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P1 Energy for the Home

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Title: PowerPoint Presentation Author: W Richards Last modified by: toshiba Created Date: 9/24/2001 7:11:57 AM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: P1 Energy for the Home


1
P1 Energy for the Home
(OCR)
AGAC
2
Heat and Temperature
Heat is a type of energy that will flow from a
warm area to a colder one. For example
cool down
This cup of coffee will ____ ____ because it is
_____ ____ heat energy into the surroundings.
giving out
This drink (taken out of the fridge) will _____
___ because it is _____ ___ heat energy from the
surroundings.
warm up
taking in
Words giving out, warm up, taking in, cool down
3
Specific Heat Capacity
This can be thought of as the capacity of an
object to store heat. Consider some water
If we heat this beaker up its fairly clear that
the amount of energy it gains depends on how much
water there is and how hot it gets
Energy mass x s.h.c x temp rise
E mc?T
s.h.c specific heat capacity
Each substance has a shc. The substances with
lower shc heat up faster
4
Heating ice
Temp/OC
150
100
50
0
-50




This diagonal line shows where energy is being
used to increase the temperature. The amount of
energy to increase the temperature of 1Kg of
water By 100C is called the specific heat
capacity c
Time/s
5
Latent Heat of Fusion
From the previous slide we can say that the
energy needed to melt water is given by
Energy mass x specific latent heat of fusion
To work out L experimentally you could
Measure the amount of energy needed to melt 1Kg
of ice
VIt mL
6
House insulation
7
House insulation
Type of insulation Cost Annual amount saved
Loft insulation 400 80
Double Glazing 2,000 50
Cavity wall ins. 600 60
Draught excluder 40 20
  1. Which type of insulation costs the most?
  2. Which type of insulation is the most effective?
  3. Which type is the most cost effective?
  4. Which type pays for itself after 40 years?

Double glazing
Loft insulation
Draught excluder
Double glazing
8
Efficiency
Efficiency is a measure of how much USEFUL energy
you get out of an object from the energy you put
INTO it.
For example, consider a TV
Light (80J)
Electrical Energy (200J)
Sound (40J)
Heat (?)
120 200
60
x100

9
Some examples of efficiency
  1. 500J of electrical energy are put into a motor.
    The motor converts this into 100J of movement
    energy. How efficient is it?
  2. A laptop can convert 400J of electrical energy
    into 240J of light and sound. What is its
    efficiency? Where does the rest of the energy
    go?
  3. A steam engine is 50 efficient. If it delivers
    20,000J of movement energy how much chemical
    energy was put into it?

100 500
x100
20
240 400
60
x 100
40,000J
10
Conduction
Conduction is all about when heat is transferred
through a _____. The heat is passed on by
___________ in the molecules. These vibrations
get BIGGER when the solid has more ENERGY (i.e.
when it is being _______). Metals are _______
conductors than non-metals. This is because the
heat is carried by free ________ that can carry
the energy around the metal and give it to other
electrons and ions.
solid
vibrations
heated
better
electrons
Words vibrations, electrons, solid, heated,
better
11
Convection
Convection is all about when a gas or liquid
(fluid) moves and carries heat with it. When
the fluid is heated it _________. This means
that it will become less ________ than the colder
fluid around it. Because of this the warmer
fluid will try to _______ over the colder
fluid, and this is why warm air rises. This is
called a convection ________. This is how heat
reaches us from the ___________ in this room. In
CONDUCTION the heat was passed on by VIBRATIONS
in a SOLID In CONVECTION the heat is passed on by
the FLUID expanding, rising and TAKING THE HEAT
with it
expands
dense
float
current
radiators
Words to use expands, radiators, dense, heated,
current, float
12
Some questions on convection
  1. Freezers in supermarkets are often left open to
    the air. Explain why the food does not melt
    easily.
  2. Explain why a hot air balloon rises in the air.
  3. Explain why an ice cube floating at the top of a
    drink will cool all of the drink.

