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CONFINED SPACE ENTRY TRAINING

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Title: CONFINED SPACE ENTRY TRAINING


1
CONFINED SPACE ENTRY TRAINING
  • Presented by
  • UM-Flint Environment,Health and Safety Department

2
Training Outline
  • What is a confined space? General overview of
    UM-Flints CSE program
  • Evaluation/Control of Atmospheric Hazards
  • Elimination/Control of Other Hazards
  • Entry Procedures
  • (General, Hazardous Hot Work entry permits)
  • Evacuation Rescue
  • Discussion of CS Scenarios related equip.
  • Working w/ Contractors
  • Video Life Death Series CSE

3
Training Goal
  • Refresh and update employees knowledge of CSE
    procedures
  • Discuss roles/responsibilities
  • Familiarize new employees with the UMF confined
    spaces, associated hazards and entry procedures.
  • Provide employees with guidelines to
  • Identify confined spaces
  • Evaluate confined spaces
  • Enter confined spaces in accordance with MIOSHA
    regulations and UM guidelines.
  • Discuss concerns or non-routine entries.

4
Confined Space Entry Program
  • Prevent Unauthorized Entry
  • Identify Permit Space Hazards
  • Develop Follow Safe Entry Procedures (use entry
    permit as guide)
  • Conclude Entry (close out permit)
  • Coordinate Entry Operations between University
    departments as well as with non-University
    agencies i.e. FFD, MPC
  • Program Evaluation Review/Revise

5
Section 1 What is a Confined Space?
  • A space that meets ALL THREE of the following
    criteria
  • Has limited means of entry or exit.
  • Is large enough for a person to enter and perform
    work.
  • Is not designed for continuous human occupancy.
  • Employer must evaluate a space based on the
    Definition. NOT on whether or not you may
    enter the space (per MIOSHA)

6
Types of Confined Spaces
  • Non-permit required
  • Permit required
  • General permit c(5) or c(7) entry
  • Hazardous permit
  • Hot Work

7
Non-Permit Required
  • Meets confined space definition, and
  • Has adequate ventilation, and
  • Does not contain any hazards that can cause death
    or harm, and
  • There is absolutely no potential for a hazardous
    atmosphere.

8
Permit Required
  • Meets confined space definition and
  • limited means of entry or exit.
  • large enough for a person to enter and work.
  • Is not designed for continuous occupancy.
  • Has inadequate ventilation, or
  • Has a hazardous health or safety condition, or
  • (i.e. engulfment internal configuration that
    could trap/asphyxiate converging wall,
    sloped/taper floor entrapment exposed
    electrical/mechanical parts, etc.)
  • Has a known or potential hazardous atmosphere.

9
Confined Space Evaluation
  • Is it a confined space?
  • Is it a permit required confined space?
  • What hazards are present? Source?
  • Can hazards be eliminated? Controlled?
  • What type of permit is required?
  • What procedures/equipment will be used to protect
    the entrants?
  • Use UM-f Space Evaluation form

10
UM Evaluation Form
11
Types of Permits
  • General Entry Permit
  • Hazardous Entry Permit
  • Hot Work Entry Permit

12
Confined Space Entry Permit
13
Confined Space?
14
Confined Space?
15
Confined Space?
16
What Type of Permit?
17
Confined Space?
18
Campus Utility Tunnels
  • UMF utility tunnels are not considered confined
    spaces because
  • Ventilated and lighted
  • Designed for human occupancy
  • Not generally hazardous
  • However, caution must be taken when performing
    work in tunnels
  • Buddy system, radio communications/notifications,
    other regulations do apply could be upgraded.
  • AA-OSEH is developing a new Tunnel Safety
    Program many of AAs tunnels are CS.

19
Section 2 Atmospheric Hazards
  • How Chemicals Enter Body
  • Acute and Chronic Effects
  • Exposure Limits
  • Identifying Atmospheric Hazards
  • UEL/LEL
  • Vapor Density

20
Routes of Entry
  • Skin Absorption
  • Inhalation
  • Ingestion
  • Injection

21
Health Effects
  • Acute
  • immediate or short term effect
  • Chronic
  • delayed or long term effect

22
Warning Signs
  • Dizziness/Disorientation
  • Weakness in knees/abnormal breathing
  • Blurred vision/profuse sweating
  • Chest pains/headaches
  • Loss of coordination/ringing in ears
  • Skin irritation/irregular heartbeat
  • Lethargy or excitedness

23
What is an Atmospheric Hazard?
  • Oxygen gt23.5 or lt19.5
  • Flammables at gt10 LEL
  • Above OSHA/MIOSHA PEL
  • IDLH
  • Combustible Dusts
  • Unknown chemical spill

