Mary Shelley - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


PPT – Mary Shelley PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 611451-NjY2Z


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation

Mary Shelley


Title: Mary Shelley s Frankenstein Author: Tammy Frayne Last modified by: Fegan Created Date: 2/12/2005 1:06:48 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:595
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 60
Provided by: TammyF9


Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Mary Shelley

Mary Shelleys Frankenstein
  • The Modern Prometheus

Why is it a Classic?
It speaks truths
It reveals human fears
It warns us of humans relentless search for power
Frankenstein An Authors Introduction,
  • What did the publishers want her to do for
    them? Why do you think was the case?
  • What does her childhood/personal background have
    to do with what she wrote?
  • What happened at Lord Byrons house?
  • How did her exposure to certain conversations
    influence her?
  • What might Shelley be suggesting about mans
    attempt to interfere with creation?
  • What would you say are some elements common to
    Gothic literature?

Mary Shelleys Frankenstein
  • Her publishers thought it would be
    useful/interesting for her to explain to her
    readers how her story came about.
  • This is somewhat reasonable given her identity
    as a female and the fact that nothing like it had
    ever been written before.

Her Familys Influence
  • Her father, William Godwin,was a political
    thinker and writer.
  • Her mother, Mary WollstonecrAft, was a

Mary Shelleys Frankenstein
  • In the summer of 1816, 19 year old Mary
    Wollstonecraft Godwin and her husband, the poet
    Percy Shelley, visited the Lord Byron at his
    villa beside Lake Geneva in Switzerland.

The Motivation
  • Stormy weather frequently forced them indoors,
    where they and Byron's other guests sometimes
    read from a volume of ghost stories. One evening,
    Byron challenged his guests to each write one
    themselves. Mary's story, inspired by a dream,
    became Frankenstein.
  • Her social circles
  • and her marriage to a
  • well-respected Romantic
  • poet would have raised
  • her interest in writing
  • and in science, reason, etc

What was Science Up to at this Point?
  • During Marys time, scientists and physicians
    were fascinated by the elusive boundary between
    life and death.
  • They experimented with lower organisms,
    performed human anatomical studies, attempted to
    resuscitate drowning victims, and even performed
    experiments using electricity to restore life to
    the recently dead.

Ideas to Consider as We Read..
  • Parents should not necessarily be held
    responsible for their childrens actions.
  • Everyone is capable of having a dark side.
  • Some secrets are meant to be kept.
  • Technology and science can solve all of our
  • Companionship is as basic a need as food or
  • If a person or animal is treated with cruelty,
    then he will respond to others in the same way.

Ideas to Consider as We Read..
  • 7. Loneliness is the main cause of sorrow in
  • 8. People make judgments based on physical
    appearance all the time.
  • 9. Nature has restorative effects.
  • 10. The most basic human need uniting us all is
    the need to feel like we actually matter.
  • 11. It is more important to make a mark on the
    world than to preserve the feelings of others. It
    is difficult to do both simultaneously.
  • 12. Nature vs. nurture- which has a greater
    impact on human development?

Where is this all going?.....
  • Influenced by the Romantic Period, the
    scientific inquiry of her time, and her own life,
    Mary Shelleys Gothic novel, Frankenstein,
    presents a clear message on the irony and danger
    in the quest for power.

Social Context Gothicism and Romanticism
  • Setting late 18th century, across various parts
    of Europe, esp Switzerland, Germany, and the far
    reaches of the Arctic
  • Published in 1818 at the height of the Romantic
    movement (1798-1832)- movement in art and
    literature that stressed such concepts as
    optimism, importance of the individual,
    imagination, the value of nature, and the
    expression of thought
  • Romantic heroes are often rebels, outcasts,
    pariahs- a motif we will see developed throughout
    this Gothic text.

