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Engaging Middle School Students


Title: Engaging Middle School Students Author: Rick Wormeli Last modified by: Microsoft account Created Date: 5/25/2004 9:53:20 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Engaging Middle School Students

Sparks and Conduits for Students Thinking
Critically Mighty Peace Teachers Convention 2014
For more conversation
  • Rick Wormeli
  • 703-620-2447
  • rwormeli_at_cox.net
  • www.rickwormeli.net
  • _at_rickwormeli (Twitter)

Handcuffs Puzzle Downloaded from
britton.disted.camosun.bc.ca/jbhandcuff Each
person has a piece of rope with a loop tied in
both ends, so it can be worn as handcuffs. The
rope should be reasonably long, so that the
person wearing it can easily step over it if they
want. Each person puts on a complete set of
handcuffs. Before putting them on, they loop
their handcuffs around each other so they are
tied together. Each person should wear a complete
set of handcuffs. They then have to get
themselves apart while following these rules
  • The Handcuff Puzzle Rules
  • The handcuffs cannot be removed.
  • Do not break, cut, saw through, bite through or
    in any other way damage the rope. Damaging each
    other is probably a bad idea too.
  • If you are doing this puzzle with a class, make
    certain you tell them they need to be able to
    show you their solution.

How might we increase the complexity of this
Haunker Hawser
Supplies 100-foot rope, two milk crates or two,
round wood boards
Consider Rhodes Scholarship Candidate
  • Is creative thinking the same as critical
  • Creative Thinking generative, nonjudgmental and
    expansive. When you are thinking creatively, you
    are generating lists of new ideas.
  • Critical Thinking analytical, judgmental and
    selective. When you are thinking critically, you
    are making choices.
  • http//ericbrown.com/critical-thinking-vs-creative
    -thinking.htmSeptember 5, 2008 By Eric D. Brown

  • Critical Thinking Creative Thinking
  • analytic generative
  • convergent divergent
  • vertical lateral
  • probability possibility
  • judgment suspended judgment
  • focused diffuse
  • objective subjective
  • answer an answer
  • left brain right brain
  • verbal visual
  • linear associative
  • reasoning richness, novelty
  • yes but yes and

From www.virtualsalt.com
  • Interesting overlap of definitions at
  • Critical thinking involves logical thinking and
    reasoning including skills such as comparison,
    classification, sequencing, cause/effect,
    patterning, webbing, analogies, deductive and
    inductive reasoning, forecasting, planning,
    hypothesizing, and critiquing.
  • Creative thinking involves creating something new
    or original. It involves the skills of
    flexibility, originality, fluency, elaboration,
    brainstorming, modification, imagery, associative
    thinking, attribute listing, metaphorical
    thinking, forced relationships. The aim of
    creative thinking is to stimulate curiosity and
    promote divergence.

Advanced Thinkers
  • Concede ignorance when they are ignorant.
  • Find out whats going on.
  • Respect intellectuals and dont deride them.
  • Speak out after doing their homework.
  • Examine superstitions.
  • Play thinking games and amuse themselves by
    trying to answer puzzle questions.
  • Become more informed about history than they are.

Advanced Thinkers
  • Arent afraid to change their minds.
  • Are aware that their opinions, assumptions, and
    beliefs are often affected by peer-group
  • Are realistically skeptical even of leaders.
  • Recognize that they have personal prejudices.
  • Do not to fall in love with their first answers.
  • from Steve Allens book, Dumbth The Lost Art of
    Thinking with 101 Ways to Reason Better and
    Improve your Mind (Prometheus Books)

  • Fixed Intelligence Mindset
  • Nov. 5, 2013 Webinar Ed Week with Dr. Carol
  • Talent/intelligence set at birth
  • Must look smart at all costs
  • Showing effort/struggle is seen as a negative,
    something to be avoided
  • When failing, these individuals blame
    circumstance or others. They feel helpless to
    change anything.
  • Fixed mindset is much more harmful for students
    laboring under a negative stereotype
  • When we praise talents, innate qualities, we
    create fixed mindsets in students. I was never
    good at math, nor will I ever be good at math.
    Just give me the test and let me get my F.

