FOOD, DRINK AND MILK INDUSTRIES - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Title: FOOD, DRINK AND MILK INDUSTRIES


1
FOOD, DRINK AND MILK INDUSTRIES
  • CAMINO FERNÁNDEZ RODRÍGUEZ
  • MAITANE GAÑÁN HENALES
  • CRISTINA JIMÉNEZ DE LA PARRA

2
MILK
  • Animals Cows, goats and sheep
  • Compositon
  • 87 water
  • Protein
  • Fat
  • Lactose
  • Calcium
  • Phosphorus
  • Iron
  • Vitamins
  • Products
  • Milk
  • Dairy products such as cream, cheese, yoghurt and
    butter

3
TREATMENT
  • Milk is received at the dairy and transferred to
    bulk storage.
  • Milk is centrifugally separated to produce
    skimmed or semi-skimmed milk and a cream stream.
  • Homogenisation ? It disperses fat globules and
    prevents separation of the cream component.

4
TREATMENT
  • 4. The milk is heat treated
  • Pasteurisation
  • 72 C and 15 seconds ? high temperature short
    time pasteurisation (HTST)
  • Rapidly cooled to lt7 C
  • Sterilisation or UHT ?to increase the shelf-life
    of the product.
  • Heating it indirectly
  • Using heat-exchangers with various types of
    plates and pipes
  • In two stages first heating the milk indirectly
    to approximately 80 ºC and then heating it
    directly by mixing steam and milk.
  • Direct heating Milk is cooled by expanding it
    under a vacuum to extract the steam mixed with
    the product in the sterilisation phase (flash
    cooling).

5
TREATMENT
  • Long-life sterilised milk consists of two phases
  • The first phase is a continuous heat treatment or
    pre-sterilisation.
  • The second phase consists of the final treatment
    of the closed container after filling and sealing
    the pre-sterilised product. It takes place in an
    autoclave in batches or in a continuous retort at
    approximately 110 to 125 ºC for 20 to 40 minutes.

6
POWDERED MILK
  • Concentration of the raw milk with
  • Evaporators. Falling film evaporators are
    generally used followed by a drying step using a
    spray drier.
  • RO. Mechanically remove some of the water from
    the milk, without the application of heat.
    Electrical power is used to pump liquid through a
    semi-permeable membrane to increase the
    concentration of solids.

7
DAIRY PRODUCTS
  • BUTTER
  • The process is basically a mechanical one in
    which cream, an emulsion of oil in water, is
    transformed to butter, an emulsion of water in
    oil.
  • Cream is rapidly chilled and held at that
    temperature for a set period in a process known
    as ageing.
  • Churning agitates the cream to partially break
    down the oil in the water emulsion until fat
    globules bind together to produce butter grains.

8
PRODUCTS
  • CHEESE
  • The process steps apply are
  • Production of a coagulum through the action of
    rennet and/or lactic acid
  • Separation of the resulting curds from the whey
  • Manipulation of the curds to produce the desired
    characteristics of the cheese.

9
PRODUCTS
  • YOGHURT
  • Fermented milk product.
  • The main steps are
  • The fat and non-fat solids content of the milk
    is first increased by the addition of milk
    powders.
  • The milk is homogenised at a temperature of 55
    ºC and heat treated at 80 to 90 ºC for 30 minutes
    in a batch process.

10
PRODUCTS
  • YOGHURT
  • The heat treated milk is cooled to around 40 to
    43 ºC and seeded with two starter organisms
    Streptococcus salivarius subspecies thermophilus
    and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspecies
    bulgaricus. Fermentation takes around 4 hours.
  • At the end of the process, the product is cooled
    to 15 20 ºC, using either tank cooling
    coils or tubular or plate heat-exchangers.
  • Fruit and flavours are blended into the yoghurt
    which is cooled to less than 5 ºC

11
PRODUCTS
  • ICE-CREAM
  • The ingredients (fat, non-fat milk solids,
    sugars, stabilisers, emulsifiers) are blended,
    heated to around 70 to 75 ºC and homogenised.
  • The mixture is pasteurised by heating to 80 85
    ºC for 2 to 15 seconds before cooling and ageing
    by holding at chilled temperatures for 4 to 24
    hours.
  • Colours and flavours are added at the ageing
    stage.
  • Continuous freezers are used to rapidly freeze
    the ice-cream down to around -6 ºC, with
    compressed air being introduced into the
    ice-cream during the freezing process.