Social Context Gothicism and Romanticism
  • Frankenstein- quintessential example of a gothic
    novel, which was very popular btwn 1760 and 1820.
  • It can be considered a blend of both
  • Romanticism and Gothicism.
  • Gothic harsh or cruel (Gothic tribes of
  • The Middle Ages) also mean
  • medieval, referring to the actual
  • historical period

Elements of a Gothic novel
  • Freedom of thought and expression, idealization
    of nature, emphasis on heightened emotion over
    sound reason
  • Mysterious disappearances, supernatural
    occurrences, suspense, terror, decay, horrible
  • Protagonist- usually a solitary, egocentric
    character who ultimately suffers great turmoil
  • Sinister settings nature used frequently to
    create atmosphere, almost can function as a
    character of sorts..Gothic architecture
  • Dark side of human nature is emphasized
  • Passive female, women in great distress and

A Few Words on the Preface.
  • Marys husband Percy Shelley, a celebrated
    Romantic poet wrote it. It explains the origins
    of the book.
  • Marlow refers to a place near London from where
    Percy was writing.
  • Frankenstein was first published anonymously,
    most likely b/c she was female. (Anonymous
    authorship- not uncommon for many female writers
    through the 19th century). In fact, the
    reviewers of her day simply assumed a male wrote
    the book.
  • Later, republished editions included Marys
    Authors Introduction.

Letters 1-4
  • Exposition begins with these letters and contains
    all events up through (roughly) the end of
    Chapter 3..
  • R.W., or Robert Walton- writing to his sister
    Margaret Saville, who is back in London.
  • R.W.- dreamy explorer, interested in making
    some sort of mark on the world, in the magnetic
    forces near the Arctic Poles, in discovering new
    travel routes
  • His quest for knowledge echoes that of the
    stranger and foreshadows the development of
    this theme.

Letters 1-4
  • Walton expresses great need for a very specific
    type of companionship- motif developed throughout
    the text. (What might this foreshadow?) I have
    no friend Margaret
  • Note the Romantic allusion- Rime of the Ancient
    Mariner- famous Romantic poem about a mournful
    sailor who ends up wretched.RW, though, believes
    success shall crown my endeavors.
  • Letter 4 RW and his comrades come upon 2
    figures on the ice- 1st manof gigantic
  • Later, RW pulls the stranger on board.

Letters 1-4
  • Mysterious wretched stranger- travelling to
    seek one who has fled me..- the aforementioned
    manof gigantic stature..
  • Notice how badly this stranger wants to find
    the demon he is seeking.
  • RW begins to love him as a brother. They have a
    great affinity for each other, can relate to each
    others ambitious nature. You seek for
    knowledge and wisdom as I once did
  • The stranger tells RW his story as a cautionary
    tale of sorts.

Letters 1-4
  • Significance of the end of Letter 4 RW tells his
    sister that he plans to record the tale of the
    stranger, as nearly as possible in his own
  • Frankensteins narrative structure- frame
  • Chapter 1 begins the first person narration of
    the stranger as told directly to and filtered
    through RW.

Narrative Structure in Frankenstein
  • Interesting fusion of 2 literary genres
  • 1. Epistolary novel- work containing series of
    documents, namely letters, journal entries, etc).
    It is traditionally considered a more female
  • Intended purpose reveals inner psychological
  • Shelley subverts this genre through the use of a
    male narrator. How?
  • Male narrator/s here experience/s little to no

Narrative Structure in Frankenstein
  • 2. Explorers journal- traditionally a more
    masculine genre.
  • Shelley also subverts the traditional purposes of
    this genre. How?
  • The male narrator experiences little growth which
    was not typical of this genre. Victor ultimately
    collapses mentally Waltons quest for knowledge
    is largely a failure.

Chapter 1
  • Stranger- Genevese- (Swiss), from a very
    distinguished family his father is a renowned
    businessman of sorts.
  • This stranger speaks highly of his fathers
    character, providing the example of how he stands
    by his merchant friend, Beaufort, when he falls
    into great bankruptcy and subsequent depression.
  • Caroline is the daughter of Beaufort. She goes
    on to marry the elder Mr. Frankenstein, becoming
    Victors mother.

Chapter 1
  • Caroline , too, is portrayed as being of
    exceptional character- great tendernessa mind
    of uncommon mold.
  • Passive female is all over this chapter Caroline
    is left an orphan and a beggar when Beaufort
    dies. Also, notice the description of her as much
    younger than her husband soft and benevolent
  • Elizabeth Lavenza, too- adoptive Italian sister
    of the stranger. His parents took pity on her
    during an excursion.He speaks of her as his
    cousin,sister and what else? She is in
    Victors possession.
  • Finally, the strangers name is revealed to be