  • Growth Intelligence Mindset
  • Nov. 5, 2013 Webinar Ed Week with Dr. carol
  • Check out Brainology.u
  • Talent/intelligence malleable, changeable
  • Must learn at all costs.
  • Effort/struggle seen as part of the process,
    normal, even virtuous
  • When failing, these individuals analyze their
    own decisions and actions, then revise efforts
    and try again. Very resilient.
  • Colleges are looking for growth mindset quality
    in freshman candidates
  • Include, yet in any statement of content or
    skill not yet attained
  • Praise process/decisions made when work done
  • Who had a terrific struggle today?
  • Great persistence!
  • You kept trying different things until it
  • Nice strategies.
  • Who has an interesting mistake to share?

Positive Culture for Failure Tenets
  • Academic struggle is virtuous, not weakness.
  • To recover from failure teaches more than being
    labeled for failure ever could teach.
  • Failure can teach us in ways consistent success
  • Initial failure followed by responsive teaching
    that helps students revise thinking results in
    greater long-term retention of content.
  • The expert in any field is the one who has made
    the most mistakes in that field. (Neils Bohr)

Writer, Mark Bauerlein, speaking about todays
students surfing the Internet
  • Their choices are never limited, and the
    initial frustrations of richer experiences send
    them elsewhere within seconds. With so much
    abundance, variety, and speed, users key in to
    exactly what they already want. Companionship is
    only a click away.Why undergo the labor of
    revising values, why face an incongruent outlook,
    why cope with disconfirming evidence, why expand
    the sensibilitywhen you can find ample
    sustenance for present interests? Dense content,
    articulate diction and artistic images are too
    much....They remind them of their deficiencies,
    and who wants that? Confirmation soothes,
    rejections hurts. Great art is tough, mass art
    is easy. Dense arguments require concentration,
    adolescent visuals hit home instantly.

  • Writer and educator, Margaret Wheatley, is
  • We cant be creative unless were willing to
    be confused.

Taking Positive Risks
  • The fellow who never makes a mistake takes his
    orders from one who does.
  • -- Herbert Prochnow
  • If I had been a kid in my class today, would I
    want to come back tomorrow?
  • -- Elsbeth Murphy
  • Nothing ventured, something lost.
  • -- Roland Barth

Negating Students Incorrect Responses While
Keeping Them in the Conversation
  • Act interested, Tell me more about that
  • Empathy and Sympathy I used to think that,
    too, or I understand how you could conclude
  • Alter the reality
  • -- Change the question so that the answer is
  • -- Thats the answer for the question Im about
    to ask
  • -- When student claims he doesnt know, ask,
    If you DID know, what would you say?

Negating Students Incorrect Responses and While
Them in the Conversation
  • Affirm risk-taking
  • Allow the student more time or to ask for
  • Focus on the portions that are correct

  • Video
  • When There is Only One Correct Answer

Discern the Pattern and Fill in the Last Row of
  • 1
  • 1 1
  • 2 1
  • 1 2 1 1
  • 1 1 1 2 2 1
  • 3 1 2 2 1 1
  • 1 3 1 1 2 2 2 1
  • 1 1 1 3 2 1 3 2 1 1

- From, Creative Thinkering, 2011, Michael
Michalko, p. 44
Practice Complex-ifying. Really. A lot.
  • Practice turning regular education objectives
    and tasks into advanced objectives and tasks.

What is Mastery?
  • Tim was so learned, that he could name a horse
    in nine languages so ignorant, that he bought a
    cow to ride on.
  • Ben Franklin, 1750, Poor Richards

  • The better
  • question
  • is not,
  • What is
  • the
  • standard? The better
    question is, What
    evidence will we tolerate?