12
PRODUCTS
  • WHEY
  • It is normally evaporated to a supersaturated
    solution with a total solids content of 60 to 73
    to produce lactose.

13
EMISSIONS
  • Water consumption is mainly associated with
    cleaning operations. The main factors affecting
    water consumption in European dairies are
  • Availability of surface and groundwater for
    cooling
  • Time and amount of water used for rinsing
  • A reasonably efficient consumption of water is
    reported to be around 1 5 l/kg milk.

14
WASTE WATER
  • Waste water is the main environmental issue in
    the dairy sector.
  • Waste water volume in a well managed installation
    is reported to be about 1 2 l/kg of
    milk processed.

15
WASTE WATER
  • Pollutants
  • Average BOD load ranging from 0.8 to 2.5
    kg BOD/t milk.
  • Phosphorus, nitrogen and chloride.
  • Pathogens from contaminated materials or
    production processes.

16
AIR EMISSIONS
  • Main emissions
  • Carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen
    oxides.
  • Halogenated compounds in their cooling systems,
    mostly HCFCs.
  • Ammonia used in cooling systems may leak or
    accidental releases may occur which also result
    in odour complaints.

17
ENERGY
  • Thermal energy from the combustion of fossil
    fuels to generate steam and hot water that is
    used for heating operations and cleaning (80 )
  • Electricity to drive machinery, refrigeration,
    ventilation, and lighting (20)
  • The most energy consuming operations are the
    evaporation and drying of milk.
  • In pasteurisation energy is needed for the
    heating and cooling steps.

18
CONSUMPTION OF CHEMICALS
  • Most of the chemicals are used for the cleaning
    and disinfection of process machinery and
    pipelines.
  • Fresh product dairies mainly use caustic and
    nitric acid and some disinfectants, such as
    hydrogen peroxide, peracetic acid and sodium
    hypochlorite.

19
NOISE
  • Noise is caused by the movement of milk tankers
    and distribution lorries evaporators, spray
    driers, and cooling condensers

20
? Waste water characteristics
? Large daily variation in flowrate ? Variable
pH ? Waste water may be nitrogen deficient,
unless the raw water has a high nitrate content
or nitric acid is used. ? Waste water may be
high in phosphorus if phosphoric acid is used for
clean-up. ? The treatment of dairy waste water
results in lower surplus sludge than domestic
waste water treatment, owing to -The lower
content of suspended solids -The higher waste
water temperatures
21
? Waste water treatment
?1. Solids from washing water from vehicle
washing units are generally removed at source.
- Using sand or grit traps. - The rainwater from
the sealed surfaces is generally passed into the
on-site waste water treatment system
This may be carried out by
? 2. Segregation of waste water is generally
applied, by high solids content, very high BOD
and high salinity.
22
Segregation
3. Primary treatment
? Screening ? Flow and load equalisation
? Neutralisation. ? Sedimentation ? DAF
? Centrifugation ? Precipitation
23
4. Secondary treatment
? BOD concentration greater than 1000 1500 mg/l,
Anaerobic treatment processes
? Lower strength waste water streams
Aerobic treatment
24
? Techniques applicable in some individual
sectors
MILK
? Segregation of outputs, to optimise use,
re-use, recovery, recycling and disposal (and
minimise water use and waste water contamination)
DESCRIPTION
Outputs, whether or not they are intended for use
in the product, can be segregated for optimised
and easier use, re-use, recovery, recycling and
disposal. This also reduces both the consumption
and the contamination of water. It can be done
either manually or mechanically.
Examples of where the technique is applied
Collect whey which is not intended for making
mitzithra cheese, baby food or other products
Collect milky waste water generated at the
start-up of pasteurisers Separate and collect
buttermilk, first rinses and residual fat in
butter churning oprations, to use it in other
processes. Collect rinsings from yoghurt vats
Collect the drainings of yoghurt and fruit
throughout the dairy
25
? Dry cleaning
Examples of where the technique is applied
Adopt dry cleaning methods to collect the solid
residues from cheese production. Treat spills
of curd, yoghurt or ice-cream mix as waste rather
than just washing them to the drain. Use dry
processes to collect excess salt rather than just
washing it to the drain. Fit drains with
screens and/or traps to prevent any solid
material from entering the waste water
26
? Continuous pasteurisers
DESCRIPTION ? Flow-through heat-exchangers, e.g.
tubular, plate and frame, are used. These have
heating, holding and cooling sections.
ADVANTAGES They are used to reduce energy
consumption and waste water generation instead of
batch pasteurisers.
  • Operational data

