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Overview of the History of Canada

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Overview of the History of Canada s Immigration Policy Researched by Janet Dench Compiled by Loly Rico and Kemi Jacobs Canadian Council for Refugees – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Overview of the History of Canada


1
Overview of the History of Canadas Immigration
Policy Researched by Janet Dench Compiled by
Loly Rico and Kemi Jacobs Canadian Council for
Refugees
2
People have been coming to Canada for many years
.

3
Canadas immigration policies (or lack thereof)
have always had significant impacts on the people
who were allowed to come
  • Early policy was very simple..

4
1896 - 1905
  • I think that a stalwart peasant in a sheepskin
    coat, born to the soil, with a stout wife and a
    half dozen children, is good quality
  • Clifford Sifton, Ministry of Interior

5
1901 census
  • Population 5,371,315
  • 96 of European origin
  • 13 population were immigrants
  • 55 foreign-born were citizens
  • 4 Chinese were citizens
  • 43 immigrants female
  • 41 pop of British origin
  • 31 French
  • 22,050 Chinese
  • 17, 347 Blacks
  • 16,131 Jews
  • In 1901 the Chinese Head tax doubled from the
    1885 level of 50 to 100.

6
1906
  • Immigration Act passed to stop undesirable
    immigrants

7
This Act
  • Handicap
  • Becoming an inmate of a prison or hospital
  • Infirmity
  • Committing crimes of moral turpitude
  • Deportations
  • increased
  • dramatically!!
  • Expanded the list of prohibited immigrants
  • Allowed deportation of immigrants within 2 (then
    3 then 5) years of landing for .
  • Becoming a public charge
  • Insanity
  • Disease

8
Arrival of Sikhs in BC in 1906-07 resulted in an
anti-Asiatic parade which ended in a riot
  • State the purpose of the discussion
  • Identify yourself

9
1908 - 1910
  • Chinese Immigration Act amended to increase those
    under the head tax and expand list of prohibited
    persons
  • Border inspection service created at US-Canada
    border
  • Continuous journey rule imposed
  • New Act allowed Canada to prohibit immigrants
    belonging to any race deemed unsuitable and
    expanded deportation grounds to include
    immorality and political offences
  • New Act introduced concept of domicile
  • First Caribbean Domestic Scheme

10
  • CENSUS 1911
  • Population 7,206,643
  • 97 population of European origin
  • 22 population immigrants
  • 47 of these naturalized (9 Chinese, 22
    Japanese)
  • 39 of immigrants were women
  • Population 54 British origin
  • 29 French origin
  • 75,681 Jews
  • 27,774 Chinese, 9,021 Japanese
  • 3,342 Hindus

11
War Initiatives - Terror suspects???

12
Special Measures.
  • War Measures Act ..
  • Increased govts power to arrest, detain and
    deport
  • Enemy aliens forced to register themselves and
    subjected to many restrictions
  • 8,000 9,000 enemy aliens interned..
  • ..released in response to labour shortages..
  • Wartime
  • Elections Act (1917)
  • Disenfranchised all persons from enemy alien
    countries who had been naturalized since 1902

13
And for women. (No not these women)
14
And for the women
  • Women's division created in 1919 within
    Immigration Dept to care for single women
    immigrants
  • 1919 .. Immigration Act amended to add new
    grounds for denying entry and deportation
    alcoholism, illiteracy.
  • Classes of immigrants could be denied entry
    because of unsuitability, peculiar habits, modes
    of life or holding property
  • British-born subject to deportation on political
    grounds (Winnipeg general strike)

15
1921 Census
  • Population 8,787,949
  • 97.5 European origin
  • 22 immigrants
  • 44 immigrants female
  • 58 of foreign-born naturalized citizens
  • 55 pop British origins
  • 33 French origins
  • 126,196 Hebrews
  • 39,347 Chinese
  • 23,342 Japanese
  • 18, 291 Negroes

16
Chinese Immigrants Under Attack
  • Several
  • restrictive
  • laws come
  • into effect

17
1920sAttacks on Chinese Immigrants.
  • Opium and Narcotic Drug Act led to deportations
    35 of all the deportations in 23-24 in Pacific
    Division
  • 1923 Order issued excluding any immigrant of any
    Asiatic race except agriculturalists, farm
    labourers, female domestic servants and wife and
    children of persons legally in Canada
  • Chinese Immigration Act more prohibitions..
    Humiliation Day
  • Doors opened to British citizens, Americans and
    citizens of preferred countries. Limitations
    placed on immigrants from Austria, Hungary,
    Poland, etc.