Cold air does not rise it falls
Heated air expands
It becomes less dense
than the surrounding air
Ice cube melts.
The cold water produced
is more dense than the surrounding drink and sinks
13
Radiation
An introduction
Im cool!
Im very hot!
Black ABSORBS More heat
White does not absorb as much heat- it reflects it
Be careful, DO not use the word attract heat
14
Some examples of radiation
Thermograms
15
Some examples of radiation
16
Radiation Practical
Time / min Temperature in each container / 0C Temperature in each container / 0C Temperature in each container / 0C
Time / min Black Silver
1 90 90
2 81 85
3 73 81
4 66 77
5 60 73
6 55 70
7 51 66
8 48 63
9 46 60
10 45 58
Black cools down quicker than silver
17
Radiation
waves
Radiation is when heat moves around in
electromagnetic _________ like light does. Any
hot object will emit heat radiation the hotter
it is, the more radiation it emits. This type of
radiation is called __________, and too much of
it will cause _________. Dark, matt colours will
absorb AND emit the _____ infra-red radiation,
and light, shiny colours will ________ it.
The main difference with radiation is that
conduction and convection could ONLY happen in
solids, liquids or gases, whereas radiation will
happen through an _____ _____. This is just as
well, as otherwise we wouldnt be able to get any
heat from the ___.
infra-red
sunburn
most
reflect
empty space
Sun
Words sun, reflect, infra-red, waves, most,
empty space, sunburn
Anything HOT emits HEAT RADIATION the hotter it
is, the more infra red radiation it emits
18
Understanding Heat Transfer
1) Explain how and where all 3 processes of heat
transfer happen in a bonfire
2) By considering how a Thermos Flask is built
explain how it manages to keep hot drinks hot and
cold drinks cold.
19
Understanding Heat Transfer 2
3) Car radiators are designed to help car
engines lose heat. Explain how they do this.
4) Some houses have solar collectors on their
roof. Explain how they work
20
Electromagnetic Radiation
E-M radiation is basically a movement of energy
in the form of a wave. Some examples
21
The Electromagnetic Spectrum
Each type of radiation shown in the
electromagnetic spectrum has a different
wavelength and a different frequency
long
short
Gamma rays X-rays Ultra violet Visible light Infra red Microwaves Radio/TV
vacuum
Each of these types travels at the same speed
through a _______ (300,000,000m/s), and different
wavelengths are absorbed by different surfaces
(e.g. infra red is absorbed very well by _______
surfaces). This absorption may heat the material
up (like infra red and ____________) or cause an
alternating current (like in a __ _______).
black
microwaves
TV
aerial
Words black, microwaves, long, short, TV
aerial, vacuum
22
The Electromagnetic Spectrum
Type of radiation
Uses
Dangers
Treating cancer, sterilisation
Gamma rays
Cell mutation
X rays
Medical
Cell mutation
UVA, UVB and UVC
Sun beds
Skin cancer
None (unless you look at the sun)
Visible light
Seeing things
Remote controls, heat transfer
Infra red
Sunburn
Microwaves
Satellites, phones
Burns
TV/radio
Communications
Very few
23
Refraction through a glass block
Wave slows down but is not bent, due to entering
along the normal
24
Examples of
refraction
25
Refraction
speed up
Refraction is when waves ____ __ or slow down due
to travelling in a different _________. A medium
is something that waves will travel through.
medium
26
Finding the Critical Angle
1) Ray gets refracted
2) Ray still gets refracted
4) Ray gets internally reflected
3) Ray still gets refracted (just!)
27
Uses of Total Internal Reflection
Optical fibres An optical fibre is a long,
thin, _______ rod made of glass or plastic.
Light is _______ reflected from one end to the
other, making it possible to send ____ chunks of
information
transparent
internally
large
Optical fibres can be used for _________ by
sending electrical signals through the cable.
The main advantage of this is a reduced ______
loss.
communications
signal
Words communications, internally, large,
transparent, signal
28
Analogue vs. Digital
Analogue signals (like talking or music)
continually vary in amplitude and/or frequency
Digital signals, however, are either off or on,
and the information is sent in a series of pulses
  • There are two main advantages of digital
  • More information can be sent down the same cable
  • Better quality, because a digital signal can be
    amplified without amplifying the extra noise