Batch wise pasteurisation uses a temperature of
62 to 65 ºC for up to 30 minutes. Continuous
pasteurisers include high temperature short time
pasteurisation (HTST) and high heat short
time pasteurisation (HHST). HTST uses a
temperature of 72 to 75 ºC for 15 to 240 seconds.
HHST applies a temperature of 85 to 90 ºC for 1
to 25 seconds.
27
? Two-stage drying in milk powder production
? After the milk has been thickened from 11 to
50 60 dry matter in an evaporator, the
condensed milk may further be dried to 95 97
dry matter content. Spray driers or roller driers
are used in milk powder processing.
? Two-stage drying process is carried out by
using a spray drier with a rotary atomiser. The
outlet air is filtered by a CIP filter, which
consists of a tubular filter without cyclone
28
BUTTER
?Minimisation of losses during buttermaking
? Due to the high viscosity of cream, the cream
heater may be rinsed with skimmed milk, which is
then retained and used, before the cleaning.
This
reduces fat losses. ? Buttermilk which results
as a by-product can be used as a product and not
disposed of. These savings may be used, e.g. as a
base for low fat spreads.
29
CHEESE
?Use ultrafiltration (UF) for protein
standardisation of cheese milk
  • As using UF leads to an increase in the cheese
    yield per processed milk unit, the generated
    quantity of whey is smaller compared to
    traditional standardisation.
  • BENEFITS
  • Reduced energy and water consumption, whey and
    waste water in comparison with traditional
    standardisation

30
BAT
31
GENERAL BAT FOR THE WHOLE FDM SECTOR
  • GENERAL BAT APPLICABLE TO ALL FOOD, DRINK AND
    MILK INDUSTRIAL OPERATIONS
  • Employees aware of the environmental
    aspects/responsibilities
  • Design/select equipment, which optimises
    consumption and emission levels
  • Control noise emissions (designing, selecting,
    operating and maintaining equipment enclosing
    noisy equipment)
  • Apply and maintain a methodology for preventing
    and minimising
  • Consumption of water and energy
  • Production of waste
  • Promote use, re-use, recovery, recycling and
    disposal

32
BAT FOR DAIRIES
  • PARTIALLY HOMOGENISE MILK
  • Energy savings (? homogeniser)
  • REPLACE BATCH PASTEURISERS WITH CONTINUOUS ONES
  • HHST HTST ? ? Energy consumption
  • REDUCE THE REQUIRED FREQUENCY OF CLEANING OF
    CENTRIFUGAL SEPARATORS
  • Improving the preliminary milk filtration and
    clarification processes ? ? Water consumption

33
BAT FOR DAIRIES
  • USE REGENERATIVE HEAT EXCHANGE IN PASTEURISATION
  • Energy savings (90)
  • USE JUST-IN-TIME COMPONENT FILLING
  • Two lines
  • ? losses minimise water production

