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The Louisiana Purchase

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Title: The Louisiana Purchase


1
The Louisiana Purchase
2
New Orleans
  • By the early 1800s the United States stretched
    from the Atlantic Ocean to the Mississippi River.
    With overland transportation still unreliable,
    the Mississippi River was a vital transportation
    route for farmers to get their products to
    markets in the East. President Thomas Jefferson
    knew whoever controlled New Orleans, controlled
    the Mississippi River.
  • In 1802 Jefferson sent James Monroe to France to
    negotiate the purchase of New Orleans for 10
    million. Monroe also was sent to Spain to
    negotiate the purchase of the territory of
    Florida.
  • While the French initially refused Americas
    offer, the French now knew the United States was
    interested in paying for the territory.

Thomas Jefferson
Napoleon Bonaparte
Satellite Image of New Orleans
3
Frances Plans Are Foiled
  • France planned to use its island colony of Haiti
    as a base for future French settlers to move into
    the Louisiana Territory west of the Mississippi.
  • These plans were disrupted when a slave,
    Toussaint LOuverture, led a revolt against the
    French. The slaves took control of the island,
    and Frances plans for a French base were
    abandoned.
  • At the same time, France was fighting a war with
    other European countries and badly needed money.
  • These events caused Napoleon to approach the
    Americans with the greatest land bargain of all
    time! He agreed to sell New Orleans and the
    entire Louisiana territory for 15 million. This
    land purchase would double the size of the United
    States!
  • However, the French could not define the borders
    of the land.

Toussaint LOuverture
Haiti
4
The Corps of Discovery
  • Before the purchase of the Louisiana territory
    was official, President Jefferson began planning
    to send an expedition to map the territory.
  • Jefferson chose his secretary, Captain Meriwether
    Lewis. He and his old friend organized an
    expedition of thirty-one men, mostly soldiers.
    This Corps of Discovery headed for the unknown
    lands west of the Mississippi River.
  • The Corps mission was to travel up the Missouri
    River in search of a northwest passage, an
    all-water route to the Pacific Ocean. The men
    were to make contact with American Indian tribes
    in the region.
  • Contrary to popular belief, Lewis and Clark were
    not the first to lead an expedition to the
    Pacific Ocean. Alexander MacKenzie crossed to the
    Pacific in 1793.

Captain William Clark 1770-1838
Meriwether Lewis 1774-1809
A Newfoundland named Seaman accompanied the Corps
of Discovery.
5
York
  • One of the men in the Corps of Discovery was
    York, the slave of William Clark.
  • As the Corps met Indians in their journey west,
    Yorks appearance amazed the Indians. Many
    Indians had never seen an African-American man
    and believed him to be part bear.

Many former slaves went west in search of freedom
in the territories. The Indians treated them as
equals.
Indians who met York thought he was covered in
paint and attempted to wipe it off.
6
John Colter
William Clark
York
Toussaint Charbonneau
Meriwether Lewis
Sacagawea
7
Training in Philadelphia
  • In the spring of 1803, Meriwether Lewis made his
    way to Philadelphia, the scientific capital of
    the United States, to train for the mission. In
    Philadelphia he was educated in mapmaking and the
    sciences. Lewis spent much of his time at the
    museum of Charles Willson Peale located on the
    second floor of Independence Hall.
  • Lewis also purchased scientific instruments and
    other supplies with the 2,500 Congress had given
    him to finance the expedition.
  • After stopping in Pittsburgh to oversee the
    building of the keelboat, Lewis joined Clark at
    the Corps winter camp in Illinois.

The shop of Israel Whelan, Purveyor of Public
Supplies. Lewis bought many of his supplies here.
The Peale museum was located on the second floor
of Independence Hall.
8
One Big Shopping List!
Camping Equipment
  • 150 Yards (140 meters) of cloth to be oiled and
    sewn into tents and sheets 6 large
    needlespliers chisels handsawsoilskin bags
    25 hatchets whetstones30 steels for striking
    or making fire iron corn mill 2 dozen
    tablespoons mosquito curtains 10.5 pounds (5
    kilograms) of fishing hooks and fishing lines
    12 pounds (5.4 kilograms) of soap 193 pounds
    (87.5 kilograms) of portable soup (a thick
    paste concocted by boiling down beef, eggs, and
    vegetables, to be used if no other food was
    available on the trail) 3 bushels (106 liters)
    of salt writing paper, ink, and crayons