Chapter 1- closing thoughts
  • Notice the revelation of the strangers name as
    Victor.Why might Shelley have presented in this
    way? And why is he constantly referred to as the
  • This builds suspense and consistently emphasizes
    Victor as a man apart, a pariah- all in keeping
    with conventions of the gothic novel

Chapter 2
  • Harmony was the soul of our companionship..-
    Victor and Elizabeth have a wonderful
  • They are wonderful foils, or complements, for one
    another. An opposites attract type situation.
  • We get a preview of Victors thirst for
  • Victor had a wonderful childhood. No one could
    have had a more wonderful childhood than myself.
  • Notice the way male friendships play a role in
    the novel.(RW Victor, Beaufort Mr.
    Frankenstein, and Victor and his beloved Henry

Chapter 2
  • Victor has wonderful relationships still, he
    recognizes he is different from those he is
    closest to in life. He is self-taught, has
    different interests from Elizabeth Henry.
  • Victor is a reader and a scholar who embarks on a
    search for the elixir of life. (Does his father
    foster Victors interest in learning? How does
    this impact Victor? What is suggested about the
    nature of parents? )
  • Gothic elements abound- the thunderstorm sparks
    some sort of fire in Victor, an even increased
    interest in the reaches of science.
  • Why might the term destruction be used at the end
    of this chapter?...

Chapter 3
  • Caroline dies as a result of having nursed
    Elizabeth back to health from her bout w/ scarlet
    fever- Victors first massive emotional setback.
  • What should we be noticing about the portrayal of
    the female characters?
  • Is Elizabeth a strong or weak character? How so?
  • Victor-off to university at 17- Ingolstadt in
    Bavaria, a region of modern-day Germany (sort of
    like a modern-day MIT)
  • What similarities are there between Henry and

Chapter 3
  • Victor- certainly conflicted about leaving home
  • Note the personification and kenning in Chance
    evil influence, Angel of Destruction-
    surrounding Victors meeting w/ one of his new
    professors, Krempe.
  • Krempe dismisses Victors interest in alchemy.
    This reflects the scientific trends of Shelleys
  • Alchemy- medieval science whose principal aim was
    attempting to change base metals into gold.
    However, alchemists also had interests in trying
    to cure disease and prolong human life.
  • Victor- intimidated by Krempe, finds his
    personality abrasive.

Chapter 3
  • Waldman- almost the antithesis of Krempe
  • Victors interaction w/ Waldman has a profound
    impact upon him it is the impetus that propels
    Victor toward exploring the far reaches and
    possibilities of science.
  • (Refers to him as a true friend in next
  • Thus ended a memorable day for me it decided my
    future destiny.- Groundwork is laid here for the
    exciting force/inciting incident
  • Victors decision to attempt to push the
    boundaries of science and create life.

Chapter 4
  • Rising action/complication begins.
  • Narrative structure in compromised when Victors
    narration is interrupted- reminds RW of the
    dangers of the pursuit of knowledge.
  • Victor Whence, I often asked myself, did the
    nature of life proceed? increasingly obsessed,
    hasnt been home in approx. 2 yrs.
  • Gothic elements v strong in his description of
    his experiences with corpses and in various
    vaults, etc..
  • His father was rather dismissive of Victors
    interests, never seemed to be too supportive of
    them- perhaps for good reason.

Mini Review
  • Characterize Mr. Frankensteins views on Victors
    education. Why do you think Mr. Frankenstein feel
    this way?
  • Last class, we briefly discussed the
    juxtaposition of both gothic and Romantic
    elements in the text. What does juxtaposition
    actually mean?
  • In what way/s is Victor similar to Macbeth?
  • Why did Victor tell no one about his efforts?
  • What seems to be the predominate literary device
    thus far? How so?
  • What predictions can you make about any
    character? Why do you feel this way?

Chapter 4
  • Victor- uncovers the secret to creating life
  • Juxtaposition the placement of two disparate
    (contrasting) elements, ideas, people, etc
    alongside one another for dramatic effect and
    heightened tension.
  • Juxtaposition of gothic and Romantic elements-
    1. The gothic Victor uses pieces of
    discarded corpses to make his own creature, etc.

    2. The Romantic- Victor is so caught
    up in his pursuits he doesnt notice the beauty
    of the passing seasons.
  • But I forget.- reminder to the reader of the
    narrative structure, reinforces RWs role.

