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Final Review Semester 2

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Title: Final Review Semester 2


1
Final Review Semester 2
  • Hee hee that rhymes

2
Age of Progress I
  • American, French, and Industrial Revolutions,
    Darwin

3
Deism
  • Ancient philosophy revived during the age of
    Reason
  • Emphasizes reason over revelation in religious
    matters
  • There is one supreme God
  • That He is chiefly to be worshipped
  • Piety and virtue is the principal part of His
    worship
  • We must repent of our sins if we do God will
    pardon them
  • There are rewards for good men and punishments
    for bad men, both here and hereafter

4
Deism
  • Deism competed with Christianity (primarily
    Anglican) as the primary religion of the American
    founding fathers
  • The two most notable Deists were Benjamin
    Franklin and Thomas Jefferson
  • Franklin tried to live a life of
    self-improvement, attempting to keep 13 virtues
  • Jefferson in trying to unite Christian morality
    with Deism consolidated and rewrote the gospels
    leaving out miracles
  • Deism foreshadows modern agnosticism

5
French Revolution
  • Began under the influence of Age of Reason
    philosophy and out of involvement in the
    successful American Revolution
  • The desire for freedom and democracy was strong
    in France
  • The revolt began on July 11, 1789 with the
    storming of the Bastille officially beginning the
    Age of Progress
  • Revolution began under the cry of Liberté,
    égalité, fraternité, ou la mort ! Liberty,
    Equality, Fraternity, or Death!

6
French Revolution
  • The French Revolution was based primarily on
    Rationalist/Deist thought without the mitigating
    Christian influence of America
  • France had previously quashed most Protestantism
    and during the revolution began to eliminate
    Roman Catholicism
  • The RCC was the largest landowner in France and
    extracted a tithe from it
  • The French eliminated the tithe, confiscated
    church property, destroyed monasteries, and
    declared the Church under French control

7
French Revolution
  • The De-Christianization of France also included
    an attempt to replace Christian worship with the
    Cult of the Supreme Being
  • The Revolution took many stages ending with the
    Jacobins in power initiating the Reign of
    Terror
  • They executed any counter-revolutionaries or not
    revolutionary enough revolutionaries
  • It all collapsed and Napoleon took over
  • Lack of Christian influence and intervention by
    European powers primarily caused the downfall of
    the Revolution

8
Charles Darwin
  • Charles Robert Darwin, born in England on Feb.
    12, 1809 the 5th of 6 children
  • His father was a doctor and wanted him to be one
    as well, He studied medicine but was appalled at
    the brutality of surgery
  • Learned taxidermy and began to study nature
  • His father wanting him to have a good job then
    enrolled him in Cambridge so that he could become
    an Anglican priest
  • Darwin got into the Cambridge Beetle Craze

9
Charles Darwin
  • Darwin did well in his studies, particularly in
    science and theology
  • After graduating 10th/178 he balked at becoming a
    clergyman and instead embarked on a 5 year sea
    voyage
  • He sailed on the Beagle visiting many lands and
    gathering much information on various species and
    creatures
  • During the voyage he met several Native
    missionaries, after which he was convinced that
    racism was wrong

10
Charles Darwin
  • He grew ill during the voyage and would deal with
    the illness for the rest of his life
  • Returned to England and began propagating his new
    theories with much success
  • During one of his recovery periods in the country
    he fell in love with his cousin Mary
  • After debating the merits he eventually proposed
    and they were Married in an Anglican/Unitarian
    ceremony
  • Darwins theory of evolution became popular as
    well as popularly contested

11
Charles Darwin
  • Darwins observations of natural selection and
    micro-evolution caused a great stir
  • The religious implications of evolutionary theory
    were immediately understood and debated
  • His daughter Annie died in 1851 removing Darwins
    belief in a beneficent God
  • Darwin worked until he grew ill and died in 1882,
    he was buried in Westminster Abbey
  • There are rumors of uncertain truth that he
    potentially converted on his deathbed

12
Charles Finney
  • Born Aug. 29, 1872 in Warren, CT
  • At 2 his family moved to NY along with many other
    emigrants, they were poor farmers and lived in
    harsh conditions
  • He heard very little preaching growing up and
    what he did was grammatically poor
  • Didnt go to college but got a high school
    education and then a Law certification
  • Moved to Adams, led the church choir though still
    an outspoken unbeliever