The student understands fact versus opinion.
  • Identify
  • Create
  • Revise
  • Manipulate

Theres a big difference What are we really
trying to assess?
  • Explain the second law of thermodynamics vs.
    Which of the following situations shows the
    second law of thermodynamics in action?
  • What is the function of a kidney? vs. Suppose
    we gave a frog a diet that no impurities fresh
    organic flies, no pesticides, nothing impure.
    Would the frog still need a kidney?
  • Explain Keyness economic theory vs. Explain
    todays downturn in the stock market in light of
    Keyness economic theory.
  • From, Teaching the Large College Class, Frank
    Heppner, 2007, Wiley and Sons

One-Word Summaries
  • The new government regulations for the
    meat-packing industry in the 1920s could be seen
    as an opportunity,
  • Picassos work is actually an argument for.,
  • NASAs battle with Rockwell industries over the
    warnings about frozen temperatures and the
    O-rings on the space shuttle were trench
  • Basic Idea Argue for or against the word as a
    good description for the topic.

Summarization Pyramid
__________ ______________ ____________________ ___
______________________ ___________________________
___ ___________________________________
Great prompts for each line Synonym, analogy,
question, three attributes, alternative title,
causes, effects, reasons, arguments, ingredients,
opinion, larger category, formula/sequence,
insight, tools, misinterpretation, sample,
people, future of the topic
Some Elements of Challenging, Complex Experiences
  • Illuminate more material during the course of the
  • whether by moving more rapidly, by exploring
    concepts in greater depth, or by offering more
    breadth in the field of study.
  • Students encounter higher order thinking skills
  • (analysis, synthesis, evaluation, application,
  • induction, justification) as standard operating
    procedures, not something newly introduced.
  • Tangential thinking is invited.
  • Subjects are integrated to a larger extent.
  • Textbooks and novels are resources, not the
  • curriculum.
  • Primary sources in research are more heavily
  • We affirm effort and perseverance, not
    intelligent or capability. We give feedback on
    decisions made.

  • We expose students to a larger variety of
    language and literature. Non-traditional
    grammar, sentence structures, vocabulary words
    and writers voice are encouraged.
  • We encourage increased student autonomy.
  • We intentionally provoke thinking and confront
    the status quo and invite students to do the
  • Independent studies
  • (orbitals), adjusted
  • prompts, and
  • learning contracts
  • are used.
  • Pose curveballs,
  • novelty.
  • Tolerate/encourage
  • more ambiguity.

To Increase (or Decrease) a Tasks Complexity,
Add (or Remove) these Attributes
  • Manipulate information, not just echo it
  • Extend the concept to other areas
  • Integrate more than one subject or skill
  • Increase the number of variables that must be
    considered incorporate more facets
  • Demonstrate higher level thinking, i.e. Blooms
    Taxonomy, Williams Taxonomy
  • Use or apply content/skills in situations not yet
  • Make choices among several substantive ones
  • Work with advanced resources
  • Add an unexpected element to the process or
  • Work independently
  • Reframe a topic under a new theme
  • Share the backstory to a concept how it was
  • Identify misconceptions within something

To Increase (or Decrease) a Tasks Complexity,
Add (or Remove) these Attributes
  • Identify the bias or prejudice in something
  • Negotiate the evaluative criteria
  • Deal with ambiguity and multiple meanings or
  • Use more authentic applications to the real world
  • Analyze the action or object
  • Argue against something taken for granted or
    commonly accepted
  • Synthesize (bring together) two or more unrelated
    concepts or objects to create something new
  • Critique something against a set of standards
  • Work with the ethical side of the subject
  • Work in with more abstract concepts and models
  • Respond to more open-ended situations
  • Increase their automacity with the topic
  • Identify big picture patterns or connections
  • Defend their work

