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ERGONOMICS FOR THE 21ST CENTURY

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ERGONOMICS FOR THE 21ST CENTURY NUECES COUNTY RISK MANAGEMENT * Picture of palming. * * Next shows exercise * Picture of neck stretch. * WHAT is Pec ?? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: ERGONOMICS FOR THE 21ST CENTURY


1
ERGONOMICS FOR THE 21ST CENTURY
  • NUECES COUNTY
  • RISK MANAGEMENT

2
ERGONOMICS DEFINED
  • Ergonomics is the science of fitting the job to
    the worker.

3
BIOMECHANICS
  • The science of measuring the amount of force put
    on the muscles and joints of people when working
    in different positions.

4
BIOMECHANICS CONT.
  • STATIC - Holding one object or body part in one
    position for an extended period. EX. Standing or
    sitting in a parking booth or at a microscope.

5
BIOMECHANICS CONT.
  • DYNAMIC - An activity created by the rhythmic
    contraction and relaxation of the muscles. EX.
    Walking, being in motion.

6
DID YOU KNOW?
  • As early as the 1700s scientists were aware of
    repetitive movement injuries to workers.
  • Bernardino Ramazzini (1633-1714)
  • Clerks
  • Cobblers and tailors
  • Porters

7
ERGONOMIC STUDY AREAS
WORKERS - what they bring to the job TOOLS -
what they bring to the worker
8
ERGONOMIC STUDY AREAS
  • TASKS - what the worker must do
  • ENVIRONMENT- the conditions
  • surrounding the worker and the tool

9
ERGONOMIC FOCUS
The Task
The Tool
The User /Operator
The Work Station and Environment
10
RESULTING INJURIES ARE CALLED
  • Cumulative Trauma Disorders (CTD),
  • Or
  • Repetitive Strain Injuries (RSI),
  • Or
  • Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSD)

11
HOW SERIOUS ARE MSD
  • MSD account for
  • 1/3 of all lost day injuries each year.
  • These injuries cost business 15-20 billion in
    workers compensation each year nationally.

12
COMMON CAUSES
  • Repetitive and/or prolonged activities
  • Awkward postures/positions for an extended time
  • Static postures
  • Vibration
  • High/low Temperatures for
    an extended time
  • Forceful exertions

13
ERGONOMIC STRESS AREAS
Hip
Knee
14
SIGNS OF MSD
  • Decreased range of motion
  • Loss of function
  • Deformity
  • Cramping
  • Loss of color
  • Decreased grip strength
  • Loss of balance
  • Swelling
  • Redness

15
SYMPTOMS OF MSD
  • Muscle fatigue or pain
  • Aching
  • Burning
  • Numbness
  • Stiffness
  • Tingling

16
EXAMPLES OF MSD
  • TENDONITIS- An inflammation of the tendon.
    Typically occurs in the shoulder, wrist, hands,
    or elbow.
  • CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME- Irritation of the median
    nerve, which runs through a bony channel in the
    wrist called the carpal tunnel. Usually results
    from excessive flexing or twisting of the wrist.

17
CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME
18
MSD CONT.
  • TRIGGER FINGER SYNDROME- Tendons in the fingers
    become inflamed, causing pain, swelling, and a
    loss of dexterity.
  • EYE STRAIN - The eyes become strained as a result
    of poor lighting, glare or viewing from awkward
    positions.

19
MSD CONT.
  • HAND/ARM VIBRATION SYNDROME- Tingling, numbness,
    blanching, loss of dexterity in the hand/arm
  • MUSCLE STRAIN Pain in muscles

20
WHAT CAN WE DO?
  • Administrative controls
  • Work practice controls
  • Engineering controls

21
ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROLS
  • Employee rotation/job task expansion
  • Physical adjustments to the work pace
  • Redesign of work methods
  • Alternative tasks
  • Mini-Breaks

22
WORK PRACTICE CONTROLS
  • Safe proper work techniques procedures
  • Training
  • Physical conditioning period

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25
POSTURE ANGLES
  • Whether your tasks are performed while
  • sitting or standing, always maintain proper
    posture angles--and avoid
  • Awkward positions, and
  • Extreme reaches for materials

26
BODY ANGLES
  • HEAD
  • SHOULDERS
  • ELBOWS
  • HANDS
  • WAIST
  • LEGS
  • FEET

27
SITTING POSTURES
28
MORE ANGLES
29
MORE ANGLES
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35
ENGINEERING CONTROLS
  • Workstations
  • Tools/equipment
  • Facilities

36
WORKSTATIONS
  • The objective is to
  • Fit the workstation to the employee
  • Reduce awkward positions
  • This can be done by using two methods

37
WORKSTATIONS CONT.
  • Standard Way
  • Adjustable workstation
  • Adjustable chair
  • Foot rests
  • Adjustable monitor
  • Document holder
  • Innovative Way
  • Cut legs off
  • Add blocks
  • Build foot rest
  • Thick book
  • Build platform

38
  • Use a good chair with a dynamic chair back and
    sit back in this
  • Top of monitor casing 2-3" (5-8 cm) above eye
    level 
  • No glare on screen, use an optical glass
    anti-glare filter where needed
  • Sit at arms length from monitor
  • Feet on floor or stable footrest 
  • Use a document holder, preferably in-line
    with the computer screen
  • Wrists flat and straight in relation to forearms
    to use keyboard/mouse/input device
  • Arms and elbows relaxed close to body 
  • Center monitor and keyboard in front of you 
  • Use a negative tilt keyboard tray  with an upper
    mouse platform or downward tilt able platform
    adjacent to keyboard
  • Use a stable work surface and stable (no bounce)
    keyboard tray
  • Take frequent short breaks (microbreaks)