Chapter 5
  • Dark, dreary setting opens up the chapter-
    establishes a sense of foreboding as the monster,
    Victors creation is about to be revealed
  • He reacts with horror and absolute disgust at
    what he had created due to his unchecked
  • What might this monster now symbolize?.....
  • Romantic allusion to previous poem- reinforces
    Victors internal dread and turmoil
  • Clerval rescues Henry, nurses him back to health.
    (What prior plot point is this reminiscent of?)
  • Notice the pattern/functioning of male
    friendships in the text- motif.

Chapter 6
  • Narration opens w/ letter from Elizabeth-
    Shelleys subversion of the epistolary form gives
    the narration a more layered feel.
  • She writes of Ernest and William Frankenstein,
    their brothers
  • Justine Moritz, a poor servant girl with a
    strange and highly changeable mother, is
    introduced. Caroline has chosen that she join
    the Frankenstein family as a servant. Justine is
    treated well, but she hasnt had an easy life.
  • Why is Justines mother so tormented? How would
    you explain her?.....

Chapter 6
  • Romantic influence- notice the rejuvenating
    effect of nature on Victor as he recovers from
    his nervous breakdown.
  • Victors happiness and heightened emotions
    function to dramatize, to complicate, the events
    that will soon unfold..

Questions for Review
  • Who is really the only unsympathetic female
    character we have encountered thus far?
  • Describe Mrs. Moritz.
  • Where have we seen the influence of the Catholic
  • How does the monster develop into something of a
    sympathetic character? (textual examples)
  • What is revealed about the nature of knowledge,
    learning, and parenting in the text? (Think in
    terms of the monsters experience).
  • How are Safie and the monster similar?

Chapter 7
  • Victors father conveys the woeful news that
    William is dead, presumably having been strangled
    in the woods.
  • Henry Clerval accompanies Victor back to Geneva.
  • Victor sees the monster in the woods and is
    resolute that he killed his brother William.
  • Two years have gone by since he created the
  • Justine is charged with Williams murder. She
    was found with a picture of Caroline that William
  • Victor knows she is innocent. The rest of his
    family seems to believe strongly in her
    innocence, too.

Chapter 8
  • On the surface, Justine appears guilty much of
    the evidence does implicate her as Williams
    murderer. She had been out wandering, she
    appears frightful and nervous
  • Victor I believed in her innocence I knew it.
  • Elizabeth offers powerful character testimony in
    court in defense of Justine.
  • Justine confesses but only because she was under
    great duress, threatened with excommunication.
  • She is executed for her supposed role in the
    murder of young William.
  • Victor- torn by remorse, horror, and despair-
    refers to William and Justine as victims of his
    unhallowed arts

Chapter 9
  • Victor lives in a self-described a hell of
    intense tortures His acceptance of
    responsibility- and his feelings regarding the
    monster- are warped. He refers to himself as the
    true murderer. Still, Victor hates and fears
    the monster. Revenge is foremost in his
  • Elizabeth- the quintessence of virtue and
    goodness- maintains Justines innocence.
  • What does Victor fear will happen?
  • The chapter ends w/ Victor seeking retreat in the
    valley for some relief from his turmoil
  • I was a wreck but nothing had changed in those
    savage and enduring scenes

Questions for Review
  • How and where are biblical allusions present?
  • How is Safies portrayal in keeping with the
    other females we have encountered thus far?
  • What kind of person is her father? Why? How so?
  • What motivates the monster to frame Justine?
  • Where is the concept of the sublime apparent in
    the text?
  • Where do we see light and fire in the text? What
    could each symbolize?

Chapter 10
  • One thing that can soothe, console Victor now.
  • The sight of the awful and majestic in nature
    had indeed always the effect of solemnizing my
  • Victors experience of the sublime-
    literary/philosophical concept that nature has a
    dramatic restorative effect (Romantic)
  • Note the allusion to Percy Shelleys poem,
    Mutability, to capture Victors turmoil.
  • Sadness of the theme The only guarantee in life
    is that nothing stays the same.
  • Victor and his monster finally confront one
    another. The monster pursues Victor in the hopes
    that he will fulfill his duties as his creator.