13
Charles Finney
  • Finney had a vision of Christ in the middle of
    the street and began to convert
  • After a day long process Finney knew he was saved
  • He realized that he now was to preach
  • Began an education that was more argument than
    learning
  • Was ordained as a Presbyterian minister, but
    later became Congregationalist

14
Charles Finney
  • Finney was Armenian and specifically
    anti-Hyper-Calvinist
  • His Arminianism stems from his defense against
    Unitarianism
  • He led a massive reform in the methodology of
    revival
  • Preached extemporaneously, used encouragers,
    prayed for people by name from the pulpit, had
    women praying at the front of the church,
    endorsed mixed gender prayer services, and
    created the modern altar call with his anxious
    bench

15
Charles Finney
  • Preached massive revivals with claims of over
    500,000 getting saved
  • Western New York became the Burned-Over
    District because there was no fuel left for
    revival there
  • The mass conversions werent all absorbed by
    local churches instead many fell by the wayside
    once emotion was gone
  • Became professor and eventually president of
    Oberlin college, the first college to allow women
    and black people to study

16
Charles Finney
  • Finney died in 1875
  • His Christianity and the effects of his ministry
    are still to this day hotly debated
  • To many reformed Christians Finney is an
    arch-heretic and the doom of evangelism
  • To many modern Evangelicals Finney is a great
    hero and model for revival

17
D.L. Moody
  • Born Feb. 5 1837 6th of 9 children
  • His father died when he was 4 and his mother had
    great difficulty keeping the family together
  • A local Unitarian pastor came alongside the
    family and helped care for them both spiritually
    and materially
  • The Moody family became Christian
  • At 17 he traveled to Boston, and after a period
    of hopeless job hunting got a job as a shoe
    salesman in his uncles store

18
D.L. Moody
  • He was mostly illiterate, but an excellent shoe
    salesman
  • Moody converted after a visit from his Sunday
    school teacher
  • After some scufuffle he was given membership in
    the church
  • Following his impetuous nature Moody moved to
    Chicago on a whim
  • He made a good deal of money as a salesman as
    well as increasing his involvement in various
    works for God

19
D.L. Moody
  • His love for evangelism manifested itself, he
    rented a pew and filled it weekly with various
    bums and wastrels
  • Began a Sunday school ministry among the children
    of the slums earning him the nickname Crazy
    Moody
  • At 24 Moody submitted to his call to full time
    ministry having lost all desire to work
  • Became very involved in the Y.M.C.A
  • During the Civil war Moody initiated tent camp
    evangelism converting many soldiers

20
D.L. Moody
  • 1867 traveled to England and met his two heroes
    Charles Spurgeon and George Müller
  • A massive fire burned down Moodys school and
    YMCA building in Chicago
  • He traveled to New York in order to raise funds
    for rebuilding
  • While in New York his soul was tormented until he
    had a revelation and anointing
  • Traveled to England in order to refresh and
    increase in learning

21
D.L. Moody
  • In answer to a crippled girls prayers Moody
    preached in a church that saw a massive revival
    of over 400 new members
  • Thus began his career of mass evangelism
  • Teaming up with Ira Sankey Moody traveled all
    over preaching revival wherever he went
  • He founded several schools including the still
    famous Moody Bible Institute
  • It is said that in his lifetime he preached to
    over 1,000,000 people.

22
D.L. Moody
  • He grew old became ill with a heart condition
  • Hiding the condition he preached one more series
    of sermons in Kentucky
  • He then went home to die
  • He died

23
2nd Great Awakening
  • Massive 19th Century revival that swept across
    America
  • It began with the Kentucky Revival in the early
    1800s and continued on in various aspects
    throughout the rest of the century.
  • In the frontiers the Baptists and Methodist
    denominations grew quickly as they were the
    primary movers in revival
  • More urban revivals such as took place in New
    England under Finney and Chicago under Moody were
    less denominational

