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Title: Heterostructure Silicon (including Lecture-Tutorial-Laboratory Modules)


1
Heterostructure Silicon (including
Lecture-Tutorial-Laboratory Modules)
  • Dept. of Electronics ECE
  • Indian Institute of Technology-Kharagpur

First R D Centre in Information and
Communication Technology (ICT) Development among
IITs and Universities in India PI Prof. C. K
Maiti, Co-PI Prof A. S Dhar, and Prof A. Halder
2
Research Development focus
  1. To develop e-learning materials for
    Heterostructure Silicon Course (including
    tutorial and laboratory modules) for final year
    undergraduates and postgraduate students and
    implement online simulation laboratory real
    time simulation laboratory accessed through the
    Internet which can expand the range of simulation
    experiments in Heterostructure Silicon, transmit
    online instructions and study materials for
    anyone, anywhere and anytime.
  2. development of e-content for an integrated
    teaching environment which allows for the
    provision of online live lectures (a 40-lecture
    module with tutorials) and a laboratory (10-12
    simulation experiments) session for
    geographically dispersed students.

3
Steps for Development of RealTIME
Measurement-based Internet Laboratory Design of
Experiment Remote Operation of the
Instruments (via LabVIEW, IC/CV lite, Easy
Expert, VEE etc) Conversion to Web
Application Launching on the Internet
4
Total Budget Outlay
(Rs. in lakhs) Years Head 1st 2nd
3rd Total Capital Equipment Rs. 30.00 - - 30.00
FE Comp. Consumable stores
Rs. 10.00 10.00 10.00 30.00 Software/License
Fee Duty on import (if any) Rs. nil nil nil nil
Manpower (JPA/RS/Eqv.) Rs. 7.00 8.00 9.00 24.00
Travel Training Rs. 3.00 4.00 5.00 12.00
Contingencies/Accessories Rs. 10.00 13.00 16.00
39.00 Grand Total (FE Comp.)
60.00 35.00 40.00
135.00 Grand Total
Rs. 135.00 lakhs
5
Course Description
Text Book C. K. Maiti, S. Chattopadhyay, and L.
K. Bera, "Strained-Si Heterostructure
Field-Effect Devices", CRC Press(Taylor and
Francis), USA, 2007. 40-50 lectures including
tutorial based on the following contents
Introduction Strain Engineering in
Microelectronics Stress Induced During
Manufacturing Substrate Engineering Uniaxial vs.
Biaxial Strain Engineering Heteroepitaxy and
Strain Control Virtual Substrates Hybrid
Substrates
6
Substrate-Induced Strain Engineering Process-Induc
ed Stress Engineering Global vs. Local
Strain Substrate-Induced Strain Characterization
of Strained Layers Gate Dielectrics on Engineered
Substrates Kinetics Oxidation of Si1-xGex
Layers Oxidation of Strained-Si Layers Rapid
Thermal Oxidation Plasma Nitridation of
Strained-Si High-k GateDielectrics on
Strained-Si Nonclassical CMOS Structures Electroni
c Properties of Engineered Substrates Orientation-
Dependent Mobility Engineering Energy Gap and
Band Structure Electron Mobility Hole
Mobility FieldDependence
7
Doping Dependence Carrier Lifetime Heterostructure
Field-Effect Devices SiGe/SiGeCMaterial
Parameters SiGe Hetero-FETs Structures
andOperation SiGe p-MOSFETs on SOI SiGeC
Hetero-FETs SiGe-based HEMTs Design
Issues Strained-Si Technology Process
Integration Uniaxial Stress Process Flow Biaxial
Strain Process Flow Strain-Engineered
Hetero-FETs Modeling and Simulation Simulation
of Hetero-FETs Strained-SiMaterial Parameters
forModeling Simulation of Strained-Si
n-MOSFETs Characterization of Strained-Si
Hetero-FETs SPICE Parameter Extraction
8
VLSI Engineering Laboratory Module will consist
of the following experiments
  1. Doping Profile Determination
  2. Bipolar Device Characterization
  3. MOS Capacitor Characterization
  4. MOSFET Characterization
  5. High Frequency Characteristics of BJT
  6. MOSFET SPICE Parameter Extraction
  7. Bipolar Transistor SPICE Parameter Extraction
  8. 1/f Noise Characterization in Transistors
  9. Low Temperature Characterization of Transistors
  10. LNA Characterization
  11. Noise Modeling in MOSFETs
  12. Cutoff Frequency Determination

9
Why Heterostructure Silicon ?March of Technology
  • MOORES LAW Transistor density on integrated
    circuits doubles about every two years Intel
    co-founder Gordon E. Moore (1965)
  • Microelectronic silicon computer chips have
    grown from a single transistor in the 1950s to
    hundreds of millions of transistors per chip on
    todays microprocessor and memory devices