29
Wireless devices
The trouble with optical fibres and electrical
connections is that they need wires. This is a
big advantage when sending information using
radio waves and microwaves. However, they have
disadvantages as well...
30
Blocking reception
Microwaves can be blocked by obstructions
31
Using Satellites with microwaves
Microwaves are used to communicate with satellites
32
Using Radio waves
Radio waves are reflected off the ionosphere (an
electrically charged layer in the atmosphere)
33
Diffracting Radio Waves
A low frequency radio wave can be diffracted over
obstacles but some signal strength will be lost.
34
Some definitions
1) Amplitude this is how high the wave is
2) Wavelength (?) this is the distance between
two corresponding points on the wave and is
measured in metres
3) Frequency this is how many waves pass by
every second and is measured in Hertz (Hz)
35
Some definitions
Transverse waves are when the displacement is at
right angles to the direction of the wave
Longitudinal waves are when the displacement is
parallel to the direction of the wave
36
The Wave Equation
The wave equation relates the speed of the wave
to its frequency and wavelength
Wave speed (v) frequency (f) x wavelength
(?) in m/s in Hz
in m
37
Some example wave equation questions
  1. A water wave has a frequency of 2Hz and a
    wavelength of 0.3m. How fast is it moving?
  2. A water wave travels through a pond with a speed
    of 1m/s and a frequency of 5Hz. What is the
    wavelength of the waves?
  3. The speed of sound is 330m/s (in air). When Dave
    hears this sound his ear vibrates 660 times a
    second. What was the wavelength of the sound?
  4. Purple light has a wavelength of around 6x10-7m
    and a frequency of 5x1014Hz. What is the speed
    of purple light?

0.6m/s
0.2m
0.5m
3x108m/s
38
Lasers
Lasers produce light waves that are coherent
i.e. they have the same frequency and they are in
phase
These two waves have different amplitudes but the
same frequency and hit their peaks at the same
time they are in phase
These two waves start opposite to each other
they are in antiphase
39
Using lasers in CDs
This is a magnified image of the CD surface
40
The Structure of the Earth
How do we know this? These facts have all been
discovered by examining seismic waves
(earthquakes)
41
Seismic waves
Earthquakes travel as waves through the Earth
we call them SEISMIC WAVES. There are two types
  • P waves
  • They are longitudinal so they cause the ground to
    move up and down
  • They can pass through solids and liquids
  • They go faster through more dense material
  • S waves
  • They are transverse so they cause the ground to
    move from right to left
  • They ONLY pass through solids
  • They are slower than P waves
  • They go faster through more dense material

42
P and S waves
A quick way to remember the difference
S waves are tranSverse
P waves are the other type-longitudinal
43
Seismic waves
crust
Outer core
Inner core
mantle
The paths of these waves are all curved because
density is gradually changing
These observations tell us 3 things about the
Earth 1) It has a thin crust, 2) it has a
semi-fluid mantle where density increases with
depth, 3) a core with a liquid outer part and a
solid inner part.
44
Suncream
Ultra violet radiation in sunshine can be
dangerous and cause skin cancer
Safe time exposure time (e.g. 20 mins) x sun
protection factor
45
Global Warming
  • Facts
  • The 10 warmest years of the last century have all
    occurred within the last 15 years
  • Sea level has risen by between 12 and 24cm in the
    last 100 years
  • Rainfall has risen by 1

46
Ozone
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