18
Overt Targeting Of Identified Populations
Characterized this period.
  • 1930 Order further prohibited the landing of
    any immigrant of any Asiatic race except wives
    and minor children of Cdn citizens
  • Order requiring Chinese and Japanese to renounce
    their former citizenship before becoming
    citizens impact on Japanese.
  • Deportations on grounds of becoming public charge
    increased from 1930 to 34 the deportations on
    this ground increased 6x.

19
A time of terror.
  • Communist party made illegal grounds for
    deportation (31)
  • Deportation of unemployed
  • 31 political deportations legalized
  • 32 Red Raid
  • In 34 94 of applications for naturalization
    refused
  • Political deportations

20
Faith communities join with others
  • To advocate for Jewish refugees (38)
  • Opposed by many anti-Semitic groups
  • Cdn National Cttee on Refugees and Victims of
    Persecution formed
  • Cttee focused on individual cases, as
    unsuccessful in affecting policy

21
Reluctant moves on refugee issues..
  • 38 Canada reluctantly participated in Evian
    Conference on refugees with NO mandate.
    Canadas immigration department was anti-Semitic
    (None is too many)
  • Canada takes some German refugees, but insists on
    higher payment from Britain
  • In response to 38 refugee crisis, Canada
    insisted it would accept only those who met
    categories for admissible immigrants
  • 2,500 potentially dangerous enemy aliens
    brought to Canada from Britain) and interned (in
    fact many were Jews)

22
Census 41
  • Population 11,506,6755
  • 98 pop of European origin
  • 18 immigrants
  • 45 of these female
  • 71 of immigrants naturalized
  • 50 population of British origin
  • 30 French origin
  • 170,241 Jews
  • 34,627 Chinese
  • 22,174 Africans

23
The End of WW II Some Change
  • Govt resistance to pressure for a more open
    immigration policy began to give way in the mid
    40s with
  • Sponsorships
  • Identity documents
  • Citizenship Act
  • Emergency measures for refugees (economic
    considerations)

24
However the 52 Immigration Act still
  • Gave the Minister and officials significant
    powers over selection, admission and deportation.
  • Allowed refusal on grounds of nationality, ethnic
    group, area of origin, peculiar customs,
    unsuitability re climate, rate of assimilation,
    sexual orientation, etc.

25
  • Govt allowed 4 groups to select and process
    immigrants in 53
  • Oops! Conflict arose because the groups
    (churches) selected the people most in need!!
  • 54 Bar Assn criticized the arbitrary exercise of
    power by immigration officials and called for a
    quasi-judiciary Immigration Appeals Board

26
61 Census followed restriction of admission of
family members (temporary) 60 Bill of Rights .
  • Population 18,238,247
  • 96.8 population European
  • 15 immigrants
  • 63 of these were citizens
  • 44 population of British origin
  • 30 French origin

27
60s Brought Significant Changes ..
  • 62 removal of much racial discrimination with
    new immigration regulations
  • Assisted loan program extended to Caribbean
  • 66 White paper promoting a balance btwn economic
    interest and family relationship
  • 67 Points system
  • 1969 Canada finally signs Refugee Convention
    Protocol

28
Opening the doors.
  • 71 Multiculturalism policy announced
  • Many immigrants and refugees from new source
    countries
  • 74 Creation of ISAP program
  • 78 New Immigration Act which identified 4
    categories
  • Refugee sponsorship program

29
1981 Census
  • Population 24,083,500
  • 86 had single European origin
  • 16 immigrants
  • 47 of these female
  • 69 immigrants were citizens
  • 40 population British origin
  • 27 French
  • Greater variety in countries of origin of
    immigrants

30
91 Census.. (domestic worker program, special
measures for Salvadorans, CSIS, Singh, 86
administrative review to clear up backlog,
creation of IRB for oral hearings)
  • Population 26,994,045
  • 66 single European origin
  • 16 population were immigrants
  • 81 of these were citizens
  • 51 immigrants female

31
Many women came to Canada under the Domestic
Worker program.

32
THE 1986 ADMIN REVIEW
  • The 86 Administrative Review
  • MADE MANY PEOPLE HAPPY

33
BUT IN 2003, MANY PEOPLE ARE STILL LIVING
  • IN GREAT UNCERTAINY BECAUSE THEY DO NOT HAVE
    LEGAL STATUS

34
Which policies and challenges are affecting
todays refugees and immigrants?
  • IRPA and lack of a Refugee Appeal Division
  • Bill C-36 (Anti-terrorism Act)
  • War on Terror and Focus on Security (project
    identity,etc)
  • Safe Third Country Agreement
  • Reuniting families
  • Access to professions and trades
  • Racism
  • Obtaining legal status
  • Anti-immigrant/refugee sentiment
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