected to know and do?
  • When you begin with the end in mind you have a
    better chance of getting there!
  • Can identify enabling subskills or enabling
    knowledge
  • AKA unwrapping the standards!
  • Clearer instruction and explanations
  • More appropriate practice activities

26
Curriculum Alignment Decisions
  • To whose interpretation are you teaching?
  • Clarify expectations using
  • Sample Tests, Scoring Guides and Work Samples
  • Test Specifications and Blueprints
  • Smarter Balanced Assessment
  • Augment OAKS results with local assessment
    results to clarify alignment within and across
    grade levels

27
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28
http//www.azed.gov/standards-practices/mathematic
s-standards/
29
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30
Using Blueprints
  • Adapting the use of the Ishikawa

31
Ishikawa FishboneAnalysisLooking for related
causes and antecedents that may relate to a
specific effect or outcome
32
Ishikawa Fishbone Cause Effect Diagram
Modified for Task Analysis

Content/skills
Content/skills
Student Engagement Tasks
Student Engagement Tasks
Standard

Student Engagement Tasks
Student Engagement Tasks
Content/skills
Content/skills
33
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34
So many targets, what is a teacher to do?
35
What about generalizability?
  • Scenario 1, page 24
  • Clarify nature of curriculum content standard by
    analyzing measures used to assess standard
  • Look at various ways it is assessed
  • Teach toward the skills or knowledge a test
    represents, not toward test itself.
  • Extend, apply, etc. for generalizability (for
    more on this tab pages 23-25)

36
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37
  • Prioritize and align!
  • Objectives for instruction
  • content and skills you plan to teach
  • Actual instruction that preceded assessment
  • content and skills you actually taught
  • Decisions or conclusions you plan to make using
    interpretation of resulting scores

38
Advantages of assessing prior learning
  • Economizes instructional planning
  • Many standards, not enough time,
  • teach what is needed, not what is already known
    by students
  • Gives teacher the lay of the landscape
  • Diversity of learners
  • Diversity of prior knowledge/readiness to learn
  • Provides connections from which to build new
    knowledge and skills when you include key
    enabling skills and subskills or bodies of
    knowledge

39
Assessing prior knowledge Its more than just a
pretest
  • Brainstorm with your team a quick list of
    pre-assessment strategies.
  • Be prepared to share at least 2!

40
Simple, but powerful model
41
Do you use assessment practices to determine how
long to focus on a particular set of objectives?
  • Economizes instructional planning
  • Move on when students are ready, not when the
    unit planner indicates
  • Many standards, not enough time, steal back
    time where possible
  • Time saved in an easily mastered unit can be used
    for units with unexpected difficulty

42
The Dipstick Assessment How long do I need to
teach this set of skills/concepts?
  • Item-sampling method for quick assessment
  • Different students complete different subsamples
    of items from your unit test (a couple of items
    each)
  • Takes less than five minutes to administer to
    students
  • Gives quick fix on status of entire classnot
    intended for inferences about individual students

43
Using tests to determining instructional
effectiveness
  • Use classroom assessment to evaluate your own
    instructional effectiveness
  • Use cohort and growth from OAKS to triangulate on
    instructional effectiveness
  • Strong inferences come from simple model
  • Pretest
  • Posttest
  • Compare results

44
Simple, but powerful model
45
These concepts can be integrated into your action
research and data teams processes
  • Data Teams Process
  • Examine student work collaboratively observe,
    hypothesize, predict
  • Develop interventions hypothesize, predict
  • Adjust teaching strategies test hypothesis
  • Monitor results gather data, explain, observe

46
Testing/Teaching Connection
  • How will you alter instruction as a result of
    what youve learned through assessment?

47
At the heart of a lesson plan
  • Standard(s) stated in student language
  • Instructional objectives
  • Time allotment
  • Materials and resources needed
  • Outline of content
  • Outline of procedures (teacher behaviors and
    expected student actions)
  • Plan for assessing objectives

48
Assessment
Instruction
49
What do you expect students to know and be able
to do? How do you expect them to demonstrate it?
  • Use the standards language to determine content
    and skills
  • nouns identify content
  • verbs identify skills level of cognitive demand