Weapons
  • 15 prototype Model 1803 muzzle-loading
    .54-caliber rifles "Kentucky Rifles"15 gun
    slings24 large knivespowder horns 500 rifle
    flints420 pounds (191 kilograms) of sheet lead
    for bullets 176 pounds (80 kilograms) of
    gunpowder packed in 52 lead canisters 1
    long-barreled rifle that fired its bullet with
    compressed air, rather than by flint, spark,
    and powder

9
More Supplies ...
Presents for American Indians
Medicine
50 dozen Dr. Rush's patented "Rush's
Thunderclapper" pills lancets forceps
syringes tourniquets 1,300 doses of physic
1,100 doses of emetic 3,500 doses of
diaphoretic (sweat inducer) additional drugs
  • 12 dozen pocket mirrors 4,600 sewing needles
    144 small scissors 10 pounds of sewing thread
    silk ribbonsivory combs handkerchiefs yards
    of bright-colored cloth 130 rolls of tobacco
    tomahawks that doubled as pipes 288 knives 8
    brass kettles vermilion face paint 20 pounds of
    assorted beads, mostly blue5 pounds of small,
    white, glass beads288 brass thimblesarmbandsear
    trinkets

Clothing
  • 45 flannel shirts 20 coats 15 frocks shoes
    woolen pants 15 blankets knapsacks 30
    stockings 15 pairs of wool overalls

10
Transportation
  • The primary means of transportation west was a
    large keel boat and two smaller open boats. Lewis
    also brought a collapsible boat he had designed.
    However, by the time the expedition needed the
    boats, there were no pine trees to make pitch
    (tar from burned pine trees), used to water-proof
    boats.
  • The Corps hoped at some point they would be able
    to trade with native people for horses.

The keelboat was fifty-five feet long.
swivel gun
Securing horses as they traveled was vital to
completing the Corps mission.
11
Starting Out
  • On May 20, 1804, the Corps of Discovery left St.
    Louis on their journey up the Missouri River.
  • The group traveled more than six hundred miles up
    the Missouri before meeting a single American
    Indian.
  • On August 2, the Corps had their first encounter
    with Indians when they met members of the Oto and
    Missouri tribes. The tribes warned the Corps of
    the powerful Teton-Sioux that lived farther up
    the Missouri. The group would soon learn why the
    Sioux earned the nickname, Pirates of the
    Missouri.

Camp Wood (Illinois)
Mississippi River
Missouri River
St. Louis (Missouri)
Satellite image of the Mississippi and Missouri
Rivers
12
The Pirates of the MissouriSeptember 1804
Teton-Sioux Warrior
  • In September 1804, the Corps of Discovery entered
    Sioux territory and began to have contact with
    the natives.
  • The Corps presented the Sioux with gifts of glass
    beads, sewing needles and thread, mirrors, and
    other items.
  • As the group prepared to leave, several Sioux
    braves demanded more goods. Clark drew his sword
    as the Sioux braves notched their arrows.
  • An old chief eased the tension when he requested
    that his people be allowed to meet the strangers.
  • Capt. Lewis ordered all under arms in the boat,
    those with me also Showed a Disposition to Defend
    themselves and me, the grand Chief then took hold
    of the rope ordered the young Warriors away, I
    felt My Self warm Spoke in very positive terms.
    Most of the Warriors appeared to have their Bows
    strung and took out their arrows from the quiver.

Captain William Clark September 25, 1804
13
A Whole New World
  • One of the missions assigned to the Corps was to
    record the discovery of new plants and animals.
    They also hoped to bring some animals back for
    further study.
  • Throughout their 8,000- mile journey, the group
    would discover one hundred seventy-eight plants
    and one hundred twenty-two species and
    sub-species of animals.