24
Sources of Hazardous Atmospheres
  • Spaces with known hazardous chemicals/substances
  • Spaces that lack ventilation
  • Spaces that have the potential to transfer a
    hazardous atmosphere
  • Spaces with a work induced hazardous atmosphere

25
Permissible Exposure Limits
  • OSHA
  • 8 Hour TWA
  • STEL
  • Ceiling Limit
  • Contact EHS for monitoring of contaminants not
    monitored for by standard meters

26
Oxygen Deficient Atmosphere
  • lt19.5
  • Sources work induced, rusting, gases that
    displace oxygen
  • Simple Asphyxiants Displace oxygen (carbon
    dioxide, nitrogen, argon)
  • Chemical Asphyxiant Prevent body from using
    oxygen (carbon monoxide)

27
Oxygen Enriched Atmosphere
  • 23.0 or Greater
  • Sources Welding, or oxygen gas lines
  • Increase fire and explosion hazard
  • Never use oxygen to ventilate space

28
Vapors and Gases
  • Vapor Gaseous state of material normally found
    as liquid or solid at normal temperature and
    pressure
  • Gas Material that is found as a formless fluid
    at normal temperature and pressure

29
LEL/LFL and UEL/UFL
  • LEL Lowest concentration can ignite
  • UEL Highest Concentration can ignite
  • Example Gasoline LEL 1, UEL 8
  • In between is explosive
  • Consideration Atmosphere above the UEL, when
    ventilated may create an explosive atmosphere

30
LEL Safety Factor
  • OSHA 10 of LEL or Greater
  • Example LEL for Methane is 5
  • Meter alarm at 10 of 5 (i.e., 0.5)
  • If exceeded (meter alarms), leave the space and
    Contact supervisor and EHS.

31
Combustible Dusts
  • Metal Powders - Aluminum, Magnesium, Zinc
  • Wood Products - Dust, Paper
  • Rubber/Plastic/Spices/Food Products
  • Rule of Thumb - Obscure Vision 5 Feet or Less
    high potential for combustion given the right
    conditions.

32
Toxic or Poisonous Atmospheres
  • Most Common
  • Carbon Monoxide (CO)
  • Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S)
  • Methane (CH4)
  • Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

33
Carbon Monoxide (CO)
  • Colorless, odorless tasteless
  • Product incomplete combustion
  • Causes chemical asphyxiation
  • Slightly lighter than air
  • MIOSHA PEL 35 PPM, OSHA PEL 50 PPM

34
Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S)
  • Rotten egg odor
  • Petroleum/Organic matter decay
  • Found in sewers or petroleum holding tanks
  • lt10 PPM

35
Methane (CH4)
  • Colorless, odorless flammable
  • Petroleum/Organic matter decay
  • Lighter than air
  • Meter alarms 10 of LEL

36
Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
  • Colorless, odorless tasteless
  • Byproduct of respiration and complete combustion
  • Heavier than air

37
Other Atmospheric Hazards
  • Materials in the space
  • Work induced hazards (e.g., welding, painting,
    solvents)
  • Review history of space
  • Contact EHS if other contaminants are suspected

38
Vapor Density
  • Heavier than Air Sinks
  • Lighter than Air Rises
  • Air Vapor density 1
  • lt1 Lighter, gt1 Heavier
  • Most contaminants are heavier than air
  • The few that are lighter, are usually flammable
    and very toxic

39
Section 3 Evaluation Control of Atmospheric
Hazards
  • Air Monitoring Equipment and Procedures
  • Ventilating, Flushing or Purging
  • PPE only after engineer controls

40
Air Monitoring
  • Contaminants may not be detected by sight or
    smell
  • Two Types of Direct Reading
  • Electronic Bacharach 4-gas monitor
  • Detector Tubes Drager pump
  • Always monitor for oxygen, LEL and expected
    toxics (CO, H2S)

41
BACHARACH Sentinel 44
  • UM-Fs Four Gas Monitor - Sentinel 44
  • Oxygen, LEL, Carbon Monoxide (PPM), H2S (PPM)
  • Alarms
  • O2 - lt19.5 or gt 23.0,
  • LEL - gt 10,
  • CO - gt35 ppm
  • H2S - gt10 ppm

42
Air Monitoring Precautions
  • Alarm Goes Off leave the space, contact EHS and
    supervisor
  • Other contaminants known or suspected, contact
    EHS for monitoring assistance

43
Air Monitoring Procedure
  • Ensure monitor has been calibrated
  • Turn monitor on and let warm up
  • Verify monitor is functioning properly
  • Zero sensors in clean ambient air-outside the CS
  • Keep sensor heads exposed
  • Test space before opening the hatch
  • Monitor for oxygen first