10
March of Technology
  • Geometric scaling of transistors Making Moores
    prediction true
  • 90-nm technology ? 65-nm technology ? 45-nm
    technology ? 32-nm technology
  • HALT IN MARCH ?
  • Performance Degradation for smaller gate lengths
  • Physical limits in scaling

11
March of TechnologyHeterostructure Engineering
  • Heterostructure Engineering Will ensure Moores
    law continues to hold true
  • Novel solution to enhance device performance by
    inherently increasing the mobility of the charge
    carriers by straining the MOSFET channel

12
Strained-Si Epitaxial Layers
2-D lattice view of Tensile strained-Si film
Vegards law aSiGe(x)aSi(1-x)aGe(x) x Ge
fraction aSi5.43 Å aGe5.66 Å
13
Band Structure of Tensile Strained-Si
(b) Band structure of bulk Ge
(a) Band structure of bulk Si
  • Band gap

(c)
14
What is Technology CAD (TCAD)Rising
Technological Complexity
Gate insulator SiO2/HiK Leakage Trapping
Gate Work function Depletion
Channel Mobility
Raised S/D Material Activation Diffusion
S/D extension Activation Junction (USJ)
Device Scaling More Simulation Needed
Application Design, analyze and optimize
semiconductor technologies and devices
15
Compact multi-level technology/
transistor/subsystem TCAD modeling flow
16
Advanced TCAD Simulation
  • Process Simulation Updates
  • Device Simulation Updates
  • BSIM4 Model Extraction
  • Process Optimization using process compact model
    (PCM)
  • Sensitivity, uncertainty yield analysis (Yield
    Management)

17
TCAD Optimization and Manufacturability
18
Sensitivity, uncertainty yield analysis
Determine the most stable process condition
19
Yield analysis
Device spec limits
20
Some Strained-Engineered Devices
21
Some available facilities Hardware facilities
ELVIS Setup
NetLAB Server
22
Network Analyzer
Noise Figure Analyzer
Spectrum Analyzer
DC Probe station
23
AFM Setup
Agilent Semiconductor Test Analyzer
24
Software facilities
  • Instrument Control software
  • LabVIEW, VEE, VSA, IC-CAP, IC/C-V light,
    EasyExpert, Microsoft Inst., etc.
  • TCAD software
  • SILVACO, Sentaurus, MEDICI, TSupreme, Taurus,
    Monte Carlo, HSPICE, Nanosim, PCM studio,
    PARAMOS, etc.

25
Requirements List of Equipment
  1. Four Probe Resistivity Meter (25 lakhs)
  2. Mask Aligner (75 lakhs)
  3. Clean Air station (20 lakhs)
  4. Rapid Thermal Annealing System (45 lakhs)
  5. Semiconductor Test System (35 lakhs)
  6. Microwave/ECR Plasma System (55 lakhs)
  7. DC/RF Sputtering System (45 lakhs)
  8. Probe station (50 lakhs)
  9. Programmable power supply (20 Lakhs)
  10. Thickness Measurement system (30 lakhs)
  11. AFM/STM (30 lakhs)
  12. Spectrum analyzer (10 Lakhs)
  13. LCR Meter (10 lakhs)
  14. Semiconductor Parameter Analyzer (50 lakhs)
  15. Noise Figure Analyzer (55 lakhs)
  16. Network Analyzer up to 26 GHz with calibration
    kits (200 lakhs)
  17. Parameter extraction and device/process modeling
    software tools (45 lakhs)

26
Achievement in ICT Area
  1. NetLAB based Measurement and Analysis
  2. First On Line Laboratory Demonstration at Andhra
    University (AU)
  3. First short term course on Information
    Communication Technology (ICT) on Hardware
    Laboratory at IIT-Kharagpur
  4. Arranged several short term courses on Technology
    CAD (TCAD) at IIT-Kharagpur
  5. Arranged several short term courses on Technology
    CAD (TCAD) outside IIT-Kharagpur

27
Book Published
  • 1. Applications of Silicon-Germanium
    Heterostructure Devices, Institute of Physics
    Publishing (IOP), UK, 2001.
  • 2. Silicon Heterostructures Materials and
    Devices, Institute of Electrical Engineers (IEE),
    UK, 2001.
  • 3. Selected Works of Professor Herbert Kroemer,
    Edited, World Scientific, Singapore 2008.
  • 4. Strained-Si Heterostructure Field-Effect
    Devices, CRC Press, London, 2007.
  • 5. TCAD for Si, SiGe and GaAs Integrated
    Circuits, IET, UK, 2008.