Skimmed milk Standarised fat content
34
BAT FOR DAIRIES
  • MAXIMISE THE RECOVERY OF DILUTED PRODUCT
  • Pipelines filled with water before start-up
  • Water is then pushed out by the product through a
    drain valve
  • Conductivity transmitters and using optical
    sensors
  • USE SEVERAL SMALL CIP SYSTEMS
  • Instead of a centralised CIP system
  • Alkaline solution (fat,proteins) Acid (mineral)
  • No acid ? ? water and energy consumption

35
BAT FOR DAIRIES
  • RE-USE WATER
  • Condensates (evaporation/drying)
  • Permeates (membrane separation)
  • Cooling water
  • Cleaning water

36
BAT FOR THE PRODUCTION OF MARKET MILK
  • Achieve

37
BAT FOR MILK POWDER PRODUCTION
  • To produce powdered milk use
  • Multi-effect evaporators
  • Optimising vapour recompression
  • Apply an early warning fire alarm
  • Achieve

38
BAT FOR BUTTERMAKING
  • REMOVE RESIDUAL BUTTER FROM PIPEWORK USING
    COMPRESSED AIR
  • It can be used to gain access to parts of
    equipment where other equipments cannot
    physically pass and any risk of contamination
    from introducing cleaning tools or equipment can
    be avoided.
  • RINSE THE CREAM HEATER WITH SKIMMED MILK BEFORE
    CLEANING IT

39
BAT FOR CHEESEMAKING
  • USE THE HEAT FROM WARM WHEY FOR PREHEATING CHEESE
    MILK
  • Savings in energy for heating the incoming milk
    and cooling energy for the processed whey are
    achieved.
  • MAXIMISE WHEY RECOVERY AND USE
  • 90 milk ? Whey
  • Sweet/Salty whey ? by-products/ animal feed/
    babies feed
  • REDUCE FAT AND CHEESE FINES IN WHEY AND SCREEN
    LIQUID STREAMS TO COLLECT FINES.
  • MINIMISE THE OCCURRENCE OF ACID WHEY
  • Whey processed quickly ? ? acid whey (lactic acid
    formation)

40
BAT FOR ICE-CREAM MANUFACTURING
  • Achieve

41
THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION!
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FOOD, DRINK AND MILK INDUSTRIES

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Title: FOOD, DRINK AND MILK INDUSTRIES


1
FOOD, DRINK AND MILK INDUSTRIES
  • CAMINO FERNÁNDEZ RODRÍGUEZ
  • MAITANE GAÑÁN HENALES
  • CRISTINA JIMÉNEZ DE LA PARRA

2
MILK
  • Animals Cows, goats and sheep
  • Compositon
  • 87 water
  • Protein
  • Fat
  • Lactose
  • Calcium
  • Phosphorus
  • Iron
  • Vitamins
  • Products
  • Milk
  • Dairy products such as cream, cheese, yoghurt and
    butter

3
TREATMENT
  • Milk is received at the dairy and transferred to
    bulk storage.
  • Milk is centrifugally separated to produce
    skimmed or semi-skimmed milk and a cream stream.
  • Homogenisation ? It disperses fat globules and
    prevents separation of the cream component.

4
TREATMENT
  • 4. The milk is heat treated
  • Pasteurisation
  • 72 C and 15 seconds ? high temperature short
    time pasteurisation (HTST)
  • Rapidly cooled to lt7 C
  • Sterilisation or UHT ?to increase the shelf-life
    of the product.
  • Heating it indirectly
  • Using heat-exchangers with various types of
    plates and pipes
  • In two stages first heating the milk indirectly
    to approximately 80 ºC and then heating it
    directly by mixing steam and milk.
  • Direct heating Milk is cooled by expanding it
    under a vacuum to extract the steam mixed with
    the product in the sterilisation phase (flash
    cooling).

5
TREATMENT
  • Long-life sterilised milk consists of two phases
  • The first phase is a continuous heat treatment or
    pre-sterilisation.
  • The second phase consists of the final treatment
    of the closed container after filling and sealing
    the pre-sterilised product. It takes place in an
    autoclave in batches or in a continuous retort at
    approximately 110 to 125 ºC for 20 to 40 minutes.