Chapter 10
  • Monsters lack of a name symbolizes Victors
    total disregard of the monsters apparent- and
    clear- need for nurturing and social development.
  • Monster How dare you thus sport with life?-
    recognition of Victors hubris (excessive pride
    and arrogance in venturing to create life so
  • In his mind, he has done nothing to deserve such
  • Biblical allusions to Genesis Monster describes
    himself as the rightful Adam, yet he is scorned
    as the fallen angel or like Lucifer. He refers
    to Victor as his creator, longs for a
    companion. (reminiscent of Adam and Eve)

Chapter 10
  • Monsters request Listen to my story and then
    judge me as you would.
  • Significance Reader is exposed to a more human,
    merciful side of the monster AND Victor finally
    seems to realize- albeit very begrudgingly- that
    he may have some responsibility toward his

Chapter 11, 12
  • Narration changes to include- verbatim- the
    monsters first person account of his life thus
    far. Reader is able to relate to the monster and
    hear a fresh perspective.
  • Walton----Victor-----Monster..
  • Notice the monsters fondness for the villagers
    and his great yearning for companionship. (Where
    had we seen this need echoed before? What does
    this signify?)
  • The monster is articulate. Why is this
  • He is self-educated, which shows his need for
  • He has taught himself language and learned as
    much as he is able the gift of empathy.

Chapter 12
  • Monster takes refuge in the woods and is enamored
    of the family. He is able to glean they are sad
    due to poverty.
  • The cottagers the father, or old man, girl
    Agatha, boy Felix.
  • He helps them out at a distance He wants to be
    welcomed by them he anonymously helps them with
    their chores.He called them his protectors
  • The monster wants to learn to speak Why?
  • Also, is his general reaction to nature similar
    or dissimilar to that of Victor?

Chapter 13
  • Arabian Safie- introduced under mysterious
  • Felix appears to be in love with her his family
    is very kind to her. Felix does eventually marry
  • As they educate her, the monster, too, becomes
    more educated and disillusioned with humanity.
    Notice his reaction to the lessons of history
  • Was man, indeed, at once so powerful, so
    virtuous and magnificent, yet so vicious and
    base?...Oh what a strange nature is knowledge!
  • The monsters epiphany He sees that his
    education is both a blessing and a curse. He
    wants a family he recognizes that he is a
    pariah, an outcast with no lovep. 108

Chapter 14
  • Monster provides reader w/ details about DeLacey
    family Mr. DeLacey, Felix, and Agatha are French
    and were once very wealthy.
  • Felix, in love with Safie, once tried to save
    Safies father- a social agitator?- from unjust
    imprisonment by the French govt. Her father
    betrays Felix and his family. He never cared they
    were all thrown into prison, became penniless
    trying to save him.
  • Safie- yet another example of a passive,
    persecuted female. She strives to be free of her
    oppressive father. She finds her Muslim world
    confining as did her Christian mother, who was
    made a slave by the Turks.

Chapter 14,15
  • Safie- powerful testament to the tensions between
    the Christian and Arab worlds.
  • Like the monster, she hopes to find her place in
    the world by acquiring knowledge (language) and
    escaping oppression.
  • The monster finds Victors journals and vows to
    find him. Notice his anger at Victor.
  • Also, he is desperate for companionship, so he
    works up the nerve to present himself to the
  • Felix and Agatha are horrified and throw him out.
    Mr. Delacey is blind ?

Chapter 16
  • The DeLaceys abandon their cottage out of fear of
    the monster, which enrages him. He burns the
    cottage to the ground.
  • Symbolism of light (knowledge/discovery) and fire
    (dark force/destruction)- Notice that lightness
    and darkness are the first sensations the monster
  • The monster encounters William,is delighted at
    the thought of a potential companion. Why did he
    really murder him, though?- He is filled w/ wrath
    once he begins to understand he is related to
  • Why does he want to frame Justine by placing the
    locket on her person? Why has the monster become
    so twisted?

Chapter 17
  • The monster increasingly views himself as a
    victim his creator and all those who encounter
    him shape his evil motivations and acts. I am
    malicious because I am miserableAm I not shunned
    and hated by all mankind?
  • Narration shifts back to Victor.
  • P. 135,6Victor shows some shred of sympathy for
    the monster, especially as the monster requests
    the companion just like himself. Yet he
    vacillates ..
  • Victors mixed reaction to nature and family is
    reflective of his inner turmoil.
  • Personification of nature Starsyet all are
    about to mock me (p. 138)

Questions for Review
  • Whose death is foreshadowed most strongly in the
  • Elizabethsmy more than sister, since till
    death she was to be mine only.
  • Identify literary devices in the following
    Destiny was too potent, and her immutable laws
    had decreed my utter and total destruction.
  • How does RW feel about Victor?
  • Are the monster and Victor two sides of the same
  • How is exile, esp, self-imposed exile is a motif?
  • How does Victor feel about his own ambition?