24
2nd Great Awakening
  • The entire awakening was marked by radicalism
  • Especially in the frontiers people were excitable
    and prone to hysterics
  • Also gave rise to several modern day heretical
    movements like Mormons and Jehovahs Witnesses
  • Provided a platform for social change often
    promoting such ideas as race equality and
    prohibition
  • Many many many were saved or at least claimed to
    be

25
Joseph Smith Jr.
  • Born in Virginia to a down on their luck family
    who moved around looking for work
  • Moved to New York along with many other families,
    eventually giving up on hard work and seeking
    less difficult means of employment
  • Joseph was marked as a clever boy with a knack
    for storytelling, but was never well educated
  • Supposedly at 14 he had a theophany of God the
    Father and Jesus

26
Joseph Smith Jr.
  • He began spreading his tale with some success,
    though when he began telling about it meets with
    mixed reports
  • Functioned as an exhorter during the 1824 revival
    that took place in Palmyra
  • Was almost baptized in the Baptist church in
    order to marry Emma Hale
  • 1827 it was revealed to him by the angel Moroni
    the location of golden plates containing the real
    testament of Jesus Christ

27
Joseph Smith Jr.
  • He translated the plates by dictating to a scribe
    as he translated
  • Thus was the book of Mormon written
  • A good looking a charismatic man he eventually
    gained many followers
  • 1831 to avoid conflict in New York the Smiths
    moved to Kirtland Ohio where they built the first
    Mormon temple
  • 1838 they fled to Missouri due to local unrest
    and mob violence primarily due to Smiths
    polygamous practices

28
Joseph Smith Jr.
  • Moved to Independence Missouri and had visions
    that it was to be the center of Zion in Christs
    soon to come millennium
  • Political blocs, physical violence, and a take
    over attempts made the Mormons unpopular in
    Missouri
  • Smith was imprisoned for several months but
    bribed his way out with liquor and
  • 1839 moved to Nauvoo Illinois where the Mormons
    became dominant and Smith became mayor

29
Joseph Smith Jr.
  • 1842 Smith became a freemason
  • 1844 announced his candidacy for president of the
    USA
  • The newly made newspaper the Nauvoo Expositor
    complained against Smith and his Polygamy
  • Smith ordered the paper destroyed and shut down
    violating freedom of the press
  • Popular opinion rose against Smith and he was
    imprisoned in Carthage jail

30
Joseph Smith Jr.
  • While in jail with his brother and a few
    followers a mob came and attacked them
  • Both Joseph and Hyrum Smith were killed, Joseph
    tried to escape by jumping from the window and
    was shot
  • His last words were Oh, Lord, my God, the
    beginning of a Masonic cry for help
  • Smiths death left a succession crises from which
    the church split, though the mainstream Mormons
    followed Brigham Young to Utah where they remain

31
John Newton
  • Born 1725 in London the son of a wealthy
    shipmaster
  • His mother influenced him towards Christianity
    but died while he was young
  • His father died shortly after and he was pressed
    into naval service
  • Became a low ranking officer but deserted, after
    being recaptured he was demoted and harshly
    treated
  • Requested a transfer in Sierra Leon to a slave
    ship

32
John Newton
  • Was abused on the slave ship, but was rescued by
    a captain friend of his fathers
  • Eventually became a captain himself and dealt
    primarily in slaves
  • May 10, 1748 Was caught in a large storm and
    cried out to God for mercy
  • He quit dealing in slaves, studied Latin, Greek,
    and Hebrew, in 1755 he quit sailing
  • Became an ordained Anglican minister, taught many
    sermons and wrote many songs including Amazing
    Grace. He died.

33
William Wilberforce
  • Born 1759 in Hull, England
  • The son of a wealthy merchant who died when he
    was young
  • Was sent to live with his uncle and began to be
    interested in Methodism, but after threats from
    his family backed off
  • Attended Anglican church meetings particularly
    enjoying the teachings of John Newton
  • Went to St. Johns college in Cambridge and was
    shocked by the licentious living
  • Got over his shock and started taking part

34
William Wilberforce
  • Started getting involved in politics and spent
    9,000 pounds to become the member of parliament
    for Hull
  • Began working for social reforms especially
    regarding the conditions of the people working in
    the factories
  • Was approached by Lady Middleton and asked to
    represent abolition to parliament
  • 1789 he made the first of many speeches against
    the slave trade
  • 1791 his first abolitionist bill failed 163-88