  • Manipulate information, not just echo it
  • Once youve understood the motivations and
    viewpoints of the two historical figures,
    identify how each one would respond to the three
    ethical issues provided.
  • Extend the concept to other areas
  • How does this idea apply to the expansion of the
    railroads in 1800s? or, How is this portrayed
    in the Kingdom Protista?
  • Work with advanced resources
  • Using the latest schematics of the Space Shuttle
    flight deck and real interviews with
    professionals at Jet Propulsion Laboratories in
    California, prepare a report that
  • Add an unexpected element to the process or
  • What could prevent meiosis from creating four
    haploid nuclei (gametes) from a single haploid

  • Reframe a topic under a new theme
  • Re-write the scene from the point of view of
    the antagonist, Re-envision the countrys
    involvement in war in terms of insect behavior,
    or, Re-tell Goldilocks and the Three Bears so
    that it becomes a cautionary tale about
  • Synthesize (bring together) two or more unrelated
    concepts or objects to create something new
  • How are grammar conventions like music?
  • Work with the ethical side of the subject
  • At what point is the Federal government
    justified in subordinating an individuals rights
    in the pursuit of safe-guarding its citizens?

The Equalizer (Carol Ann Tomlinson) Foundational
------------------ Transformational Concrete
----------------------- Abstract Simple
-------------------------- Complex Single
Facet/fact ------------- Multi-Faceted/facts Small
er Leap ------------------ Greater Leap More
Structured -------------- More Open Clearly
Defined --------------- Fuzzy Problems Less
Independence ---------- Greater
Independence Slower ---------------------------
  • R Role, A Audience, F Form, T Time or
    Topic, S Strong Adjective or Adverb
  • Students take on a role, work for a specific
    audience, use a particular form to express the
    content, and do it within a time reference, such
    as pre-Civil War, 2025, or ancient Greece.
  • Sample assignment chosen by a student
  • A candidate for the Green Party (role), trying
    to convince election board members (audience) to
    let him be in a national debate with Democrats
    and the Republicans. The student writes a speech
    (form) to give to the Board during the
    Presidential election in 2004 (time). Within
    this assignment, students use arguments and
    information from this past election with third
    party concerns, as well as their knowledge of the
    election and debate process. Another student
    could be given a RAFT assignment in the same
    manner, but this time the student is a member of
    the election board who has just listened to the
    first students speech.

  • Raise the complexity Choose items for each
    category that are farther away from a natural fit
    for the topic . Example When writing about
    Civil War Reconstruction, choices include a rap
    artist, a scientist from the future, and Captain
  • Lower the complexity Choose items for each
    category that are closer to a natural fit for the
    topic. Example When writing about Civil War
    Reconstruction, choices include a member of the
    Freedmens Bureau, a southern colonel returning
    home to his burned plantation, and a northern
    business owner

Williams Taxonomy
  • Fluency
  • Flexibility
  • Originality
  • Elaboration
  • Risk Taking
  • Complexity
  • Curiosity
  • Imagination

Frank Williams Taxonomy of Creative Thinking
  • Fluency We generate as many ideas and
    responses as we can
  • Example Task Choose one of the simple machines
    weve studied (wheel and axle, screw, wedge,
    lever, pulley, and inclined plane), and list
    everything in your home that uses it to operate,
    then list as many items in your home as you can
    that use more than one simple machine in order to
  • --------------------------------------------------
  • Flexibility We categorize ideas, objects, and
    learning by thinking divergently
    about them
  • Example Task Design a classification system for
    the items on your list.

Frank Williams Taxonomy of Creative Thinking
  • Originality We create clever and often unique
    responses to a prompt
  • Example Task Define life and non-life.
  • --------------------------------------------------
  • Elaboration We expand upon or stretch an idea
    or thing, building on previous thinking
  • Example What inferences about future algae
    growth can you make, given the three graphs of
    data from our experiment?

Frank Williams Taxonomy of Creative Thinking
  • Risk Taking We take chances in our thinking,
    attempting tasks for which the outcome is unknown
  • Example Write a position statement on whether
    or not genetic engineering of humans
    should be funded by the United States government.
  • --------------------------------------------------
  • Complexity We create order from chaos, we
    explore the logic of a situation, we integrate
    additional variables or aspects of a situation,
    contemplate connections
  • Example Analyze how two different students
    changed their lab methodology to
    prevent data contamination.