6
POWDERED MILK
  • Concentration of the raw milk with
  • Evaporators. Falling film evaporators are
    generally used followed by a drying step using a
    spray drier.
  • RO. Mechanically remove some of the water from
    the milk, without the application of heat.
    Electrical power is used to pump liquid through a
    semi-permeable membrane to increase the
    concentration of solids.

7
DAIRY PRODUCTS
  • BUTTER
  • The process is basically a mechanical one in
    which cream, an emulsion of oil in water, is
    transformed to butter, an emulsion of water in
    oil.
  • Cream is rapidly chilled and held at that
    temperature for a set period in a process known
    as ageing.
  • Churning agitates the cream to partially break
    down the oil in the water emulsion until fat
    globules bind together to produce butter grains.

8
PRODUCTS
  • CHEESE
  • The process steps apply are
  • Production of a coagulum through the action of
    rennet and/or lactic acid
  • Separation of the resulting curds from the whey
  • Manipulation of the curds to produce the desired
    characteristics of the cheese.

9
PRODUCTS
  • YOGHURT
  • Fermented milk product.
  • The main steps are
  • The fat and non-fat solids content of the milk
    is first increased by the addition of milk
    powders.
  • The milk is homogenised at a temperature of 55
    ºC and heat treated at 80 to 90 ºC for 30 minutes
    in a batch process.

10
PRODUCTS
  • YOGHURT
  • The heat treated milk is cooled to around 40 to
    43 ºC and seeded with two starter organisms
    Streptococcus salivarius subspecies thermophilus
    and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspecies
    bulgaricus. Fermentation takes around 4 hours.
  • At the end of the process, the product is cooled
    to 15 20 ºC, using either tank cooling
    coils or tubular or plate heat-exchangers.
  • Fruit and flavours are blended into the yoghurt
    which is cooled to less than 5 ºC

11
PRODUCTS
  • ICE-CREAM
  • The ingredients (fat, non-fat milk solids,
    sugars, stabilisers, emulsifiers) are blended,
    heated to around 70 to 75 ºC and homogenised.
  • The mixture is pasteurised by heating to 80 85
    ºC for 2 to 15 seconds before cooling and ageing
    by holding at chilled temperatures for 4 to 24
    hours.
  • Colours and flavours are added at the ageing
    stage.
  • Continuous freezers are used to rapidly freeze
    the ice-cream down to around -6 ºC, with
    compressed air being introduced into the
    ice-cream during the freezing process.

12
PRODUCTS
  • WHEY
  • It is normally evaporated to a supersaturated
    solution with a total solids content of 60 to 73
    to produce lactose.

13
EMISSIONS
  • Water consumption is mainly associated with
    cleaning operations. The main factors affecting
    water consumption in European dairies are
  • Availability of surface and groundwater for
    cooling
  • Time and amount of water used for rinsing
  • A reasonably efficient consumption of water is
    reported to be around 1 5 l/kg milk.

14
WASTE WATER
  • Waste water is the main environmental issue in
    the dairy sector.
  • Waste water volume in a well managed installation
    is reported to be about 1 2 l/kg of
    milk processed.

15
WASTE WATER
  • Pollutants
  • Average BOD load ranging from 0.8 to 2.5
    kg BOD/t milk.
  • Phosphorus, nitrogen and chloride.
  • Pathogens from contaminated materials or
    production processes.

16
AIR EMISSIONS
  • Main emissions
  • Carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen
    oxides.
  • Halogenated compounds in their cooling systems,
    mostly HCFCs.
  • Ammonia used in cooling systems may leak or
    accidental releases may occur which also result
    in odour complaints.

17
ENERGY
  • Thermal energy from the combustion of fossil
    fuels to generate steam and hot water that is
    used for heating operations and cleaning (80 )
  • Electricity to drive machinery, refrigeration,
    ventilation, and lighting (20)
  • The most energy consuming operations are the
    evaporation and drying of milk.
  • In pasteurisation energy is needed for the
    heating and cooling steps.