35
William Wilberforce
  • He persisted in abolitionist parliamentary
    pursuits
  • 1792 an amended abolition bill passed with a
    great majority, but did nothing
  • Afterwards the abolition movement bogged down and
    received no great support until 1804
  • While parliament was ignoring abolition he
    pressed for more humanitarian goals, setting up a
    bible society, caring for poor, and sending
    missionaries to India

36
William Wilberforce
  • 1807 the English parliament passed a ban on the
    slave trade, though the slaves werent
    emancipated.
  • He began working towards a gradual emancipation,
    believing an immediate one would cause economic
    devastation
  • 1825 he retired from parliament though he
    remained active, striving for emancipation
  • He died July 29, 1833 one month before the
    finalization of the Slavery Abolition Act
    emancipating the slaves

37
Frederick Douglass
  • Born in 1818 as Frederick Augustus Washington
    Bailey, a slave in Maryland
  • was separated from his mother while an infant,
    and was sent to work for Hugh Auld
  • Hughs wife Sophia broke the law and taught him
    the alphabet
  • He learned to read from young children and from
    observation
  • 1837 with help from Anna Murray he escaped to New
    York

38
Frederick Douglass
  • 1841 he hear William Lloyd Garrison speak and was
    greatly influenced
  • 1843 he became very involved in the abolition
    movement, writing for several newspapers and
    journals
  • Became famous as a speaker for abolition also
    became a minister in the African Methodist
    Episcopal Church
  • Did and said lots of stuff
  • Died in 1895 and became the first posthumous frat
    boy in Alpha-Phi-Alpha

39
William Lloyd Garrison
  • Major figure in the abolitionist movement
  • Wrote The Liberator a newspaper famous for its
    outspoken abolitionist content
  • Founded the American Anti-Slavery Society
  • He was outspoken against anything hindering
    abolition including the constitution and the
    organized church
  • Split with many friends over various issues he
    was not willing to back down on primarily the
    equality of women

40
William Lloyd Garrison
  • Garrisons support of Lincoln and the Republicans
    caused further splits
  • After the war Garrison promoted the dissolution
    of the AAS, but was outvoted so he retired
    hurting many feelings
  • 1873 he made up with his friends while they
    worked together in the American Woman Suffrage
    Association
  • After the death of his wife he became involved in
    spiritualism
  • He died a much celebrated man

41
Churches and American Slavery
  • In the south slaves were often made to attend
    church where they were instructed in obedience
    and their place in life
  • In the north a more abolitionist spirit had room
    to move, though not all were involved many
    choosing unity over all
  • Christians were the forerunners of abolition, in
    the south many were the workers on the
    underground railroad
  • In the north many Christians were the most active
    of all the abolitionists

42
Temperance Movement
  • Along with an increasing desire for abolition
    came an increased interest in general morality
  • Often drunkenness was seen as the primary cause
    of poverty and immoral living
  • The evangelical perfectionism preached by Finney
    and others greatly influenced this ideology
  • Temperance fell by the wayside during the civil
    war, but came back strongly after in the form of
    various societies

43
Temperance Movement
  • Temperance also became a popular political
    platform supported by many
  • Women were especially involved in the movement
    and used powerful guilt tactics
  • Ultimately it resulted in the 1919 18th amendment
    prohibiting alcohol
  • 18th amendment did very little as most ignored
    it, including the president
  • Also led to a major upswing in crime resulting in
    the 1933 21st amendment repealing prohibition

44
Schleiermacher
  • Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher the son of
    a reformed Prussian army chaplain
  • Born 1768 he was educated in a Moravian community
  • Was fascinated by Moravian spirituality but was
    never able to obtain it
  • He left the community, was disowned by his
    father, and began studying at the rationalist
    University of Halle
  • Became famous as a thinker, teacher, philosopher,
    and theologian