28
OUR Publications on INTERNET LABORATORY on
MICROELECTRONICS
  • A. Maiti and S. S. Mahato, Online Semiconductor
    Device Characterization and Parameter Extraction
    Using World Wide Web, Proc. NCNTE, Feb. 29 Mar.
    01, pp.160-163, 2008.
  • A. Maiti and S. S. Mahato, Web-based
    Semiconductor Technology CAD (TCAD) Laboratory,
    50th Intl. Symp. ELMAR-2008, Zadar, CROATIA,
    10-12 September 2008.
  • A. Maiti and S. S. Mahato, Web-based
    Semiconductor Process and Device Simulation
    Laboratory, Proc. of ICEE2008, Intl. Conf. on
    Engineering Education, "New Challenges in
    Engineering Education and Research in the 21st
    Century", PÉCS-BUDAPEST, HUNGARY, JULY 27-31,
    2008.
  • S. C. Pandey, A. Maiti, T. K. Maiti and C. K.
    Maiti, Online MOS Capacitor Characterization in
    LabVIEW Environment, International Journal of
    Online Engineering (iJOE), vol.5, pp.57-60, 2009.
  • A. Maiti, M. K. Hota, T. K. Maiti and C. K.
    Maiti, Online Microelectronics and VLSI
    Engineering Laboratory, International Workshop on
    Technology for Education, Bangalore, Aug 04-06,
    2009.

29
Currently Available Experiments via INTERNET from
IIT-KHARAGPUR(RealTIME Online Measurement-based)
  1. Gummel Plot of a BJT
  2. Output Characteristics of a BJT
  3. Threshold Voltage of a MOSFET
  4. Output Characteristics of a MOSFET
  5. MOSFET Parameter Extraction
  6. BJT SPICE Parameter Extraction
  7. Low Noise Amplifier Characterization
  8. Surface Analysis using AFM/STM
  9. Circuit Analysis Using NI-Elvis

30
NetLAB Webpage
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Partner/USER Institutions
Our Current Partners are VIT, Vellore NIST,
Berhampur OUR ONLINE LABORATORY HAS BEEN USED
and TESTED BY More Than 50 ENGINEERING
COLLEGES and 10 UNIVERSITIES
34
Short Term Course/Workshop AICTE/MHRD sponsored
SUMMER SCHOOL at IIT KHARAGPUR May 17-23,
2009 Applications of ICT for Hardware
Laboratory 52 participants from 40 Engineering
Colleges
35
List of Participating Institutions
  • VIT University, Vellore
  • NIST, Berhampur
  • West Bengal University of Technology, Kolkata
  • University of Calcutta
  • Inst. of Radiophysics and Electronics
  • North Bengal University, Siliguri
  • NIT, Durgapur
  • Bengal Engg. and Science University, Shibpur
  • Tezpur (Central) University, Tezpur

36
  • IMPS College of Engg. and Technology, Malda
  • Gurgaon College of Engg., Haryana
  • Hi-Tech Institute of Technology, Khurda
  • National Institute of Technology, Warangal
  • SSN College of Engg., Tamilnadu
  • Synergy Institute of Engg. and Technology,
    Dhenkanal
  • Medi-caps Institute of Technology Management,
    Indore
  • Dr. BR Ambedkar National Institute of Technology,
    Punjab
  • Jaypee Univ. Of Information Tech., Solan, H.P.
  • Dronacharya College of Engg., Gurgaon, Haryana
  • CVR College of Engg., Hyderabad, A.P.
  • Sai Spurthi Institute of Technology, A.P.
  • Lingaya's Institute of Mgt and Technology,
    Faridabad

37
  • Purushottam Institute of Engg. Tech., Rourkela,
    Orissa
  • National Institute of Science Technology,
    Orissa
  • Hi-Tech Institute of Tech., Orissa
  • GLAITM, Mathura, U.P.
  • Dr. B. C. Roy Engg. College, Durgapur
  • Tradient Academy of Tech., Orissa
  • Modern Engg. Management Studies, Orissa
  • GLA Institute of Tech. Management, Mathura
  • Synergy Institute of Engg. Tech., Orissa
  • ITER, Bhubaneswar
  • Synergy Institute of Engg. Tech., Orissa
  • DRIEMS, Cuttack
  • Lingayas University, Faridabad
  • Birla Institute of Technology, Patna
  • Dr. Sivanthi Aditanar College of Engg., Tamilnadu

38
  • PSN Group of Institutions, Tamilnadu
  • Orissa Engg. College, Bhubaneswar
  • JIET, Cuttack
  • Raajdhani Eng. College, Bhubaneswar
  • World Institute of Technology, Gurgaon
  • Dept. of Bio-Medical Engg., Andhra University
  • Andhra University College of Engg., Visakhapatnam
  • GITAM University, Visakhapatnam
  • Chaitanya college of Engg., Visakhapatnam
  • SRKR Engg. College, Visakhapatnam
  • Govt. Polytechnic, Bheemili
  • Sanketika Vidya Parishad Engg. College,
    Visakhapatnam
  • JNTU College of Engg., Hyderabad
  • National Engg. College, Tamilnadu
  • Institute of Technology and Management, Gurgaon

39
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