Frank Williams Taxonomy of Creative Thinking
  • Curiosity We pursue guesses, we wonder about
    varied elements, we question.
  • Example What would you like to ask someone who
    has lived aboard the International Space Station
    for three months about living in zero-gravity?
  • --------------------------------------------------
  • Imagination We visualize ideas and objects, we
    go beyond just what we have in front of us
  • Example Imagine building an undersea colony for
    500 citizens, most of whom are scientists, a
    kilometer below the oceans surface. What factors
    would you have to consider when building and
    maintaining the colony and the happiness of its

(No Transcript)
Creativity and Critical Thinking involve
patience, resilience, and interaction -- Dan
Meyer Math Needs a Makeover
Traditional Learning
Constructivist Learning
  • Part to whole, emphasize skills
  • Strict adherence to curriculum
  • Rely on textbooks, workbooks
  • Students are blank slates
  • Teachers disseminate info
  • Teachers seek correct answer to validate
  • Assessment/Teaching separate
  • Whole to part, emph. concepts
  • Pursue student questions
  • Rely on prim. sources, manip.
  • Students are thinkers
  • Teachers mediate, interact
  • Teachers seek students knowledge to make
  • Assessment/Teaching are interwoven

Logical Fallacies
  • Ad Hominem (Argument To The Man) -- Attacking
    the person instead of attacking his argument
    Dr. Jones conclusions on ocean currents are
    incorrect because he once plagiarized an research
  • Straw Man (Fallacy of Extension) -- Attacking an
    exaggerated version of your opponent's position.
    "Senator Jones says that we should not fund the
    attack submarine program. I disagree entirely. I
    can't understand why he wants to leave us
    defenseless like that."
  • The Excluded Middle (False Dichotomy) -- Assuming
    there are only two alternatives when in fact
    there are more. For example, assuming Atheism is
    the only alternative to Fundamentalism, or being
    a traitor is the only alternative to being a loud
  • From Jim Mortons Practical Skeptic
    website http//members.aol.com/jimn469897/ske

Be a Suspicious Reader
  • How does this fit with what I know?
  • What evidence does he offer for his claims?
  • Where is he going next?
  • Am I safe with where this is going How is it
    affecting me?
  • What is he not saying?
  • Why is he presenting it this way?

Ask Students to Look for Patterns
  • Add these numbers
  • 296, 302, 299, 320
  • Each is close to 300, so identify the
    relationship to 300
  • -4, 2, -1, 20 -5 22 17
  • (300 x 4) 17 1,217

Jamie's homework assignment requires her to write
a short biography of five female Nobel Prize
winners. Help her match each nobelist to her
prize category, country of origin and the year in
which she won her prize. Below are all categories
and options used in this puzzle Years Names
Categories Countries 1968 Ada Alvarez
chemistry Australia 1972 Fay Ferguson
economics France 1976 Glenda Glenn
literature Germany 1980 Hannah Hay
medicine Poland 1984 Patsy Pope
physics Russia
Downloaded February 2013 from www.logic-puzzles.or
  1. Fay Ferguson is from Australia.
  2. The person from Australia didn't win the prize in
  3. The nobelist who won in 1968 didn't win the prize
    in chemistry.
  4. Of the nobelist who won the prize in medicine and
    Ada Alvarez, one won in 1984 and the other won in
  5. The winner from Poland won her prize 4 years
    after the nobelist from Australia.
  6. Patsy Pope won her prize after the winner who won
    the prize in chemistry.
  7. Neither Fay Ferguson nor the winner who won the
    prize in economics is the winner who won in 1984.
  8. The nobelist from Germany won her prize 4 years
    after the winner from France.
  9. Glenda Glenn isn't from France.
  10. The person who won in 1976 didn't win the prize
    in literature.
  11. The five nobelists are the nobelist from France,
    the winner who won in 1972, Hannah Hay, the
    winner who won in 1968 and the winner who won in