45
Schleiermacher
  • During his studies he raised hermeneutics to the
    modern science it is now seen as
  • He attempted to combine most every theological
    system into one, especially the unification of
    science and faith
  • Everything to S. was based on the persons
    consciousness of Christ from there all theology,
    morality, and life sprang
  • Ultimately his theology weakened orthodoxy by its
    reliance on vague spirituality and lack of
    emphasis on essential theology

46
Liberalism
  • Came about primarily as a reaction to rationalism
  • The rationalist scientific view had so weakened
    19th century theology that they had a hard time
    answering the objections
  • Theology often became more liberal in order to
    respond to rationalist critiques
  • Much theology at the time was dogmatic and not
    well understood including a healthy emphasis on
    non-essentials

47
Liberalism
  • Liberalism usually entails
  • Weakening of strong theological standpoints
  • Overemphasis either on spirituality or
    rationality
  • De-emphasizing essential theology
  • Social issues replacing Christian ones
  • Increase in humanism often to the exclusion of
    Christ as the primary focus
  • Viewing of the Bible as merely fallible
    historical documents

48
Age of Ideologies I
  • WWII
  • Pius XII, Dietrich Bonhöffer, Corrie Ten Boom

49
Post WWI Christianity
  • 1914 World War I started
  • 1918 World War I ended, leaving a much changed
    Europe
  • Post WWI Europe suffered a massive
    dechristianization
  • The Roman Catholics responded with increased ties
    to the state, and various social programs, to
    some good effect
  • The protestant churches were a bit more shaken,
    and due to weaker ties with the state less able
    to respond

50
Post WWI Christianity
  • Especially in Central Europe, Germany was the
    worst destroyed by WWI and had previously been
    the center for the majority of European missions
    work
  • Britain was also discouraged and subjected to
    great losses in WWI
  • In both churches the rise in intellectualism
    marked a moving away of scholars from Christianity

51
WWII Roman Catholicism
  • The RCCs record during WWII is rather hit and
    miss, sometimes doing great deeds, other time
    neglecting great needs
  • The pope never would take an open stand against
    the Nazis but did try to obtain passports and aid
    some Jewish emigration
  • After WWII the Pius XII and the RCCs role in the
    war was greatly criticized
  • Pius was accused of being Hitlers puppet,
    criticized for his lack of involvement, and his
    acceptance of the Ustases war crimes

52
WWII Protestantism
  • Protestantism being inherently more divided than
    Catholicism, they suffered greater losses during
    the inter-war period
  • When the Nazis took power they also tried to take
    control of the church, they formed the National
    Reich Church by conglomerating the protestants
    together
  • The Nazis attempted to make a puppet church that
    was merely another platform for popular
    indoctrination

53
WWII Protestantism
  • Through a process called positive Christianity
    they tried to emphasize the Aryan Jesus and
    deemphasize his Jewishness
  • While most churches went along with it, generally
    loving nation above God, the Confessing Church
    went underground

54
Dietrich Bonhöffer
  • Born 1906 in Breslau Germany, the 6th of 8
    children in an upper middle class family
  • Wanted to be a minister from an early age
  • Got his doctorate in theology from the University
    of Berlin, then studied at Union Theological in
    New York
  • While in New York he came to enjoy the
    African-American Spiritual
  • Returned to Germany in 1931, pastored for a time,
    and was resistant to the Nazis

55
Dietrich Bonhöffer
  • 1931 Along with Martin Niemöller and Karl Barth
    he set up the Bekennende Kirche or Confessing
    Church
  • Taught in various underground seminaries training
    German pastors
  • Emphasized that Nazi ideology must be resisted
    and the Jews must be helped
  • 1939 he joined a group of conspirators who were
    trying to assassinate Hitler
  • 1943 money used to help Jews escape was traced to
    him and he was imprisoned

56
Dietrich Bonhöffer
  • In 1944 the failed July 20 Plot revealed
    Bonhöffers connections to the conspiracy
  • He was moved through various prison/concentration
    camps
  • 1945 in Flossenbürg he was executed by hanging
  • His major literary contribution to today is the
    book The Cost of Discipleship

57
Corrie Ten Boom
  • Born April 15, 1892 in Amsterdam
  • Grew up in a strong Christian home, greatly
    influenced by her father
  • Became the fist licensed woman watchmaker in the
    Netherlands
  • During WWII her family actively hid many Jews
    helping them to escape
  • Her entire family was arrested, her father died,
    and her and her sister were sent to Ravensbrück
    concentration camp