50
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51
Use a data team process to analyze classroom
level data for patterns and outliers.
Notes on patterns of performance Notes on outliers
Exceeds
Meets
Nearly Meets
Far To Go
52
How does pattern analysis apply to
instructional/assessment planning?
Notes on patterns of performance Notes on outliers
Exceeds Look at curriculum alignment issues that may be associated with weaknesses Extend learning deep into higher levels of Blooms
Meets To move these students, work on generalizabilityincrease student engagement and use deeper levels of Blooms
Nearly Meets Increase student engagement in grade appropriate content and skill-based activities
Far To Go Use explicit instruction in terms of how one concept or skill builds to the next, cant assume anything in terms of how these students connect! Model connections and keep them engaged!
53
Connecting Assessment to Instruction
  • Identify a student from each group whose
    responses or performance are representative of
    the groups performance
  • Describe each representative performance
  • Describe each students learning needs based on
    this detail of performance
  • Determine how you will differentiate instruction
  • Deal with the students whose performance in a
    category is fuzzy, needs more data to determine

54
Describe representative performance
Far Below Nearly Meets Meets Exceeds
Bill Drew vertical and horizontal axis No labels or scale No title Counts for 4 of 5 categories were incorrect No sign of a counting or frequency strategy for determining the bar heights Destiny Chart included labeled horizontal and vertical axis Chart include a general title Counts for 2 of 5 categories were incorrect Addition used to tally or count, but errors in addition that determined bar heights Jeremy Chart was labeled appropriately for vertical and horizontal axis General title included One category had errors in count Evidence of how student arrived at bar heights correct for 4 of 5 categories Ashley Chart was labeled appropriately for vertical and horizontal axis Specific title No errors in counts for categories Evidence of strategy to determine bar height, no errors in calculations
55
Describe learning needs based on representative
performance and curricular learning goals
Far Below Nearly Meets Meets Exceeds
Bill Intensive instruction using modeling to teach tallying strategies Guided practice in tallying using simple scenarios Follow up with practice in grade level expectations of tallying/counting/calculating as appropriate Step by step linear instructions for creating a complete graph or chart Modeling of the step by step Destiny Specific instruction to correct errors in tally and count strategies Brief guided practice with tally and count strategies Independent practice tallying and counting Step by step (linear) instructions for creating a complete graph or chart to use for a reference Jeremy Student review of calculations to find error and correct. Model creating charts from different scenarios that require student to apply the skill and knowledge in different ways or to create different types of charts Provide guided practice with different scenarios that require student to apply the skill and knowledge in different ways or to create different types of charts Ashley Model analyzing multiple representations of the data Identify elements that are common (what are the requirements to appropriately represent the data) Provide scenarios that allow extensions for students to develop one or two more visual representations. Challenge them to include essentials and to think creatively about how they can enhance the interpretability of the charts they create.
56
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57
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58
Determine differentiated learning strategies
Far Below Nearly Meets Meets Exceeds


59
Planning Instructional StrategiesLinking
Strategies to Assessment
  • Given what you expect students to know and be
    able to do, what strategies will you use for
    instruction?
  • How will you know that both adults and students
    are implementing strategies?
  • What evidence from teachers (lesson plan and
    assessment)?
  • What evidence from students (engagement and
    assessment)?
  • This is where released items can help you target
    expected actions.

60
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61
Identify instructional activities and student
engagement strategies
Instructional Activities What will the teacher do to facilitate learning? Student Engagement Strategies What will the student do as an active participant in his/her learning?

How will you monitor teacher activity? How will you know students are engaged?
62
ELA Action Words Math Action Words
Knowledge Define, describe, identify, label, list, name, read, reproduce, state, view Define, identify, name, select, state, order, what is?
Comprehension Describe, explain, cite, discuss, express, report, restate, review, translate, interpret, summarize Convert, estimate, explain, express, factor, generalize, give example, identify representation of concept
Application Demonstrate, dramatize, illustrate, sketch, write Apply, choose, compute, employ, interpret, graph, modify, operate, plot, practice, solve, use
Analysis Analyze, assemble, categorize, compare, contrast, criticize, diagram, distinguish, focus, outline, question Compare, contrast, correlate, differentiate, discriminate, examine, infer, maximize, minimize, prioritize, subdivide, test
Synthesis Anticipate, collaborate, communicate, compose, contrast, create, devise, express, facilitate, write Arrange, collect, construct, design, develop, formulate, organize, set up, prepare, plan, propose
Evaluation Argue, choose, compare, decide, defend assertion, decide, judge, support Appraise, assess, defend estimate, evaluate, judge, predict, rate, validate, verify
63
How do you gauge and compare implementation (what
you do) and outcomes (what students do as a
result of your actions)?
64
Objectives
  • Establish the intended connection between testing
    and teaching.
  • Compare current assessment practices to those
    recommended for identifying student needs,
    learning goals, and subsequent instructional
    strategies.
  • Practice linking analysis of assessment results
    with instructional planning to increase learning.

65
Personal Commitment
  • Now that I KNOW where my students are progress
    wise, how I will CHANGE my instructional practice
    to more effectively improve my students
    learning?
  • How will I monitor results and make adjustments?
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