When members of the Corps first saw a grizzly
bear, they decided to shoot it. This angered the
bear, and the bear charged the men.
The men used soapy water to flush the
blacktailed prairie dog out of its burrow. It
was the only animal that survived the return
journey to Washington, D.C.
14
William Clark drew many of the plants and animals
he saw on the journey. Scientists would take
years to review the mountains of new information
that Lewis and Clark brought back with them.
Sketches from Clarks Journal
15
Fort MandanWinter Quarters 1804-1805
  • The Corps reached what is today Bismarck, North
    Dakota, in October 1804 and began constructing
    their winter quarters.
  • This was the traditional homeland of the Mandan
    and Hidatsa Indians who lived off the plains
    buffalo.
  • It was here that the Corps would hire Toussaint
    Charbonneau and his young wife, Sacagawea, to
    guide them west.
  • On February 11, 1805, Sacagawea gave birth to a
    son with the help of Meriwether Lewis. She named
    her son Jean-Baptiste. The members of the Corps
    nicknamed him Pompy, or little dancer. Pompy
    became the youngest member of the Corps.

View from the Front Gates of a Replica of Fort
Mandan.
In 1804 millions of buffalo still roamed the
plains of the Midwest. Today only small herds
exist in national parks such as Yellowstone.
16
Sacagawea c. 1788-1812
  • Sacagawea was a young Shoshone women who had been
    kidnapped from her tribe when she was young.
  • She later married a French fur trapper, Toussaint
    Charbonneau .
  • When the Corps arrived at Fort Mandan, they hired
    Charbonneau to be their guide. It was agreed his
    wife Sacagawea and their young son,
    Jean-Baptiste, would accompany the expedition.
  • Sacagawea proved to be an unexpected asset to the
    Corps. Throughout the expedition, she would play
    the crucial roles of guide, translator, and even
    more importantly, a peace symbol. Indians who saw
    the Corps approaching assumed the group came in
    peace because the group of men included a woman
    and young child.

Sacagawea with her young son, Jean-Baptiste
Charbonneau
17
The Source of the MissouriAugust 12, 1805
  • As the group traveled up the Missouri, they were
    unable to continue in their boats. They could
    also see the snow-capped mountains ahead.
  • At this point the Corps realized a northwest
    passage did not exist.
  • To make things worse, one of the open boats
    capsized, spilling supplies and parts of Clarks
    journal into the river. Sacagawea stayed calm and
    saved many of the papers.
  • At this point the group had to find Indian tribes
    to trade for horses or they would run the risk of
    being caught in the Rockies during the winter.

Source of the Missouri River
The expedition had been told that they only had
to cross a small range of mountains. They were
astounded to discover the true size of the
Rockies.
18
Sacagawea Saves the Day
  • On August 17, 1805, the Corps reached a Shoshone
    village at the foot of the Rocky Mountains, and
    they began to trade for horses.
  • During this initial meeting, Sacagawea realized
    the Shoshone chief, Cameahwait, was her long-lost
    brother. This was the same tribe from which
    Sacagawea had been kidnapped many years before!
  • Needless to say, the Shoshone provided the Corps
    with the horses they needed and even sent guides
    to help the expedition through the Bitterroot
    Range of the Rocky Mountains.

Sacagawea began to weep when she recognized her
brother. The translation at this meeting was very
complicated. It involved Sacagawea translating
the Shoshone language into Mandan and Charbonneau
translating the Mandan into French. Another
member of the Corps would translate the French
into English.
19
The Fastest People on Earth!!
  • On September 23, 1805, the Corps reached the
    other side of the Rockies.
  • When the Corps reached the Columbia River, on the
    present-day Washington-Oregon border, they built
    canoes and began to float down the river with the
    current.
  • As they made their way down the swiftly moving
    river, they were traveling faster than any other
    people on Earth.
  • The Columbia did have many treacherous rapids
    that threatened the group several times. At some
    points the Corps was forced to carry its canoes
    and supplies around steep rapids and falls.

The name Nez Perce was mistakenly given to the
group even though they did not pierce their noses.
Rapids on the Columbia River
20
Ocean in View! O! The Joy!William Clark,
November 7, 1805
  • The expedition reached the Pacific Ocean in
    November 1805. They immediately began to look for
    a ship to carry copies of the records of the
    Corps discoveries back to Washington, D.C.
  • At the mouth of the Columbia River, the group
    began to build its winter quarters.
  • When Clark wrote the words, Ocean in view! O!
    The Joy! he believed he had seen the Pacific
    Ocean. However, he was just seeing the widening
    of the Columbia River. It would take another two
    weeks to reach the ocean.