            12 tips for an Ergonomic
Computer Workstation
 
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41
TOOLS
  • Use of Force or of grip-strength
  • Longer/shorter and thicker/thinner handles
  • Repetitive motion
  • Ratcheting mechanism or gears
  • Power tools
  • Electric stapler
  • Electric knife
  • Spring-loaded returns

42
TOOLS CONT.
  • Awkward positions
  • Bent or curved handles
  • Extensions or add-ons
  • Headphones
  • Support equipment overhead
  • Step stool
  • Forceful exertions
  • Soft-touch keyboards/buttons
  • Lifting devices

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TOOLS CONT.
  • Static positions
  • Anti-fatigue mats
  • Vibration
  • Anti-vibration materials
  • Anti-vibration mounts/handles
  • External support
  • Anti-vibration gloves

46
FACILITIES
  • Lighting/glare

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FACILITIES
  • Temperature

49
FACILITIES
  • Noise

50
EXERCISES STRETCHES
  • These are exercises or stretches that can be
    performed at your workstation, home, just about
    anywhere.

51
EYE
  • Eye comfort exercises
  • Blinking
  • Yawning
  • Focus change

52
EYE Palming
  • While seated, brace elbows on the edge of the
    desk
  • Let weight fall forward
  • Cup hands over eyes and close eyes
  • Inhale slowly through nose hold for 4 seconds
  • Continue deep breathing for 15-30 seconds

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54
EYE Movements
  • Close eyes and slowly gently move eyes up to
    the ceiling, then slowly down to the floor
  • Repeat 3 times
  • Close eyes and slowly gently move eyes to the
    left, then slowly to the right
  • Repeat 3 times

55
NECK STRETCH
  • Tilt ear towards shoulder
  • Reach up and touch top of head with palm to hold
    in tilted position
  • Hold 5-10 seconds. Repeat 2-3 times (come out of
    stretch slowly)
  • Reverse side and repeat

56
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57
Pec Corner Stretch
  • Stand at a corner about a foot away from the wall
    with forearms on opposite sides of the corner.
    One foot should be forward.
  • Elbows should be at slightly below shoulder
    height
  • Keep abdominals tight to avoid arching back
  • Lean gently towards corner by bending the front
    knee until a stretch is felt in front of the
    chest.
  • Hold 5-10 seconds. Repeat 2-3 times

58
Overhead Reach
  • Take a deep breathe and reach up over head with
    both arms.
  • Hold 5-10 seconds
  • Exhale and lower slowly
  • Repeat 2-3 times

59
Shoulder Pinch
  • Place arms behind head being careful not to press
    hand into head
  • Relax shoulders, and squeeze shoulder blades
    together while keeping shoulders back and down
  • Hold 5-10 seconds. Repeat 2-3 times

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61
Shoulder Shrug
  • Sitting up straight, slowly bring shoulders up
    toward your ears.
  • Hold positions 5-10 seconds
  • Then bring the shoulders down and hold
  • Repeat 2-3 times

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63
Chair Rotation Stretch
  • Sit in chair and place feet flat on floor
  • Reach across your body and grab the back of the
    chair
  • Pull gently to increase stretch in mid back
  • Hold 5-10 seconds. Repeat 5 times
  • Repeat on other side

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65
Arms Behind Back Stretch
  • Hold hands behind back and grasp hands together
  • Pull shoulder blades back and down
  • Hold 5 seconds. Repeat 5 times

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67
Thoracic Spine Extension Stretch
  • Lie on your back with a pillow under your knees.
    Place a firmly rolled towel under your shoulder
    blades across your upper back
  • Raise arms up as you inhale
  • Lower arms as you exhale, and hold a couple of
    seconds
  • Do this 5 times

68
Prop Ups or Press Ups
  • Lie on stomach and either prop up on forearms or
    if wrists are not compromised, press up through
    hands.
  • Let stomach sag, and allow back to arch without
    using back muscles.
  • If propped on elbows, hold 5-10 seconds. Repeat
    5 times
  • If on hands, press up and down slowly 10 times

69
Foot Rotations
  • While sitting upright, slowly rotate each foot
    from the ankles 3 times in one direction
  • Then rotate 3 in the opposite direction

70
Wrist Flexed Extended
  • Hold arm straight at waist height
  • With fingers of other hand, gently press down
    above the knuckles, bending wrist down. (DO NOT
    hold at the fingers to push down.)
  • Hold 5-10 seconds and repeat 2-3 times
  • For extending, hold onto palm of hand and stretch
    wrist back. (DO NOT pull on fingers.)
  • Hold 5-10 seconds and repeat 2-3 times.

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73
Finger Massage
  • VERY gently, massage the fingers of each hand
    individually.
  • Move toward the nail gently.
  • Massage the space between your fingers to widen
    and relax

74
Finger Squeeze
  • Squeeze a foam block OR the edge of your desk
    firmly with all fingers
  • Hold for 3 seconds
  • Relax your grip

75
ERGONOMICS PROGRAM
  • Essential elements
  • Management Leadership and employee participation
  • Hazard information and reporting
  • Job Hazard Analysis and Control
  • Training
  • MSD Management
  • Program evaluation

76
QUESTIONS
  • If you have questions please contact the Risk
    Management Department
  • Risk Manager Lance Esswein
  • lance.esswein_at_co.nueces.tx.us
  • Emergency Risk Management Specialist, Martha
    Sanchez martha.sanchez_at_co.nueces.tx.us
  • Phone 361-888-0401
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