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Animal Science

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Animal Science Agriscience Applications Objective Investigate careers related to the field of animal science Careers in Agriscience Most entry-level jobs require a ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Animal Science


1
Animal Science
  • Agriscience Applications

2
Objective
  • Investigate careers related to the field of
    animal science

3
Careers in Agriscience
  • Most entry-level jobs require a high school
    diploma
  • 20 require college degrees
  • Some careers require advanced degrees
  • Veterinarian
  • Highly technical task (embryo transfer)
  • High school agriculture class is a good start
  • Largest number of new positions
  • Scientists and Engineers

4
Small Animal Industry
  • Expanding greatly
  • Small animals used for
  • Pets
  • Animal Research
  • Food
  • Fur
  • Technicians and growers needed for
  • Kennels, pets stores, animal hospitals
  • Often require college training

5
Equine Industry
  • Expanding as interest in horses for pleasure and
    show increases
  • Farriers
  • Shoe and care for horses feet

6
Objective
  • Examine tools related to the animal science
    industry

7
Animal Science Tools
  • Candling Light
  • View the interior of eggs
  • Castration tools
  • Burdizzo
  • Castrator
  • Artificial Insemination
  • Artificial vagina to collect semen
  • Insemination straw for the disposition of semen
    into the female

8
Animal Science Tools
  • Management tools
  • Dehorner
  • Rectal thermometer
  • Syringe for injections
  • V notcher for identification of swine

9
Animal Science Tools
10
Objective
  • Analyze the various breeds of beef, swine and
    poultry as related to use and the economic value
    of each

11
Beef Breeds
  • English Breeds (European, Bos taurus)
  • Angus- black breed with excellent meat quality
  • Hereford- red with a white face
  • Shorthorn- used in the bloodline of more than 30
    other breeds

12
Angus
13
Beef Breeds
  • Exotic Breeds (India, Bos indicus)
  • Grow faster than English breeds
  • Leaner meat
  • Brahman, BeefMaster, Brangus

14
Brahman
15
Beef Breeds
  • Breeds in America have been developed by crossing
    (breeding) English and Exotic Breeds from India
  • Resulted in
  • Increased heat tolerance
  • Parasite (worms, lice) resistance
  • Resist disease

16
Dairy Breeds
  • Holstein
  • 90 of the dairy cattle in the US
  • Black and white
  • Leading producer of milk
  • Produce about 18,000 lbs. Of milk per cow per year

17
Dairy Breeds
  • Other Breeds
  • Guernsey- fawn and white
  • Jersey- cream to light fawn to almost black
  • Number one in milk fat
  • Ayrshire-cherry red and white
  • Brown Swiss- solid brown

18
Holstein
19
Jersey
20
Swine and Poultry Breeds
  • Objective Analyze the difference between swine
    and poultry

21
Swine Breeds
  • American Landrace
  • Duroc
  • Chester White
  • Hampshire
  • Yorkshire

22
American Landrace
23
Duroc
24
Chester White
25
Hampshire
26
Yorkshire
27
Swine Industry
  • The swine industry has changed from the lard type
    hog to a lean type demanded by consumers today
  • Types of operations
  • Feeder-pig
  • Market-hog
  • Farrow to Finish

28
Swine Industry
  • Purebred producers produce high quality boars
  • Improves the genetic make-up
  • Purebreds are crossed with regular sows to
    increase hybrid vigor

29
Poultry Production
  • Classified as
  • Broilers
  • Meat chickens (Cornish)
  • Layers
  • egg producers
  • White Leghorn are used mostly for egg production

30
Poultry Industry
  • Another Class of Chicken is the Bantam
  • Miniature versions of standard breeds
  • Primarily for show
  • 90 of the turkeys grown are broad breasted
    whites
  • Turkeys have been bred to produce birds with more
    breast meat

31
Poultry Industry
Dutch Bantam Chicken
32
Animal Nutrition
  • Objective Determine the nutritional requirements
    for livestock and poultry breeds found in North
    Carolina

33
Major Nutrients
  • Water
  • Protein
  • Carbohydrates
  • Minerals
  • Vitamins
  • Fats and Oils

34
Water
  • Largest component of all living things
  • Animals tissue is about 75
  • Regulates body temperature
  • Perspiration
  • Transports nutrients
  • Involved in all biochemical reactions

35
Proteins
  • Major component of muscles and tissues
  • Made up of amino acids
  • Continuously needed to replace dying body cells
  • Young animals need large amounts for growth

36
Carbohydrates
  • Composed of sugar and starches
  • Provide energy and heat
  • Make up 75 of most animal rations
  • Main source
  • Corn
  • Cereal grains

37
Minerals
  • 15 essential minerals
  • Calcium, phosphorus, sodium, etc.
  • Example calcium is needed in poultry for
    eggshell development
  • Minerals are supplied by
  • Naturally
  • Mineral supplements
  • Mineral (lick) blocks

38
Vitamins
  • Needed in small quantities
  • Need for vitamins varies from species to species
  • Sources
  • Naturally found in feed
  • Feed additives made from animal by-products
  • Made by the body itself

39
Fats and Oils
  • Only needed in small amounts
  • Improves
  • Flavor
  • Palatability
  • Texture
  • Increases fattening and milk production
  • Carriers of some vitamins

40
Classes of Feed
  • Concentrates
  • Low in fiber
  • Cereal grains
  • Animal and Plant by-products
  • Roughages (high fiber)
  • Dry roughage is hay
  • Green roughage includes pastures
  • Silage is roughage fermented from green chop

41
TDN
  • Total Digestible Nutrients
  • Concentrates are high in TDN
  • Roughages are low in TDN

42
Animal Digestive Systems
  • Objective Compare animal digestive systems of
    beef, swine, and poultry

43
Ruminants
Ruminant Digestive System
44
Ruminants
  • Cattle, sheep, goats, deer
  • Four compartments to their stomach
  • Can eat more roughage in their diet
  • Grass
  • Hay
  • Silage
  • Green Chop

45
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46
Monogastric
Simple Digestive System
47
Monogastric
  • Swine, horses, rabbits, humans
  • Stomach has one compartment
  • Rations must be high in concentrates
  • Grains
  • Corn
  • Animals can not digest large amounts of fiber or
    roughage

48
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49
Poultry
  • Chickens
  • Turkeys
  • Ducks
  • Geese

50
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51
Poultry
  • No true stomach
  • Can not store large amounts of food
  • Birds do not have teeth for chewing
  • Food is swallowed whole
  • Stored in crop
  • Ground up in the gizzard

52
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