44
Air Monitoring - Testing Order
45
Air Monitoring (continued)
  • Monitor every four feet
  • Monitor vertically horizontally
  • Record results on permit
  • Before work, periodically during work, and after
    breaks
  • Continuously monitor confidence tone or beep

46
Air Monitoring Limitations
  • Sensors must be calibrated and replaced
    periodically Contact EHS
  • LEL sensor needs oxygen to work
  • LEL sensor is calibrated for one gas -Methane
  • Sensors can take up to 2 minutes to accurately
    display concentrations
  • Some gases and RF emissions interfere with sensor
    accuracy

47
Flushing/Purging of Space
  • Lock Out/Tag Out Feeds
  • Can use air, steam, water, etc.
  • Removes chemical or decomposition hazards
  • Drain or pump out
  • Ventilate with fresh air when complete

48
Ventilation
  • Natural
  • Mechanical (General or Local)
  • portable/intrinsically safe
  • Air monitoring determines adequate ventilation

49
General Ventilating Technique
  • Perform air monitoring
  • Extend duct into space
  • Open all access points
  • Keep duct as short/straight as possible
  • Ensure intake is at clean air source
  • Ventilate 15 minutes prior to entry
  • Continue air monitoring

50
Local Exhaust Ventilation
  • Work induced contaminants
  • Space has acceptable atmosphere prior to work
  • Place duct opening at point of generation (air is
    pulled out of space)

51
Ventilating Safety Measures
  • Ventilate with fresh air
  • Never use pure oxygen
  • Use explosion proof equipment if needed
  • Make sure exhaust air is not re-entrained
  • Make sure supply air is reaching all areas of the
    space
  • Use air monitoring to determine adequate
    ventilation
  • Don't block exit with equipment

52
Section 4 Recognition Control of Other Hazards
  • Engulfment, Entrapment, Configuration
  • Other Hazards and their Control

53
Engulfment
  • Liquid or Solid
  • Suffocation or Drowning
  • CONTROL
  • Elimination or Isolation of hazard
  • On-site remote retrieval rescue equipment such as
    the Miller tripod w/ harness and or
    wristlet/anklets)

54
Engulfment Hazard!
55
Entrapment/Configuration
  • Inwardly converging walls
  • Floor which slopes downward and tapers to a small
    cross section
  • Obstacles, blockages or small internal openings
  • CONTROL
  • On-site remote retrieval rescue equipment such as
    the Miller tripod w/ harness and or
    wristlet/anklets)

56
Entrapment/Configuration Hazard
57
Electrical Mechanical Hazards
  • Use Lock-out/Tag-out Procedures prior to entry
  • Isolate moving parts
  • Assure equipment grounding / GFCIs

58
Chemical Hazards
  • Toxics, Flammables, Irritants, Sensitizers, etc.
  • CONTROL
  • Read MSDSs
  • Understand Physical/Health hazards
  • Remove/ Isolate the source, ventilation
  • Wear appropriate PPE

59
PPE
  • Gloves
  • Glasses/goggles/face shields
  • Coveralls or Tyvek suits
  • Safety Shoes
  • Hard hats
  • Respirators

60
Gloves
  • Select based on hazard
  • Latex - general protection
  • Nitrile/neoprene - chemical resistant
  • Kevlar - cut/puncture resistant

61
Respirators
  • Air Purifying Half or full mask.
  • Filters and cartridges are for specific
    atmospheric hazards.
  • Not for IDLH or oxygen deficient atmospheres.
  • SCBA for IDLH conditions and not permitted for
    UMF employees
  • Escape packs not used for re-entry
  • Respiratory Protection Program Medical
    Monitoring is required.

62
Heat Stress Cold Stress
  • HEAT
  • Dehydration
  • Heat Rash
  • Heat Fatigue
  • Heat Cramps
  • Heat Exhaustion
  • Heat Stroke
  • COLD
  • Frost Bite
  • Hypothermia
  • CONTROLS
  • Mechanical Ventilation
  • Fans, Heaters, Air Conditioners

63
Noise
  • AL 85 dBA
  • PEL 90 dBA
  • Communication is difficult
  • CONTROLS
  • Remove or isolate the source
  • Wear Hearing Protection
  • Other means of communication

64
Slips, Trips Falls
  • Good housekeeping practices
  • Fall Protection
  • Tie off ladders
  • Hard hats slip resistant soles
  • Lower/raise equipment by rope. Don't carry on
    ladders
  • Barriers around openings

65
Power Tools and Lighting
  • Tools are grounded insulated
  • Insulating blankets when arc welding on metal
  • Equipment grounding/GFCIs
  • Provide adequate lighting. Grounding spark
    hazards of portable lighting
  • Tools lighting should be explosion proof when
    necessary