Chapter 18
  • Victor delays his efforts to create a female
  • He wants to marry Elizabeth, as Alphonse
    suggests, but he fears that the monster may do
    more harm. (foreshadowing). He is reluctant to
    become engaged w/out first finishing his
  • Clervals reaction to the beauties of nature is
    the antithesis of Victors.
  • Yet anthr allusion to Romantic poetry (nature)

Chapter 19
  • Victor In Clerval I saw the former image of
    myself Victor sees he was once innocently
    inquisitive and joyful as Clerval now is on their
    travels. He refers to himself as Victors
  • Doppelganger- (German)- a character double a
    character that reflects the dark, or opposing,
    side of a character. Think of a character being
    divided into two living psychological forces.
    (alter ego)- how is this different from a foil?
  • The monster can be interpreted as Victors
    doppelganger. Each has good intentions.Also,
    they are inextricably linked. Ones fate
    determines the others. (Is Henry Victor also
    Vs doppelganger?)

Chapters 20 21
  • Victor destroys his female creation he fears
    that she will bear offspring. Also, he feels it
    would be selfish to do so.
  • The monster in response to Victors broken
    promise I will be with you on your
  • The monster essentially has framed Victor for the
    murder of Henry Clerval.
  • Victor, just as in the case of William and
    Justine, refers to himself as Henrys murderer.
  • Mr. Kirwin- the magistrate- like a prosecutor
    or judge
  • Victor is acquitted his whereabouts the night of
    the murder are confirmed.

Chapters 22 23
  • If for one instant, I had thought what might be
    the hellish intention of my fiendish
    adversary.The monster had blinded me to his real
    intentions. Victor misinterpreted the
    monsters threat.
  • Victor had planned to tell Elizabeth his secret.
  • CLIMAX the murder of Elizabeth.
  • Alphonse dies of heartbreak.
  • Victor tells the Genevan magistrate his tale, who
    regards it with some incredulity.
  • Some irony in Victors words Man how ignorant
    art thou in thy pride of wisdom! p. 191

Chapter 24 to end
  • Denouement/falling action Victors rage and
    heartbreak following the murder of Elizabeth, his
    pursuit of the monster into the Arctic, Victors
    death, Waltons reclamation of the narration.
  • Victor Revenge kept me alive.(Wrath and despair
    are strongly present, too.)
  • How does sleep function as a motif? ..
  • RW believes Victors story and sympathizes with
  • Victor to RW Learn my miseries and do not seek
    to increase your own. Victor does sees the
    error of his ways simultaneously, he believes it
    is his destiny to destroy the monster.

Chapter 24 to end
  • Henry Victor as Victor Walton
  • Walton sees a true friend for himself in Victor-
    a glorious spirit Victor states no one can
    replace the lost Henry for him. (feelings are
    not entirely reciprocated). This shows Victors
    obsessive determination to destroy the monster.
  • Walton- somewhat of an objective reporter to
    filter Victors account

Chapter 24 to end
  • Resolution Failure of RWs expedition, death of
    Victor (report of), appearance of monster to RW,
    monster wandering off mournfully
  • Situational Irony- contrast between what actually
    happens and what would be expected or
  • Victors encouraging RW to continue on w/ his
    expedition despite the dangers presented to him.
    Victor expressed to RW his desire that RW learn
    from his ambition .
  • Has Victor changed? How so? How not?
  • Victor wants RW to destroy the monster on his

Chapter 24 to end
  • Evidence of doppelganger apparent in monsters
    viewing of Victors body
  • In his murder my crimes are consummated the
    miserable series of my being is wound to a
  • The fallen angel becomes a malignant devil.
    (allusion to Lucifer)
  • The monster seems distraught at Victors death
    and at his own actions. RW finds himself torn.
    The monster wanders off to die he refers to
    death as his only consolation from his crimes.
  • Self-imposed exile- a strong motif in the text-
    seen in both Victor and the monster (the latter
    pledges to go into exile if he gets his female