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Managing the chaos

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Title: Managing the chaos


1
Managing the chaos
  • The science of Entropy and its impact on our
    lives
  • Chris Collison
  • Assistant Professor of Chemistry
  • cjcscha_at_rit.edu

2
Dreamland?
  • 1967 testimony before Senate subcommittee
    indicated that by 1985
  • Work week of 22 hours, or
  • 27 working weeks per year, or
  • Retire for good at 38
  • Computers, satellites, robotics Productivity
    boosting machines
  • Why did this not happen?

3
1956 GE Dishwasher www.adclassix.com
1966 Pontiac Bonneville www.adclassix.com
1949 Thor Washing Machine www.adclassix.com
4
Inspired by
5
Outline
  • Quantifying Chaos
  • Entropys history
  • Entropy in Thermodynamics
  • Entropy in Chemistry
  • How do we define entropy?
  • Entropy in our daily lives.

6
Entropy in our daily lives
  • In the home
  • Automotives
  • Technology
  • Education

7
Driving Forces of Nature
  • Energy
  • Entropy
  • Process will occur when Energy is decreased, or
    when Entropy is increased.

8
1st Lets consider Energy
  • Laws of Thermodynamics - laws we must live by
  • Energy Cannot be Created or Destroyed
  • Impossibility of perpetual motion machines
  • Why is energy important to us?
  • Where does all our energy come from?

9
The pump?
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10
The Sun?
  • But how can we store this solar energy?

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11
Energy storage
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d/well.html
12
Energy Consumption and Production
  • Stored energy in fossil fuels provides us with
    our energy needs.

Data from www.doe.gov
And energy demand?
13
Growing economies require more energy
  • Energy demand is increasing

Data from www.doe.gov
14
Cost of Energy (Electricity)
Data from www.doe.gov
What is our expenditure limited to? What is our
efficiency limited to? Where does chaos come in?
15
Two Kinds of Energy
  • Ordered Energy Work done
  • Disordered Energy Heat
  • Increased vibrations, translations of microscopic
    particles
  • How are they linked?

16
Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot(June 1, 1796 -
August 24, 1832)
  • Scientific study of the steam engine
  • Efficiency in early stages of engine development
    was mere 3.
  • Carnot showed that efficiency of an engine design
    is always limited to about 40.

http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicolas_LC3A9onard_
Sadi_Carnot
17
Carnot Cycle
  • Hot gas expands, doing work
  • Gas compressed to original state
  • Net energy 0
  • Work done enclosed in curve
  • Heat in Work done Heat out

18
Entropy in Thermodynamics
  • Entropys effect is that
  • Heat ? work requires taking heat from a hot
    source and depositing waste heat to a cold
    reservoir
  • Efficiency is given by
  • Efficiency is not 100
  • So how do we increase efficiency?

What impact has this on electricity generation?
19
Coal Power Stations
  • Combustion efficiency is 99.5
  • But heat ? electricity (consumer) is 30-37 with
    a pulverized coal burner
  • Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle power
    plants give higher efficiencies
  • Supercritical boilers give efficiencies in the
    40s. (Again, global efficiency of getting
    electricity to consumer from the coal).
  • Electric conversion (Transformers, transport) is
    some 90

Data from www.doe.gov
20
So why are we fundamentally Limited?
  • Entropy and 2nd Law of thermodynamics restrict us
  • Lord Kelvin stated mechanical work that could
    have been harnessed is irrecoverably lost to man

William Thomson 1st Baron Kelvin 1824-1907
21
Kelvin and Clausius
  • It is impossible to build an engine that
    operates on a cycle whose net effect is the
    cooling of a heat-reservoir and the raising of a
    weight
  • We cant take heat out of the ocean to power an
    ocean liner

Rudolph Clausius 1822-1888
Heat engines Hot ? Cold, with waste heat
22
Ordered energy?
  • Work considered as ordered
  • Heat energy is considered disordered
  • Only so much ordered energy we can take from
    disordered energy
  • A hot bath is only pleasant while the water is
    hot
  • A luke warm bath has as much attraction as an ice
    cold bath this warmth is irrecoverable

23
Inefficiency
  • Power stations are inefficient because
  • Disordered energy must be converted to ordered
    energy
  • We are pushing against natures tendency towards
    disorder

24
Can we use Entropy to our advantage in
Thermodynamics?
  • Fridges to heat our homes
  • Heat is useful in winter
  • Work (electricity) is used to move heat from
    inside the fridge to outside the fridge
  • Ordered energy is ultimately converted to
    disordered energy

25
Taking this idea further
  • How about building a fridge to cool down the
    ground?
  • Heating Cycle, Geothermal Technology - WFI Global
  • Cooling Cycle, Geothermal Technology - WFI Global

But againWhat really is Entropy?
26
Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann February 20, 1844
September 5, 1906
  • Boltzmann was the hero of statistical mechanics
    and microstates

27
Statistically
  • Entropy might be defined as the number of
    microstates (configurations) that are available
    to the system
  • Where S Entropy
  • kB is Boltzmanns constant (1.3810-23 J K-1)
  • W is the number of microstates corresponding to
    the observed macrostate

Lets look at an example
28
An unbound thesis of 3 pages is blown by a freak
gust of wind
  • It lands in a corner of the courtyard all pages
    face up!
  • Still in order?
  • 3 pages ? 3! 6 possible combinations
  • 123 132
  • 231 213
  • 312 321
  • 1 ordered microstate, 5 disordered microstates
  • Likely to be disordered for probability reasons
  • Yet change in entropy is low, albeit positive

29
Lets now consider 200 pages
  • 1 ordered microstate, 7.9 x 10374 disordered
    microstates
  • For ordered thesis,
  • S0
  • For disordered thesis
  • S1.2 x 10-20 JK-1mol-1
  • But Entropy difference is so small?