The Nez Perce taught the Corps how to make dugout
canoes.
View of the Pacific Ocean
21
Fort ClatsopWinter 1805-1806
  • Shortly after their arrival at the Pacific Ocean,
    Lewis and Clark held a vote among the Corps to
    decide where to build their camp.
  • Both Sacagawea and York were allowed to vote.
    This demonstration of Americas democratic values
    would not be repeated for more than a hundred
    years.
  • The Corps decided to build its winter quarters
    near the Clatsop people who lived by fishing the
    abundant salmon that migrated up the Columbia
    every year. The Corps named their fort in honor
    of the Clatsop.

Replica of Fort Clatsop
Salmon Drying on Racks
22
Conflict with the Blackfoot
  • On their return to St. Louis, the Corps decided
    to split up in order to map more territory. One
    group met a pair of Blackfoot Indians who
    attempted to steal their horses early the next
    morning.
  • In the altercation that followed, one Indian was
    shot and the other stabbed to death.
  • The members of the Corps laid the peace medals
    they brought with them on the dead Blackfoot
    Indians to send a warning to the Indians.
  • The Blackfoot people were not frightened. They
    attacked future settlers and soldiers that
    entered their territory. They pointed to the
    killing of their warriors as the reason for their
    attacks.

Blackfoot Indian
Peace medal placed on dead Blackfoot Indians
23
Hell on Earth!
  • One of the members of the Corps, John Colter,
    split from the group and stumbled into the
    Yellowstone Valley. Colter was the first European
    to see the Yellowstone geysers.
  • Lewis did not believe the stories Colter told him
    about what he had seen in the Yellowstone Valley.
    In fact, other members of the expedition and
    people in St. Louis made fun of him when he
    returned to St. Louis with what seemed to be
    outlandish tales of what he had seen. Until the
    claims were proven correct, the area was known
    sarcastically as Colters Hell.
  • Yellowstone became Americas first national park
    in 1872 when Congress passed the legislation, and
    President Ulysses Grant signed it into law.

Mountain man Jim Bridger also traveled through
the Yellowstone Valley. When he told people of
this place, few believed the stories of his
experiences.
24
Back in St. LouisSeptember 23, 1806
  • When the Corps of Discovery returned to St. Louis
    more than two years after it had left, the Corps
    was greeted with cannon fire and hailed as
    heroes.
  • Many Americans, including Thomas Jefferson, had
    given up hope of the Corps returning alive.
  • When Jefferson finally received the maps the
    expedition had prepared, he is reported to have
    spread them on the floor and studied the maps for
    days.

Re-enactors play the roles of Lewis, Clark,
Colter, and even Seaman during the bicentennial
celebration of Lewis and Clarks journey.
25
  • Captain William Clark took nearly two years to
    piece together his maps (right) and create a
    complete map of the expedition (above).

26
The Legacy
  • The Louisiana Purchase doubled the size of the
    United States. The United States paid France 15
    million for the Louisiana Territory. When the
    final calculations were done, this vast tract of
    land cost about four cents and acre!
  • The final cost of the Lewis and Clark Expedition
    was 39,000, which was substantially more than
    the 2,500 Congress had authorized.
  • Only one man died on the journey, and he appeared
    to have succumbed to an appendicitis.
  • Students often ask what happened to
    Jean-Baptiste, Sacagaweas son. He grew up,
    traveled to Europe, and returned to America. He
    made his fortune as a forty-niner during the
    California Gold Rush.
  • Sacagawea became only the second American woman
    to be honored on American currency. In 2000 she
    and her sons likenesses were engraved on a new
    1 coin.
  • Sadly, Sacagawea died of an unknown illness in
    1812. William Clark took responsibility for
    raising Jean-Baptiste and Lisette.
  • When York returned home, he asked Captain Clark
    for his freedom. Clark refused and noted in his
    diary that he had to whip York because Clark
    stated that York became uppity. Clark told
    Washington Irving in 1835 that he had freed York.
    However, there is no official record that Clark
    freed York.

St. Louis Arch Gateway to the West
Sacagawea Dollar 2001 Sacagaweas daughter
Lisette was born after Sacagaweas return from
the expedition.
27
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