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U.S. GPS Program and Policy Update

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Title: U.S. GPS Program and Policy Update


1
U.S. GPS Program and Policy Update
  • Ken AlexanderSenior Advisor, National
    Coordination OfficeUnited States of America
  • SBAS International Working GroupSaint
    Petersburg, RussiaJune 25, 2013

2
Overview
  • U.S. Space-Based PNT Policy
  • Global Positioning System Status
  • Space System Modernization
  • Ground System Modernization
  • Affordability
  • International Interoperability

3
U.S. Space-Based PNT Organization Structure
WHITE HOUSE
Ad HocWorking Groups
4
U.S. National Space Policy 2010
  • Provide continuous worldwide access to GPS for
    peaceful uses, free of direct user charges
  • Open, free access to information necessary to use
    civil GPS and augmentations
  • Encourage global compatibility and
    interoperability with GPS and its augmentations
  • Non-U.S. PNT services may be used to augment and
    strengthen the resiliency of GPS
  • Invest in domestic capabilities and support
    international activities to detect, mitigate and
    increase resiliency to harmful interference

U.S. policy on civil GPS access has been stable
and consistent for 30 years
5
PNT Critical Infrastructure Resiliency
  • Critical Infrastructure sector dependencies on
    satellite navigation discussed 2010-2012
  • Communications (e.g. cellular phone tower
    synchronization)
  • Energy (e.g. power grid synchronization)
  • Emergency Services (e.g. location)
  • Transportation Systems (NextGen)
  • http//www.gps.gov/news/2013/05/2013-05-NRE-public
    -summary.pdf
  • February 2013 Presidential Policy Directive 21
    and Executive Order 13636 address critical
    infrastructure
  • Ongoing interagency activities will address our
    Nations Critical Infrastructure sectors reliance
    upon GPS/GNSS for PNT services

6
Overview
  • U.S. Space-Based PNT Policy
  • Global Positioning System Status
  • Space System Modernization
  • Ground System Modernization
  • Affordability
  • International Interoperability

7
Fourth GPS IIF Satellite Launch
  • Launched May 15, 2013
  • Set healthy June 21, 2013
  • Next launch Planned for November 2013

8
GPS Constellation Status
31 Satellites Available to UsersAs of Jun 23,
2013
  • Expandable 24 configuration (27 slots)
  • 8 Block IIA
  • 12 Block IIR
  • 7 Block IIR-M
  • 4 Block IIF
  • 4 residuals satellites on orbit
  • Continuously assessing constellation health to
    determine launch need

9
GPS Civil Commitment
  • Global GPS civil service performancecommitments
    met continuouslysince Dec 1993
  • Extensive International andCivil Cooperation
  • Agreements with 55 international customers
  • Over 1 billion civil/commercial users
  • GPS embedded in all facets of life
  • Aviation, Emergency Services, Timing,
    Agriculture, Rescue, Automotive, Tracking,
    Science, Military, Robotics/Control Systems

10
Standard Positioning Service (SPS)Signal-in-Space
Performance
2001 Standard Positioning Service (SPS)
Performance Standard (PS) (RMS over all SPS SIS
URE)
2008 Standard Positioning Service (SPS)
Performance Standard (PS) (Worst of any SPS SIS
URE)
Decreasing range error Increasing accuracy
System accuracy exceeds published standard
11
GPS Operational Control Segment
Greenland
Alaska
Schriever AFB Colorado
United Kingdom
South Korea
New Hampshire
Vandenberg AFB California
USNO Washington
Cape CanaveralFlorida
Hawaii
Bahrain
Guam
Ecuador
Kwajalein
Diego Garcia
Ascension
Tahiti
Australia
South Africa
Argentina
New Zealand
Alternate Master Control Station
Master Control Station
AFSCN Remote Tracking Station
Ground Antenna
Air Force Monitor Station
NGA Monitor Station
12
Overview
  • U.S. Space-Based PNT Policy
  • Global Positioning System Status
  • Space System Modernization
  • Ground System Modernization
  • Affordability
  • International Interoperability