18
CONSUMPTION OF CHEMICALS
  • Most of the chemicals are used for the cleaning
    and disinfection of process machinery and
    pipelines.
  • Fresh product dairies mainly use caustic and
    nitric acid and some disinfectants, such as
    hydrogen peroxide, peracetic acid and sodium
    hypochlorite.

19
NOISE
  • Noise is caused by the movement of milk tankers
    and distribution lorries evaporators, spray
    driers, and cooling condensers

20
? Waste water characteristics
? Large daily variation in flowrate ? Variable
pH ? Waste water may be nitrogen deficient,
unless the raw water has a high nitrate content
or nitric acid is used. ? Waste water may be
high in phosphorus if phosphoric acid is used for
clean-up. ? The treatment of dairy waste water
results in lower surplus sludge than domestic
waste water treatment, owing to -The lower
content of suspended solids -The higher waste
water temperatures
21
? Waste water treatment
?1. Solids from washing water from vehicle
washing units are generally removed at source.
- Using sand or grit traps. - The rainwater from
the sealed surfaces is generally passed into the
on-site waste water treatment system
This may be carried out by
? 2. Segregation of waste water is generally
applied, by high solids content, very high BOD
and high salinity.
22
Segregation
3. Primary treatment
? Screening ? Flow and load equalisation
? Neutralisation. ? Sedimentation ? DAF
? Centrifugation ? Precipitation
23
4. Secondary treatment
? BOD concentration greater than 1000 1500 mg/l,
Anaerobic treatment processes
? Lower strength waste water streams
Aerobic treatment
24
? Techniques applicable in some individual
sectors
MILK
? Segregation of outputs, to optimise use,
re-use, recovery, recycling and disposal (and
minimise water use and waste water contamination)
DESCRIPTION
Outputs, whether or not they are intended for use
in the product, can be segregated for optimised
and easier use, re-use, recovery, recycling and
disposal. This also reduces both the consumption
and the contamination of water. It can be done
either manually or mechanically.
Examples of where the technique is applied
Collect whey which is not intended for making
mitzithra cheese, baby food or other products
Collect milky waste water generated at the
start-up of pasteurisers Separate and collect
buttermilk, first rinses and residual fat in
butter churning oprations, to use it in other
processes. Collect rinsings from yoghurt vats
Collect the drainings of yoghurt and fruit
throughout the dairy
25
? Dry cleaning
Examples of where the technique is applied
Adopt dry cleaning methods to collect the solid
residues from cheese production. Treat spills
of curd, yoghurt or ice-cream mix as waste rather
than just washing them to the drain. Use dry
processes to collect excess salt rather than just
washing it to the drain. Fit drains with
screens and/or traps to prevent any solid
material from entering the waste water
26
? Continuous pasteurisers
DESCRIPTION ? Flow-through heat-exchangers, e.g.
tubular, plate and frame, are used. These have
heating, holding and cooling sections.
ADVANTAGES They are used to reduce energy
consumption and waste water generation instead of
batch pasteurisers.
  • Operational data

Batch wise pasteurisation uses a temperature of
62 to 65 ºC for up to 30 minutes. Continuous
pasteurisers include high temperature short time
pasteurisation (HTST) and high heat short
time pasteurisation (HHST). HTST uses a
temperature of 72 to 75 ºC for 15 to 240 seconds.
HHST applies a temperature of 85 to 90 ºC for 1
to 25 seconds.
27
? Two-stage drying in milk powder production
? After the milk has been thickened from 11 to
50 60 dry matter in an evaporator, the
condensed milk may further be dried to 95 97
dry matter content. Spray driers or roller driers
are used in milk powder processing.
? Two-stage drying process is carried out by
using a spray drier with a rotary atomiser. The
outlet air is filtered by a CIP filter, which
consists of a tubular filter without cyclone
28
BUTTER
?Minimisation of losses during buttermaking
? Due to the high viscosity of cream, the cream
heater may be rinsed with skimmed milk, which is
then retained and used, before the cleaning.
This
reduces fat losses. ? Buttermilk which results
as a by-product can be used as a product and not
disposed of. These savings may be used, e.g. as a
base for low fat spreads.
29
CHEESE
?Use ultrafiltration (UF) for protein
standardisation of cheese milk
  • As using UF leads to an increase in the cheese
    yield per processed milk unit, the generated
    quantity of whey is smaller compared to
    traditional standardisation.
  • BENEFITS
  • Reduced energy and water consumption, whey and
    waste water in comparison with traditional
    standardisation