  • Remember, whoever does the editing, does the

From Assessment/Grading Researcher, Doug Reeves,
The Chronicle of Higher Education, September 18,
  • The Class of 2013 grew up playing video games
    and received feedback that was immediate,
    specific, and brutal they won or else died at
    the end of each game. For them, the purpose of
    feedback is not to calculate an average or score
    a final exam, but to inform them about how they
    can improve on their next attempt to rule the

Feedback vs Assessment
  • Feedback Holding up a mirror to students,
    showing them what they did and comparing it what
    they should have done Theres no evaluative
  • Assessment Gathering data so we can make a
  • Greatest Impact on Student Success Formative

Two Ways to Begin Using Descriptive Feedback
  • Point and Describe
  • (from Teaching with Love Logic, Jim Fay, David
  • Goal, Status, and Plan for the Goal
  • Identify the objective/goal/standard/outcome
  • Identify where the student is in relation to the
    goal (Status)
  • Identify what needs to happen in order to close
    the gap

Effective Protocol for Data Analysis and
Descriptive Feeddback found in many
Schools Heres What, So What, Now What
  1. Heres What (data, factual statements, no
  2. So What (Interpretation of data, what
    patterns/insights do we perceive, what does the
    data say to us?)
  3. Now What (Plan of action, including new
    questions, next steps)

Inquiry Method
  • 1.    Something arouses students curiosity.
  • 2.    Students identify questions regarding
    topic. There is usually one main question with
    several sub-questions that help answer the main
    question. These questions are submitted to
    classmates for review.
  • 3. Students determine the process of
    investigation into topic. Their proposal for
    how to conduct the investigation is submitted to
    classmates for review and revision as necessary.
  • 4.    Students conduct the investigation.
  • 5.    Students share their findings.

Socratic Seminar
  • Pre-Seminar
  • A.      Shared experiences, chosen for richness
    of ideas, issues, ambiguity, discussability
  • B.      Students reflect on material
  •     Group dynamics, ground rules, and
    courtesy are understood and accepted.
  • Seminar
  • A. Teacher asks a provocative question. Opening,
    Core, and Closure Questions
  • B. Students respond to the provocative question
    and each other.
  • C. Teacher offers core questions that help
    students interpret and to re-direct, also
    evalutes and tries to keep mouth shut.
  • C. Closing connect to the real world of the
  • Post-Seminar
  • Writings, Summations, Artwork, Reflection,
    Critique, Analysis

Debate Format
  • 1.    Statement of the General Debate Topic and
    Why its
  • Important 1 min.
  • 2.    Affirmative Position Opening Remarks 3
  • 3.    Negative Position Opening Remarks 3 min.
  • 4.    Affirmative Position Arguments 5 min.
  • 5.    Negative Position Arguments 5 min.
  • 6.    Caucus Students on both teams consider
    their arguments and rebuttals in light of what
    has been presented. 3 min.
  • 7.    Affirmative Rebuttal and Questioning of the
    Negatives Case 3 min.
  • 8.    Negative Rebuttal and Questioning of the
    Affirmatives Case 3 min.
  • 9.    Closing Arguments Affirmative Position 2
  • 10. Closing Arguments Negative Position 2

Meeting of Minds at Rachel Carson Middle
School Portrayals of Dr. Sally Ride, Albert
Einstein, Josef Stalin, Bob Dylan, Boss Tweed,
Dr. Robert Oppenheimer, Senator Joseph McCarthy,
the Unsinkable Molly Brown, Rosa Parks. In the
background Advisors for each historical figure

Ropes Course Games
Ropes Course Games
  • Electric Fence (Getting over triangle fence
    without touching)
  • Spider Web (Pass bodies through webbing withot
    ringing the attached bells)
  • Group Balance (2X2 platform on which everyone
    stands and sings a short song)
  • Nitro-glycerin Relocation (previous slide)
  • Trust Falls (circle style or from a chair)

  • Groups of students line up according to criteria.
    Each student holds an index card identifying
    what he or she is portraying.
  • Students discuss everyones position with one
    another -- posing questions, disagreeing, and
    explaining rationales.