66
Section 5 Entry Procedures
  • Employee roles
  • Proper procedures for general, hot work
    hazardous entry permits

67
Employee Roles
  • Attendant (spotter)
  • Authorized Employee (entrant)
  • Entry Supervisor
  • Rescue Personnel
  • DPS Flint Fire, or
  • Contract CSE Rescue team i.e. MPC
  • IDLH conditions require On site rescue team
  • EHS On-site for Hazardous entry

68
Entry Procedures
  • Evaluate the space/ Identify hazards
  • Pre-entry briefing
  • Inform DPS
  • Isolate/control hazards
  • Perform air monitoring
  • Complete, sign and post permit
  • Monitor entrants
  • Exit space and close out permit
  • Debriefing
  • Return completed/closed permit to EHS

69
Pre-Entry Briefing
  • Use the Evaluation Form and Permit to walk
    through the evaluation process
  • Discuss with supervisor to consider previous
    entries and history of the space
  • Review of conditions, controls, procedures
    contingencies
  • Determine whether or not on-site rescue team is
    required contact EHS.

70
Pre-Entry Checklist (just before entry)
  • Inform DPS EHS
  • Atmospheric monitoring
  • Inspect and test equipment prior to use
  • Communication procedures
  • Rescue/emergency procedures
  • Review space use history
  • Verify training
  • Supervisor verify safe entry conditions, etc.
  • Sign post permit

71
Non-Permit Required Confined Space
  • Meets definition of confined space, but no health
    or safety hazard
  • Two employees (buddy system)
  • Means of communication
  • Can be re-classified to a permit required space
    for work induced hazards i.e. use of
    chemicals/solvents, welding, etc.
  • Examples ceiling spaces,

72
General Permit Required Confined Space
  • Meets definition of a confined space and has a
    potential or known health or safety hazard
  • Atmospheric hazard eliminated by ventilation
  • Two Authorized Employees (One Designated as Entry
    Supervisor)

73
General Entry Permits
  • Pre-entry Briefing
  • Communication
  • Continuous Air Monitoring/Ventilation
  • Trained (Authorized) Employees
  • Elimination of hazards
  • PPE
  • Off-site Rescue

74
Hot Work Entry Permit
  • Welding, burning, cutting or torch work
  • Provisions same as in general permit
  • If contaminants cannot be controlled by
    ventilation air monitoring Retrieval System
    and On-site Rescue must be used

75
Hazardous Entry Permit
  • Cannot eliminate atmospheric hazard
  • Provisions of General Permit Plus
  • EHS Representative On Site,
  • On-site Rescue and Retrieval System Mandatory

76
Section 6 Evacuation Rescue
  • When to Evacuate the Space
  • Rescue Procedures

77
When should the Confined Space be evacuated?
  • Hazardous atmosphere
  • Alarm on monitor
  • Overexposure symptoms of entrants
  • Unanticipated health or safety hazard
  • Damage to PPE or failure of controls
  • Attendant cannot perform duties
  • Permit expires

78
Rescue
  • If Entrant Becomes Incapacitated
  • Three Types
  • Remote (retrieval system)
  • Off-site (Contact DPS 911 FFD)
  • On-site (MPC/ Contract on-site rescue team DPS)
  • Under No Circumstances is Attendant/Spotter to
    enter the space

79
Spotter, Retrieval System, On-site Rescue Team
(MPC)
  • First call DPS on the radio.
  • If injured due to causes not related to
    environment/atmosphere-Wait for Fire Dept.
  • If injured due to environment or atmosphere, then
    use remote/on-site rescue, if possible.

80
Spotter, Retrieval System Off-Site Rescue
Personnel
  • Contact DPS on radio
  • If injury due to causes not related to the
    environment/atmosphere-Wait for Fire Dept.
  • If injured due to environment or atmosphere - use
    retrieval equipment
  • If retrieval fails - Wait for Fire Dept.
  • If unsure - Wait for Fire Dept.

81
Spotter Off-Site Rescue
  • Contact DPS on by radio
  • Wait for Fire Dept.

82
Section 7 Miscellaneous
  • Contractors
  • UMF Confined Space related documents
  • Future drills and exercises

83
Outside Contractors
  • Inform the contractor of confined spaces
  • Identify spaces they may be entering, and
    respective hazards
  • Must have own Confined Space Entry Program and
    employee training current.
  • Coordinate with other workers. Each group
    entering space issues a separate permit. Work
    activities cannot conflict.
  • EHS is available to review contractors program.

84
Review UMF CSE Documents
  • Evaluation form
  • Entry Permit
  • Contractor Notification
  • Revised List of UMF Confined Spaces
  • UMF/UMAA Confined Space program
  • MI Part 90 Confined Space Entry Regulations
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