30
BAT
31
GENERAL BAT FOR THE WHOLE FDM SECTOR
  • GENERAL BAT APPLICABLE TO ALL FOOD, DRINK AND
    MILK INDUSTRIAL OPERATIONS
  • Employees aware of the environmental
    aspects/responsibilities
  • Design/select equipment, which optimises
    consumption and emission levels
  • Control noise emissions (designing, selecting,
    operating and maintaining equipment enclosing
    noisy equipment)
  • Apply and maintain a methodology for preventing
    and minimising
  • Consumption of water and energy
  • Production of waste
  • Promote use, re-use, recovery, recycling and
    disposal

32
BAT FOR DAIRIES
  • PARTIALLY HOMOGENISE MILK
  • Energy savings (? homogeniser)
  • REPLACE BATCH PASTEURISERS WITH CONTINUOUS ONES
  • HHST HTST ? ? Energy consumption
  • REDUCE THE REQUIRED FREQUENCY OF CLEANING OF
    CENTRIFUGAL SEPARATORS
  • Improving the preliminary milk filtration and
    clarification processes ? ? Water consumption

33
BAT FOR DAIRIES
  • USE REGENERATIVE HEAT EXCHANGE IN PASTEURISATION
  • Energy savings (90)
  • USE JUST-IN-TIME COMPONENT FILLING
  • Two lines
  • ? losses minimise water production

Skimmed milk Standarised fat content
34
BAT FOR DAIRIES
  • MAXIMISE THE RECOVERY OF DILUTED PRODUCT
  • Pipelines filled with water before start-up
  • Water is then pushed out by the product through a
    drain valve
  • Conductivity transmitters and using optical
    sensors
  • USE SEVERAL SMALL CIP SYSTEMS
  • Instead of a centralised CIP system
  • Alkaline solution (fat,proteins) Acid (mineral)
  • No acid ? ? water and energy consumption

35
BAT FOR DAIRIES
  • RE-USE WATER
  • Condensates (evaporation/drying)
  • Permeates (membrane separation)
  • Cooling water
  • Cleaning water

36
BAT FOR THE PRODUCTION OF MARKET MILK
  • Achieve

37
BAT FOR MILK POWDER PRODUCTION
  • To produce powdered milk use
  • Multi-effect evaporators
  • Optimising vapour recompression
  • Apply an early warning fire alarm
  • Achieve

38
BAT FOR BUTTERMAKING
  • REMOVE RESIDUAL BUTTER FROM PIPEWORK USING
    COMPRESSED AIR
  • It can be used to gain access to parts of
    equipment where other equipments cannot
    physically pass and any risk of contamination
    from introducing cleaning tools or equipment can
    be avoided.
  • RINSE THE CREAM HEATER WITH SKIMMED MILK BEFORE
    CLEANING IT

39
BAT FOR CHEESEMAKING
  • USE THE HEAT FROM WARM WHEY FOR PREHEATING CHEESE
    MILK
  • Savings in energy for heating the incoming milk
    and cooling energy for the processed whey are
    achieved.
  • MAXIMISE WHEY RECOVERY AND USE
  • 90 milk ? Whey
  • Sweet/Salty whey ? by-products/ animal feed/
    babies feed
  • REDUCE FAT AND CHEESE FINES IN WHEY AND SCREEN
    LIQUID STREAMS TO COLLECT FINES.
  • MINIMISE THE OCCURRENCE OF ACID WHEY
  • Whey processed quickly ? ? acid whey (lactic acid
    formation)

40
BAT FOR ICE-CREAM MANUFACTURING
  • Achieve

41
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