58
Corrie Ten Boom
  • Her sister died very shortly before Corrie was
    released
  • Corrie began an international ministry speaking
    and teaching about Christ
  • A movie The Hiding Place was based on her
    autobiography
  • She died on her 91st birthday in 1983
  • You can listen to her at http//www.sermonindex.n
    et/modules/mydownloads/viewcat.php?cid14

59
Hitlers Christianity
  • Some try and claim that Hitler was a Christian,
    many Christians claim Hitler was an atheist
  • He was probably primarily atheistic and
    Christian in formality also because it gave him
    influence, obviously, he was not actually a
    Christian
  • In any case Hitler was a rather notorious liar

60
Karl Heinrich Marx
  • Born 1818 in Trier, Germany to a wealthy
    German-Jewish family
  • His father born into a line of rabbis name was
    Herschel Mordecai but he changed it to Heinrich
    Marx for business sake
  • Began studying at the University of Bonn, where
    he joined the Trier Tavern club
  • His father wanted him to be serious about
    education so sent him to the Friedrich Willhelms
    Universität in Berlin
  • Obtained a doctorate in 1841

61
Karl Heinrich Marx
  • 1842 began a career in Journalism
  • 1843 his paper was shut down
  • Met Engels in Paris and they had warm happy
    communist feelings together
  • Marx began to develop the philosophy of
    historical materialism
  • 1848 Marx and Engels first published a copy of
    The Communist Manifesto as a statement of faith
    for their small Communist League

62
Karl Heinrich Marx
  • Marx/Engels were kicked out of Paris and moved to
    Brussels in Belgium
  • They were kicked out of Belgium and moved to Köln
    (Cologne) Germany
  • 1849 Marx moves to Cologne and starts a leftist
    paper
  • May 1849 Marx is kicked out of Germany and moves
    to London where he remains for the rest of his
    life
  • Gets married to Jenny von Westphalen and has 6
    children (3 survived)

63
Karl Heinrich Marx
  • Marx lived in London and wrote many books and
    political commentaries including Das Kapital
  • Emphasized revolutionary activist politics
  • Was an atheist and saw religion as a think to be
    pitied, and useful only as a drug
  • Religious suffering is, at one and the same
    time, the expression of real suffering and a
    protest against real suffering. Religion is the
    sigh of the oppressed creature, the heart of a
    heartless world, and the soul of soulless
    conditions. It is the opium of the people.
  • Marx died 2 years after his wife in 1883

64
Brother Andrew
  • Anne van der Bijl was born in 1928 to a poor
    family in Holland
  • Grew up in a good Christian home, but didnt
    personally have faith
  • 1939 his brother died of Tuberculosis and Andrew
    blamed God for it
  • 1940 Germans occupied Holland and Andrew raised
    small mischief against them
  • After the war he became a soldier and was
    injured, while convalescing he began to read the
    Bible

65
Brother Andrew
  • Prayed Lord, if you will show me the way I will
    follow you.
  • Wanted to become a missionary but was daunted by
    the 12 years training required
  • 1953 attended the Glasgow missionary school in
    Scotland for training because they had a much
    quicker program
  • He learned much from a month long no money, dont
    ask for any mission trip
  • During this time Andrew witnessed many miracles
    and a faith which would mark the rest of his life
    grew

66
Brother Andrew
  • Had an opportunity to attend a socialist youth
    festival in Warsaw and there saw the hoplessness
    of the communists
  • He felt his calling in Rev. 32 Now wake up!
    Strengthen what little remains, for even what is
    left is at the point of death
  • At Gods prompting someone taught Andrew to
    drive, then later two others gave him a brand new
    VW bug and money
  • Andrew loaded his car with bibles and smuggled
    them into Yugoslavia relying on God to give him a
    place to deliver them

67
Brother Andrew
  • 1958 Andrew married the love of his life Corrie
    Van Dam
  • Developed a famous border crossing prayer when
    openly smuggling bibles in Father, You have made
    blind eyes to see -- now I ask you to make seeing
    eyes blind."
  • Continued smuggling bibles by dozens, hundreds,
    and thousands into various Communist countries
  • 1961 project pearl delivered 1 million bibles to
    China in one night