13
GPS Modernization Program
GPS IIR-M, IIF
GPS IIA/IIR
GPS III
  • GPS IIR-M Basic GPS plus
  • 2nd civil signal (L2C)
  • M-Code (L1M L2M)
  • GPS IIF GPS IIR-Mcapability plus
  • 3rd civil signal (L5)
  • 2 Rb 1 Cs Clocks
  • 12 year design life
  • Basic GPS
  • Standard Service
  • Single frequency (L1)
  • Coarse acquisition (C/A) code navigation
  • Precise Service
  • Y-Code (L1Y L2Y)
  • Y-Code navigation
  • Backward compatibility
  • 4th civil signal (L1C)
  • 4x better User Range Error than GPS IIF
  • Increased availability
  • Increased integrity
  • 15 year design life

14
GPS III Status
  • GPS Block III, Satellites 1-8
  • Non-Flight Satellite Testbed testing complete
  • First 4 satellites in production
  • GPS Block III, Satellites 9
  • On track to add search and rescue payload
    (SAR-GPS) and satellite laser retroreflectors
  • Studying options for dual launch and other cost
    savings

15
New Civil Signals
  • Second civil signal L2C
  • Designed to meet commercial needs
  • Available since 2005 without data message
  • Phased roll-out of CNAV message
  • Currently 11 SVs in operation
  • Third civil signal L5
  • Designed to meet transportation safety-of-life
    requirements
  • Uses Aeronautical Radio Navigation Service band
  • Currently 4 SVs in operation
  • Fourth civil signal L1C
  • Designed for GNSS interoperability
  • Specification developed in cooperation with
    industry
  • Launches with GPS III
  • Improved tracking performance

L5 and L1C Provide improved performance in
challenged environments
Urban Canyons
16
New Civil GPS Signals
Signal Benefits of Satellites Broadcasting Now Availability on 24 Satellites
L2C Meets commercial needs for ionospheric correction, higher effective power, etc. 11 2018
L5 Meets requirements for safety-of-life transportation enables triple-frequency positioning techniques 4 2021
L1C GNSS interoperability performance improvements in challenged environments Will start with GPS III in 2015 2026
17
CNAV Message Testing
  • L2C and L5 signals are in development status
    (i.e. no navigation data provided)
  • OCX control segment will enable upload of civil
    navigation (CNAV) messages for L2C and L5
  • Live-sky testing of L2C and L5 with CNAV ongoing
    (Jun 15 July 1, 2013)
  • Public participation encouraged see
    www.gps.gov/pros
  • L2C and L5 will eventually replace civil need for
    semi-codeless access to military P(Y) signals
  • All semi-codeless GPS users expected to migrate
    from military P(Y) signals use by Dec 31, 2020

18
Overview
  • U.S. Space-Based PNT Policy
  • Global Positioning System Status
  • Space System Modernization
  • Ground System Modernization
  • Affordability
  • International Interoperability

19
GPS Modernized Ground System
  • Current system Operational Control Segment (OCS)
  • Now flying GPS IIA/IIR/IIR-M/IIF constellation
  • Currently provides legacy L1C/A signal
  • Next Generation Operational Control System (OCX)
  • Block 0 (2014)
  • Supports GPS III launch and checkout
  • OCX Block I
  • Operational capability projected in 2016
  • Provides operational CNAV for L2C and L5
  • Command control for GPS IIR/IIR-M/IIF/III
  • OCX Block II
  • Operational capability projected in 2017
  • Delivers new international signal (L1C) and
    M-Code

20
Overview
  • U.S. Space-Based PNT Policy
  • Global Positioning System Status
  • Space System Modernization
  • Ground System Modernization
  • Affordability
  • International Interoperability

21
GPS III Dual Launch
  • Significantly reduces launch costs
  • Studies indicate capability can be provided with
    minor changes in GPS III SV09 production line
  • Future Size, Weight, Power (SWAP) considerations
  • Battery Solar Array Efficiency, Star Tracker/
    IMU, etc
  • Allows SV09 payload considerations
  • SAR GPS (formerly DASS), Laser Reflectors, USB
  • GPS/Launch Directorate Coordination
  • Developing final requirements
  • GPS--specific dual payload adapter
  • Mission profile
  • Reduces launch vehicle schedule needs