  • Students can line-up according to
  • chronology, sequences in math problems,
    components of an essay, equations, sentences,
    verb tense, scientific process/cycle, patterns
    alternating, category/example, increasing/decreasi
    ng degree, chromatic scale, sequence of events,
    cause/effect, components of a larger topic,
    opposites, synonyms

Statues (Body Sculpture)
  • Students work in small groups
  • using every groupmembers body
  • to symbolically portray concepts
  • in frozen tableau.
  • Where does the learning occur?

Human Continuum
Human Continuum
  • Use a human continuum. Place a long strip of
    masking tape across the middle of the floor, with
    an "Agree" or Yes taped at one end, and
    "Disagree" or No at the other end. Put a
    notch in the middle for those unwilling to commit
    to either side. Read statements about the days
    concepts aloud while students literally stand
    where they believe along the continuum. Be pushy
    ask students to defend their positions.

Components of Blood Content Matrix
Red Cells White Cells Plasma
Purpose Amount Size Shape Nucleus ? Where
The students rough draft
Red blood cells carry oxygen and nutrients
around the body. They are small and indented in
the middle, like little Cheerios. There are 5
million per cc of blood. There is no nucleus in
mature red blood cells. They are formed in the
bone marrow and spleen.
Narrowing the Topic
The Civil War
Battles of the Civil War
Battles of Gettysburg
Famous People
What was the Fish hook strategy used at the
Battle of Gettysburg?
Yeah. Thats it.
Text Structures Taking Notes with
Concept 1
Concept 2
T-List or T-Chart Wilsons 14 Points
Main Ideas
1. 2. 3. 1. 2. 3. 1. 2. 3
Reasons President Wilson Designed the Plan for
Peace Three Immediate Effects on U.S.
Allies Three Structures/Protocols created by
the Plans
Cornell Note-Taking Format
  • Reduce Record
  • Summarize in
  • short phrases
  • or essential
  • questions next
  • to each block
  • of notes.
  • Review -- Summarize (paragraph-style) your
    points or responses to the questions. Reflect
    and comment on what you learned.

Write your notes on this side.
Somebody Wanted But So Fiction
  • Somebody (characters)
  • wanted (plot-motivation),
  • but (conflict),
  • so (resolution) .

Something Happened And Then Non-fiction
  Something (independent variable) happened
(change in that independent variable), and
(effect on the dependent variable), then
(conclusion) .
Build a Model
  • Abstract ideas can be expressed through models.
  • Assign the model or give students a choice to
    summarize via a model, but make sure there is
    time to plan, build/draw, and explain the model
    to classmates. Without these three features, we
    dilute the models effectiveness as a learning
  • As they work, dont hesitate to ask guiding
    questions of your students. Its a time to
    monitor closely, not let them fly solo. If we
    wait until the students present us with their
    models, we missed the prime learning windows.
  • Ask students to defend their models as students
    critique their accuracy and effectiveness.

Metaphors Break Down
  • You cant think of feudalism as a ladder
    because you can climb up a ladder. The feudal
    structure is more like sedimentary rock whats
    on the bottom will always be on the bottom unless
    some cataclysmic event occurs.
  • -- Amy Benjamin, Writing in the Content Areas, p.