68
Brother Andrew
  • Wrote his autobiography Gods Smuggler which led
    others to join him in his work
  • Founded the Open Doors ministry which focuses on
    bringing bibles to those who dont have them
  • Now open doors works primarily in the Muslim
    countries
  • Corrie Ten Boom also ministered to the communists
    with her pepperbox messages and speaking tours

69
R. A. Torrey
  • Born 1856 in Hoboken New Jersey into a fairly
    well off family
  • Grew up in a Christian home w/ Christian customs,
    but he didnt become a Christian
  • Went to Yale at 15 and became enthralled with all
    of the worldly joys that were available
  • Through the prayers of his mother he was saved
  • Met D.L. Moody and was encouraged to evangelize
  • Got married and moved to Germany to study at the
    schools of higher criticism in Leipzig Erlangen

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R. A. Torrey
  • Upon returning to the States, he began to pastor
    a tiny church in Minneapolis, the Open Door
    Church
  • 1888 began working among the poor, at which point
    he dedicated himself to praying through
  • Torrey was a man of intense and fervent prayer
    and all his churches were marked by constant
    prayer meetings
  • 1889 took over the Chicago Evangelization Society
    (now Moody Bible Institute)
  • He began teaching with great effect, using his
    education to expound the scriptures

71
R. A. Torrey
  • 1894 began pastoring Chicago Avenue Church (now
    Moody Memorial Church) soon the 2,200 member
    auditorium was packed, he blamed prayer
  • 1898 started a weekly prayer meeting to pray for
    worldwide revival, averaging about 300 people
  • Torrey felt a burden to pray for the opportunity
    to preach worldwide, within a week he was asked
    to preach an evangelistic series in Australia
  • Torreys leave of absence became permanent as he
    traveled the world preaching for many years
    seeing huge revivals across the globe

72
R. A. Torrey
  • 1912 he began serving as the dean of BIOLA
  • He became chief editor of a set of books called
    The Fundamentals a large collection of articles
    refuting liberal theology
  • 1924-1928 moved to North Carolina and traveled
    around teaching bible conferences, then he died
  • He wrote over 40 different books and everyone
    should read The Power of Prayer
  • He is one of my heroes yay Torrey

73
Christian Fundamentalism
  • Fundamentalism is a name for Christians that has
    been abused in modern times.
  • As a movement it is hard to define due to the
    multiple groups that all have gone under the name
    Fundamentalist
  • Originally fundamentalism arose as a reaction to
    growing liberal theology in the Church
  • The name came from the 12 volume collection of
    essays The Fundamentals which attempted to oppose
    higher criticism, and set basic theology

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Christian Fundamentalism
  • Later in the mid 1900s Fundamentalism became
    synonymous with political actions and movements
    such as the temperance movement
  • Became demonized in the 1950s on account of the
    Scopes trials Creationism v. Darwin dispute
  • Now it covers an extremely wide gamut from
    standard evangelicals who believe the bible is
    inspired to those who believe that the world is
    ending tomorrow and the homosexuals are to blame

75
Scopes Trial
  • Tennessee had outlawed the teaching of Evolution
  • ACLU had offered to defend anybody violating the
    law, and John Scopes volunteered
  • The case became huge involving ACLU lawyer
    Clarence Darrow and lawyer and three time
    presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan
  • Bryan was labeled a fundamentalist Christian
    (potentially a misnomer as his theology was loose
    at best) and in the course of the trial was made
    to look quite the fool
  • The scopes trial was covered nationally with a
    strong anti prosecution bias

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Scopes Trial
  • The townspeople were labeled yokels and morons,
    and Bryan as a buffoon spouting theological bilge
  • The defense was placed in the exact opposite
    light being represented as both educated and
    eloquent
  • The ultimate verdict in the trial was guilty
    (Scopes had broken the law) and the penalty was
    100 which Bryan offered to pay himself
  • Scopes trial set the scene for the modern
    opinion of Fundamentalists, so in modern day
    reference Bryan is the picture of what a
    Christian Fundamentalist is seen as