SV1
SV2
NotionalDual Launch Configuration on Atlas V
551
22
GPS Augmentation Satellite Initiative
  • Smaller GPS Navigation Satellites (NavSats)
  • Augments GPS III capabilities
  • No secondary payloads
  • PNT-only reduces size,
  • weight and power (SWAP)
  • Increased resiliency
  • Constellation of 24 GPS IIIs 6 NavSats
  • Enables reduced launch costs
  • Multiple launch capability
  • Commercial launch capability
  • Improves access to space by replenishing the
    constellation faster

SV1
SV2
Pursuing single on-orbit demonstration
23
Overview
  • U.S. Space-Based PNT Policy
  • Global Positioning System Status
  • Space System Modernization
  • Ground System Modernization
  • Affordability
  • International Interoperability

24
International Cooperation
  • U.S. goals for GNSS cooperation
  • Compatibility and interoperability
  • Transparency in provision of civil services
  • Fair market access
  • Detecting, mitigating, and increasing resiliency
    to harmful interference
  • Bilateral relationships
  • Russia, Europe, Japan, India, Australia, China
  • Multilateral engagement
  • ICG, APEC, ICAO, IMO, ITU, NATO

25
International Committee on GNSS (ICG)
  • Promotes use of GNSS and its integration into
    infrastructures, particularly in developing
    countries
  • Encourages compatibility and interoperability
    among global and regional systems
  • Members include GNSS Providers (U.S., EU,
    Russia, China, India, Japan), Other Member States
    of the United Nations, International
    organizations/associations
  • Multi-GNSS Monitoring Subgroup approved Jun 2012
  • Identify what service parameters should be
    monitored
  • Define the level methods for monitoring
  • ICG-8 will be held in November 2013 in Dubai
  • http//www.icgsecretariat.org

26
U.S. - Russia Cooperation
  • GPS-GLONASS cooperation statement signed 2004
  • Compatibility/interoperability of GPS and GLONASS
  • Interoperability of Search and Rescue (SAR-GPS
    and SAR-GLONASS)
  • Collaborating toward placement of GLONASS/ SDCM
    monitoring stations in U.S.
  • U.S. is closely monitoring Russian mandates for
    GLONASS equipage on certain vehicles
  • Threshold operational requirements are unclear to
    U.S. aircraft manufacturers
  • Technical regulations must comply with WTO
    obligations on Technical Barriers to Trade
  • U.S. recommends technology-neutral,
    performance-based navigation (PBN) airspace
    requirements

27
Information to Facilitate GLONASS Use
  • Provision of a GLONASS Standard Precision
    Performance Standard commitments (e.g. comparable
    to 2008 GPS SPS Performance Standard)
  • Establishes State commitment to minimum
    performance levels
  • Including Satellite and Constellation failure
    rates
  • Updated GLONASS Interface Control Document (ICD)
    and ICAO Annex 10 SARPS for L1OC and L5OC CDMA
    signals
  • Currently ICAO Annex 10 and GLONASS ICD, Edition
    5.1, 2008 only address L1OF (and L2OF) FDMA
    signals
  • GLONASS-K2 L1OC CDMA (BOC 1,1) signals and
    GLONASS-KM L5OC CDMA (BOC 4,4) signals centered
    at 1176.5 MHz facilitate compatibility
    interoperability/ complementarity
  • Jun 2013, received Russian equivalents (modified
    for GLONASS) to RTCA MOPS for DO-229C (SBAS)
  • Looking for DO-253 (LASS/GBAS) / DO-316
    equivalents (in English)
  • SDCM ICD for regional augmentation of GPS and
    GLONASS
  • Need to validate interoperability with DO-229C
    avionics (including 1575.42 MHz downlink)

28
GPS Interoperability Initiative
  • CNAV Demonstration Summer 2013
  • Civil Navigation message Type 35
  • Allows foreign interoperability of L2C and L5
  • Tests GPS/GNSS Time Offset defined protocols
  • GPS to Galileo
  • GPS to GLONASS
  • Ongoing coordination with other GNSS providers
  • RF Compatibility
  • Prevent interference between GPS and other GNSS
  • Interoperability of Open Service (civil) signals
  • Benefits of multi-GNSS civil services
  • GPS PRN code assignment management and
    coordination
  • Use GPS PRN codes