  • Creating and interpreting patterns of content,
    not just content itself, creates a marketable
    skill in todays students. A look at data as
    indicating peaks and valleys of growth over
    time, noticing a trend runs parallel to another,
    or that a new advertising campaign for dietary
    supplements merges four distinct worlds --
    Greco-Roman, retro-80s, romance literature, and
    suburbia is currency for tomorrows employees.
  • To see this in a math curriculum, for example,
    look at algebraic patterns. Frances Van Dykes A
    Visual Approach to Algebra (Dale Seymour
    Publications, 1998)

A submarine submerges, rises up to the surface,
and submerges again. Its depth d is a function
of time t. (p.44)
A submarine submerges, rises up to the surface,
and submerges again. Its depth d is a function
of time t. (continued)
Consider the following graphs. Describe a
situation that could be appropriately represented
by each graph. Give the quantity measured along
the horizontal axis as well as the quantity
measured along the vertical axis.
Study Executive Function!
Late, Lost, and Unprepared Joyce Cooper-Kohn,
Laurie Dietzel Smart but Scattered Peg Dawson,
Richard Guare
Emotion drives attention, attention drives
learning. -- Robert Sylwester, 1995, p. 119,
Oxygen/Nutrient-Filled Bloodflow When the Body
is in Survival Mode
  • Vital Organs
  • Areas associated with growth
  • Areas associated with social activity
  • Cognition

  • Dopamine activates pleasure centers, controls
    conscious motor activity, facilitates mental
  • Serotonin calming, mood enhancer, helps with
    memory, sleep, appetite control, and regulation
    of body temperature
  • Healthy diet, exercise, and sleep help
    production of both!

Prime the brain prior to asking students to do
any learning experience.
  • Priming means we show students
  • What they will get out of the experience (the
  • What they will encounter as they go through the
    experience (itinerary, structure)

  • Worthy they were,
  • Rafael, Leonardo, Michelangelo, and Donatello.
  • Theirs a chromatic and plumed rebirth,
  • A daring reflection upon man.
  • Beyond Hastings and a Wifes tale in Canterbury,
  • Galileo thrust at more than Windmills,
  • He, Copernicus Gravitas.
  • And for the spectre of debate,
  • religion blinked then jailed,
  • errant no more,
  • thereby errant forever.
  • Cousin to Pericles, Son of Alexander,
  • The cosmology of Adam fanned for all,
  • feudal plains trampled by trumpeters,
  • man and woman lay awake --
  • calves on wobbly legs,
  • staring at new freedom
  • and Gutenbergs promise.

  • What do you see?
  • What number do you see?
  • What letter do you see?
  • Perception is when we bring meaning to the
    information we receive, and it depends on prior
    knowledge and what we expect to see. (Wolfe,
  • Are we teaching so that students perceive, or
    just to present curriculum and leave it up to the
    student to perceive it?

Petals Around the Rose
The name of the game is, Petals Around the
Rose. The name is very important. For each
roll of the game, there is one answer, and I will
tell you that answer.
Petals Around the Rose
Petals Around the Rose
  • Clues to give students if they struggle
  • All the math you need to solve this problem you
    learn in kindergarten or before.
  • The sequence of the dice patterns has no
    bearing on the answer.

Creativity Reminder from a Mythbuster
  • http//www.ted.com/talks/how_simple_ideas_lead_to_

  • Mindware www.mindwareonline.com
  • Fluegelman, Andrew, Editor. The New Games Book,
    Headlands Press Book, Doubeday and Company, New
    York, 1976
  • Henton, Mary (1996) Adventure in the Classroom.
    Dubuque, Iowa Kendall Hunt
  • Lundberg, Elaine M. Thurston, Cheryl Miller.
    (1997) If Theyre Laughing Fort Collins,
    Colorado Cottonwood Press, Inc.
  • Rohnke, K. (1984). Silver Bullets. Dubuque, Iowa
    Kendall Hunt.
  • Rohnke, K. Butler, S. (1995). QuickSilver.
    Dubuque, Iowa Kendall Hunt
  • Rohnke, K. (1991). The Bottomless Bag Again.
    Dubuque, Iowa Kendall Hunt
  • Rohnke, K. (1991). Bottomless Baggie. Dubuque,
    Iowa Kendall Hunt
  • Rohnke, K. (1989). Cowstail and Cobras II.
    Dubuque, Iowa Kendall Hunt
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