77
Christian Ecumenism
  • Protestant ecumenism ostensibly began in 1910
    with John Mott and the calling together of the
    Edinburgh Missionary Conference
  • Early ecumenism was focused on getting various
    denominations to cooperate in missions work
  • A major player in early 1900s was the YMCA
  • During WWII the International Missionary Council
    played a huge part, founding the Orphaned
    Missions Fund to support missionaries who were
    stranded by the war

78
Christian Ecumenism
  • 1948 147 churches assembled to join the Faith and
    Order and Life and Work movements into the World
    Council of Churches
  • 1961 the International Missionary Council joined
    with the World Council of Churches
  • 1971 the WCC merged with the World Council of
    Christian Education
  • Currently the WCC includes more than 340 churches
    representing 550 million Christians and is the
    foremost ecumenical group in existence

79
Billy Graham
  • Born 1918 William Franklin Graham Jr. in
    Charlotte, North Carolina
  • Was raised as a Presbyterian, even hearing Billy
    Sunday preach when he was 5, he became a Southern
    Baptist after his 1934 conversion
  • Studied at the Florida Bible Institute, and later
    in 1943 he graduated from Wheaton College
  • Married Ruth Bell shortly after graduating
  • Began working with Youth For Christ, initially on
    the radio and then through speaking tours and
    organizational work

80
Billy Graham
  • Began performing his own crusades many of which
    lasted much longer than scheduled
  • Graham gained a push from the media, which gave
    him much free publicity
  • Graham was accused of being an Elmer Gantry due
    to financial questions, he responded by forming
    the BGEA Bill Graham Evangelical Association
    which provided both organization and
    accountability
  • The BGEA set a model as well as a standard for
    accountability in ministry

81
Billy Graham
  • 1960 the BGEA began publishing Decision magazine,
    other ministries included World Wide Pictures,
    and the Hour of Decision radio program
  • 1992 Graham eased his schedule due to Parkinson's
  • 1996 William Franklin Graham III became chairman
    of the BGEA
  • 2005 Billy Graham performed what he called his
    last crusade
  • Now lives in North Carolina with Ruth
  • Over the course of his career has had the ability
    to impact and deal with politicians and nations
    and a massive scale, spoke to live audiences of
    250 million

82
Mega Churches
  • While large churches have often existed,
    Spurgeons Metropolitan Tabernacle for example,
    mega churches are a new movement
  • Two major figures in the growth of the Mega
    Church movement were Bill Hybels and Chuck Smith,
    with Willow creek and Calvary Chapel
  • A mega church in the U.S. is defined as any
    church with more than 2,000 members 53 of mega
    churches have 2-3000 members.
  • Only 4 of mega churches have 10,000 or more in
    attendance

83
Mega Churches
  • Mega churches are generally suburban, and non-or
    at least semi-denominational
  • The largest mega church worldwide is the Yoido
    Full Gospel Church in Seoul, South Korea which
    has over 800,000 members
  • Mega churches are often criticized as McChurches
    for their easy gospel, loose theology, seeker
    friendliness, and entertainment centered services
  • They are also criticized as lacking in religion
    as noted in the Economist article on Megachurches
    "Where in God's name is the church?!?"

84
Mega Churches
  • The proponents of mega churches laud their
    increased capacity to reach people and perform
    Christian function
  • They generally eschew religiosity in an effort to
    reach the modern person where they are at
  • Calvary Chapel is a mega church, but holds up
    well against the critiques
  • Im teaching this class in a Calvary Chapel so
    Im bound to be somewhat biased, but also better
    able to make a decision.
  • Mega churches are big, so is God, Have a nice day

85
Ages
  • 3BC Jesus and the Apostles
  • 70 AD catholic Christianity
  • 312 AD Christian Roman
    . Empire
  • 590 AD Middle Ages
  • 1517 AD Reformation
  • 1648 AD Reason and Revival
  • 1789 AD Progress
  • 1914 AD Ideologies
  • Jesus Born
  • Temple Destroyed
  • Milvian Bridge
  • Gregory I is Pope
  • 95 Thesis
  • Peace of Westphalia
  • French Revolution
  • WWI
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