SV2
29
Summary
  • GPS constellation is healthy with 31 usable
    satellites
  • Continuously increasing accuracy and capabilities
  • Modernization of all GPS segments is on track
  • Pursuing innovative, cost effective solutions for
    future GPS
  • Striving to improve international GNSS
    cooperation and compatibility
  • GPS-GLONASS cooperation ongoing
  • Identification of minimum operational
    capabilities for each phase of flight is
    essential
  • Dual Frequency/Multi-constellation (DFMC) with
    future GLONASS L1OC and L5OC Standardization
    avionics can
  • Optimize aviation operational capabilities
  • Improve GLONASS compatibility and interoperable
  • In support of U.S. avionics and aircraft
    manufacturers, the FAA desires to continue an
    open dialogue

30
For Additional Information
www.gps.gov
31
 ???????
  • 2518 Herbert C. Hoover BuildingWashington, D.C.
    20230United States of America
  • Tel 1 (202) 482-5809Email PNT.office_at_PNT.gov

32
BACKUPFAA Charts
33
U.S. Avionics Standards Process
  • TSOs and ACs are based upon Minimum Operational
    Performance Standards (MOPS)
  • Experience has shown that use of industry
    consensus standards is very beneficial
  • Industry has the greatest technical expertise
  • Industry consensus promotes fair competition
    among vendors, driving cost-effective solutions
  • Industry consensus reduces risks of divergent
    industry input during formal comment period
  • Industry consensus is developed in
    standards-making bodies for GPS avionics, that
    is RTCA, Inc.
  • RTCA, Inc. is a federal advisory committee and
    complies with the Federal Advisory Committee Act
  • Meetings are open to public and announced in
    Federal Register
  • Consensus on Minimum Operational Performance
    Standards (MOPS) is built through collaboration
  • FAA invokes industry consensus in Technical
    Standard Orders

34
Current FAA GNSS Orders and Guidance
  • TSO-C129a (KT-3401 equivalent) is cancelled
  • No new approvals or major modifications are
    permitted
  • Standard inadequate for Radiofrequency
    interference environment
  • Equipment will be phased-out
  • Technical Standard Orders for new GPS equipment
    incorporate more stringent standards and test
    requirements
  • TSO-C145c/C146c (GPS augmented by SBAS) evoke
    RTCA DO-229D
  • TSO-C161a (GPS augmented by GBAS) evokes RTCA
    DO-253C
  • TSO-C196a, (GPS ABAS for supplemental use) evokes
    RTCA DO-316
  • Receivers must detect Selective Availability
    removal
  • More restrictive RF interference mask minimizes
    RF noise induced performance degradations
  • AC20-138D (in final coordination) for
    airworthiness approval of positioning and
    navigation aircraft installations
  • Adds appendix addressing addition of GLONASS not
    for credit

35
Integrating GLONASS with GPS (AC-138D)(Slide 1
of 3)
  • Since there is no FAA TSO, nor RTCA MOPS for
    GLONASS or GPS/GLONASS avionics
  • Adding GLONASS capability must be accomplished as
    a non-TSO function until a GPS/GLONASS MOPS and
    TSOs are available
  • Adding GLONASS capability according to Advisory
    Circular guidance does not ensure compatibility
    nor compliance with future requirements
  • Some U.S. manufacturers are interested in
    initiating development of multi-constellation
    MOPS to include combined GPS/GLONASS and
    GPS/GLONASS/SBAS avionics
  • Annex 10 SARPs do not provide
  • Performance and test standards
  • Satellite/Constellation reliability commitments
  • Standards for new signal configurations

36
Integrating GLONASS with GPS (AC-138D) (Slide 2
of 3)
  • Manufacturers must ensure that GLONASS is
    integrated on a non-interference basis
  • Addition of GLONASS to GPS, GPS/SBAS, GPS/GBAS
    avionics must provide an equivalent level of
    Safety and Performance (i.e., not degrade
    accuracy, integrity or continuity)
  • GPS, GPS/SBAS, and GPS/GBAS equipment must
    continue to meet the requirements of its approval
  • Any GLONASS failures, errors, or alerts must not
    affect GPS, GPS/SBAS, or GPS/GBAS capability
  • Additionally, loss of GLONASS function must not
    affect the GPS, GPS/SBAS, or GPS/GBAS functions
    or performance
  • GLONASS must not be used to supplement or aid
    GPS, GPS/SBAS, or GPS/GBAS performance
    requirements, nor, GPS RAIM prediction requirement