Whats the fuss all about?
30
200 pages versus 6.02 x 1023 atoms
  • 1 x 1025 water molecules in a can of soda
  • Hence Entropy is very important to chemists.
  • Chemists take ownership perhaps

31
Summing up!
  • Entropy is degree of disorder
  • Entropy is a driving force for spontaneous events
  • Higher Entropy is inevitable
  • Universe started in a very low entropy state
  • Extremely low probability
  • Entropy can be calculated using probability and
    statistics.

So how does Entropy impact our daily lives?
32
A picture of order
  • Ease of chaos versus the hard work of order

33
Chaos continues
34
Rebuilding
35
War in Iraq
  • Ease of destruction, regime change
  • Difficulty of rebuilding
  • Should we have known better?
  • Doesnt Entropy aid in our predictions?

Where else do we see entropy?
Choice!
36
Choice the American necessity
  • Choice of
  • Healthcare
  • pasta sauce
  • Cereal
  • energy provider
  • retirement plan
  • Of course this is good for competition but
    complexity leads to an increase in entropy!

Pasta Sauce
37
Pasta Sauce
  • Choices, Choices, choices

So what are the costs and benefits and where does
entropy fit in?
38
The system and the surroundings
  • Carnot Cycle tells us we must observe
  • The heat engine (the system)
  • The Surroundings
  • When we consider entropy of pasta sauce we must
    consider
  • The Benefits (the system)
  • Pricing pressure through competition
  • Getting the right sauce for our taste buds
  • The Costs (The surroundings)

39
Global Costs of Choice Pasta sauce
  • For each brand
  • Marketing
  • Distribution
  • Quality control
  • Supply of raw ingredients
  • For me
  • Making an educated decision (working through the
    brands)
  • Risk of making the wrong choice

Remember Entropy always increases
40
Back to our dreamland
  • 1967 testimony before Senate subcommittee
    indicated that by 1985
  • Work week of 22 hours, or
  • 27 working weeks per year, or
  • Retire for good at 38
  • Computers, satellites, robotics Productivity
    boosting machines
  • Why did this not happen?

41
The total equation
  • Remember - Laws of thermodynamics compels us to
    look at the total equation not just the
    system
  • Lets look at some examples
  • Computers
  • Automobiles
  • Surely technological advances reduce chaos and
    promote efficiency

Lets have a look
42
Computer vs. Abacus
  • Speed but cost is production facility
  • RD expensive Moores law How much is the
    industry worth?
  • Worldwide Photolithography Capital spending in
    2001 was 39.1Billion
  • (Deutsche Bank Theres Moore to Come Global
    Equity Research document, 2001)

43
What matters most
  • Total entropy increase in a thermodynamic system
  • Silicon chip manufacture requires
  • gases, chemicals, and solvents
  • These become part of our environment
  • Increases the entropy of our planet
  • One 15cm silicon wafer (a few dozen chips)
    requires
  • 9kg of liquid chemicals,
  • 6m3 gases
  • 8,610 liters of water

(Aaron Sachs, Virtual Ecology, World Watch,
January/February 1999, p.16)
44
IT Support
  • Bugs
  • Adware
  • Viruses
  • Crashes

Verizon ads Its the network
45
Cars vs. Horse and Buggy
  • Roads, highways, bridges, parking lots required
  • Maintenance (potholes, rust, snowplowing)
  • Bodily harm, property damage
  • Insurance policies
  • Automobile emissions
  • Lung, eye, generalhealth problems
  • Environmental Protection Agency, regulations,
    bureaucracies
  • Fuel infrastructure

Who pays for this apparent time saving
device? What does this time saving device cost us?
46
Cars
  • Car repair
  • Trained mechanic
  • Shop computer for engine checking
  • Computer needs maintenance and software
  • State inspections/DMV/bureaucracy
  • More gadgets more complex car repair
  • Commercials of course do not mention
    thermodynamics they show you the car of your
    dreams!

47
Some other issues
  • Time sapping VCR/DVRs
  • George Foreman Grill
  • too tough to clean
  • Spam

48
Spam
  • Emails, resumes, advertisements
  • easy to write
  • send en-masse
  • Monster.com
  • send resumes to all jobs advertised
  • Electronic searching of resumes now required!
  • No interview because of incorrect buzz-words

49
Mycourses- professors that send more emails out
  • In the past we had to contact you in class you
    had to listen in class!
  • Now professors can send out mass announcements
    that dont get read because youre spending all
    your time deleting other spam
  • This is called entropy of the written word!

While were on the subject
50
Proliferation of information
  • Blogs, podcast, print media, tv, radio, web media
  • Importance of Google, Yahoo, etc search
    engines!
  • Where can we make money as entrepreneurs in the
    war against entropy??
  • Waste Management
  • Data mining
  • Surveys/statistics

51
What type of disorder exists in your world?
Entropy in Education
52
Entropy of education
  • Specialization
  • Separation of disciplines
  • Finding your niche
  • General science still has a huge part to play.

So whats the solution? Can we win the war on
entropy? Lets stay with education to think about
what we can do
53
Practical philosophy
  • High entropy lifestyle
  • high production, consumption, obsolescence
  • Well ultimately pay a high price
  • Laws of thermodynamics can be used by educators
    as a focal point for unification of knowledge
  • Solution teach values that are in conformity
    with the laws of nature

54
Lets talk together about entropy
  • Not pollution
  • Not socioeconomic disorders
  • Not environmental concerns
  • Not global warming
  • We can talk collectively (reporters, politicians,
    parents, educators) about how all of these
    problems are linked by entropy

55
Now, go clean your room
56
Thank you for your attention.
  • Questions?
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