37
Integrating GLONASS with GPS (AC-138D) (Slide 3
of 3)
  • No credit for non-precision approach prediction
    availability, nor FDE availability for
    oceanic/remote operations until GLONASS is
    approved for operational credit
  • Adding GLONASS is considered a new and novel
    major change
  • The applicant must present a data package
    detailing proposed performance, intended
    function, and limitations
  • Expect to upgrade to more stringent requirements
    of TSO-C196 when adding GLONASS to TSO-C129a
    receivers
  • No operational credit should be expected for
    GLONASS use

38
Evolving Integrity Algorithms
  • Current RAIM algorithms are based upon
  • Satellite/ constellation failure rates equal to
    10-5 and 10-4 respectfully
  • Probabilities are based upon 10 satellites in
    view and not the increased number of satellites
    available from GPS and GLONASS
  • Not designed to mitigate more than one failed
    satellite at a time
  • Multi-constellation RAIM requires essential
    capability to account for increased (or degraded)
    satellite and/or constellation performance
    including failure rates
  • The FAA is investigating how Advanced Receiver
    Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (ARAIM) might
    support global vertical approach operations using
    two or more constellations
  • Monitoring and other Architecture needs are
    balanced by the amount of trust that can be
    placed in the core constellation
  • Reference ARAIM Technical Subgroup Interim
    Report, Issue 1.0) http//www.gps.gov/policy/coope
    ration/europe/2013/working-group-c/

39
Advanced RAIM (Slide 1 of 3)
  • Availability of four core constellations by 2020
    challenges both aircraft operators/manufacturers
    and ATC service providers to assess strategic
    planning for future GNSS use given the potential
    variations using ABAS (RAIM), SBAS, and GBAS
  • SBAS and GBAS fulfil aviation needs using only
    GPS, but require significant infrastructure
    investments
  • Use of two, or more, constellations improves ABAS
    availability however, multi-constellation SBAS
    and GBAS, as well as use of L5 (2nd civil GPS
    signal) operational benefits are not clear

40
Advanced RAIM (Slide 2 of 3)
  • On-going ARAIM studies are attempting to evaluate
    a proper balance between
  • RAIM-like approach - high trust in performance
    of satellites across multiple core constellations
    allows sparse monitoring and infrequent satellite
    health updates to avionics
  • SBAS-like approach reduced dependence upon
    trust in multi-constellation satellite
    performance requires dense monitoring networks
    and frequent updates to avionics

41
Advanced RAIM (Slide 3 of 3)
  • The outlook for ARAIM vertical approach
    operations using two or more constellations, is
    favourable, but not yet decisive
  • Less challenging en route and horizontal approach
    performance requirements might be satisfied by
    simpler RAIM algorithms, but require further
    study and validation
  • GLONASS provides the opportunity to operationally
    test potential multi-constellation ARAIM
    implementations

42
RAIM and Advanced RAIM Comparison
RAIM ARAIM
Operations Down to RNP 0.1 LPV200
Hazard category Major Hazardous
Signals L1CA L1CA/E1-L5/E5a
Threat model Single fault only Multiple faults
Nominal error model Gaussian Uses bound broadcast by GPS Gaussian nominal/max bias validated by independent ground monitoring
Constellations GPS Multi-constellation
43
Avionics incorporating GLONASS for Credit
  • The FAA envisions future operational credit for
    GLONASS
  • After GLONASS system and service provider
    performance capabilities are identified (e.g. GPS
    SPS Performance Standard)
  • GLONASS operational support commitments (e.g.
    publication and distribution of GLONASS
    international NOTAMs is required prior to any
    scheduled maintenance and after the onset of any
    unscheduled outages
  • RTCA has completed development of GPS/GLONASS
    avionics performance standards
  • Next generation GNSS Dual-Frequency/Multi-constell
    ation (DFMC) MOPS expected to enable improved
    performance using GLONASS (or other
    constellations) in combination with GPS
    consistent with 2010 Presidential Policy
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