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After the Great War

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After the Great War Legacy of World War I Thirty-two nations participated in the war, mobilizing 65 million men. Ten million men were killed; 20 million were wounded. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: After the Great War


1
After the Great War
2
Legacy of World War I
  • Thirty-two nations participated in the war,
    mobilizing 65 million men.
  • Ten million men were killed 20 million were
    wounded.
  • After the war, winners and losers alike faced
    inflation, high unemployment, and the Great
    Depression.
  • Germany abandoned their democratic Weimar
    Republic for Hitlers Nazi dictatorship in 1933.

3
Legacy of World War I
  • The United States, disillusioned with the war,
    withdrew into diplomatic isolation.
  • Britain and France expanded their colonial
    empires in Africa and the Middle East. France got
    Syria Britain got Iraq Palestine became a
    British mandate.
  • The Vietnamese who had helped the French and
    Indians who had helped the British were slapped
    down by their colonial masters.

4
(1) What are some examples of the postwar
pessimism of the 1920s?
  • American writer Gertrude Stein coined the phrase,
    lost generation, to describe a group of
    American intellectuals who wrote in poetry and
    fiction about the disillusionment of both
    Americans and Europeans.
  • Retired German school teacher Oswald Spengler
    wrote The Decline of the West (1918-1922)
    proposing that European society had entered the
    final stage of its existence and that all nations
    were doomed.
  • Theologian Karl Barth wrote Epistle to the
    Romans, attacking the idea that progress is the
    realization of Gods purpose. Other theologians
    followed with similar ideas.
  • Painting created reality but did not reflect it.

5
Why did liberal values such as progress and
democracy fall under attack at this time?
  • Scientists and technology were responsible for
    making the poisonous gas and explosives that
    destroyed millions of people, agriculture and
    cities.
  • Many intellectuals became disillusioned with
    democracy because they saw it as lacking positive
    values, i.e. too much focus on the individual.
  • Some worried about the rule of inferiors.
    Remember Darwin and scientific racism.

6
What caused the crash of 1929 and the depression
that followed? Discuss three factors.
  • Postwar agriculture was depressed in Europe,
    United States, Canada, Argentina, and Australia.
  • The U.S. economic boom prompted many to invest
    beyond their means.
  • On Black Thursday, October 24, 1929, stock prices
    dropped and investors lost their life savings.
  • Overproduction and reduced consumer demand
    resulted in widespread business failure and
    unemployment.
  • By 1932 U.S. industrial production and national
    income dropped by half. .

7
What caused the crash of 1929 and the depression
that followed? Discuss three factors.
  • There was a drastic decrease in business
    activity, wages, and employment.
  • As a result, businesses could not sell all their
    inventories. Consequently, they cut back in
    production and laid off workers.
  • With so many people unemployed, demand for goods
    plummeted, causing business failures and soaring
    unemployment.
  • The national income dropped by half and 44
    percent of U.S. banks went out of business.
  • Because the world depended on the export of U.S.
    capital and the U.S. import markets, this created
    a global effect.

8
What were some of the economic problems facing
the world powers in the 1920s? Give two.
  • When U.S. investors called in loans, banks in
    Austria and Germany became vulnerable because
    they had been major recipients of U.S. loans.
  • The Germany economy experienced a huge economic
    slide that by 1932 resulted in 35 percent
    unemployment and a 50 percent decrease in
    industrial production.
  • Japans dependence on the U.S. markets collapsed
    when the U.S. instituted high tariffs on foreign
    imports.
  • Foreign trade fell sharply between 1929 and 1932
    causing further losses in manufacturing and
    employment.

9
What were some of the economic problems facing
the world powers in the 1920s? Give two.
  • Because most Latin American states exported
    agricultural products or raw materials, they were
    especially vulnerable to the effects of the
    depression. The prices of sugar from the
    Caribbean, coffee from Brazil, and beef from
    Argentina fell.
  • European companies that controlled the export of
    African products suffered, but many areas of
    colonial Africa remained unaffected because their
    products were not tied to the international
    economy.

10
What was economic nationalism? How effective
were these measures?
  • High tariffs and import quotas were used to
    promote economic self-sufficiency within nations.
  • Economic nationalism replaced international
    cooperation.
  • Governments turned to their own resources.
  • Between 1929 and 1932, world productions declined
    by 38 percent and trade dropped by more than 66
    percent.

11
What was the impact of the depression on social
attitudes? On women and families?
  • Many believed that removing women from the
    workforce would solve the problem of male
    unemployment and increase the nations low
    birthrate. Consequently, in many nations
    policies were enacted to reduce female
    unemployment.
  • Great Depression caused enormous personal
    suffering.
  • Millions struggled for food, clothing, and
    shelter.
  • Marriage and birthrates declined suicide
    increased.
  • Intensified social divisions and class hatreds.
  • John Steinbeck's Grapes of Wrath criticized U.S.
    policy of "planned scarcity, whereby surplus
    crops were destroyed to raise prices while
    citizens starved.

12
From John Steinbecks The Grapes of Wrath
  • The people come with nets to fish for potatoes
    in the river and the guards hold them back they
    come in rattling cars to get the dumped oranges,
    but the kerosene is sprayed. And they stand
    still and watch potatoes float by, listen to the
    screaming pigs being killed in a ditch and
    covered with quicklime, watch the mountains of
    oranges slop down to a putrefying ooze and in
    the eyes of the people there is the failure an
    in the eyes of the hungry there is a growing
    wrath.

13
What did John Maynard Keynes recommend as a
solution to the economic crisis?
  • John M. Keynes challenged classical economic
    theory, the belief that capitalism was
    self-correcting and operated best if left alone.
  • Keynes argued the depression was a problem of
    inadequate demand, not supply therefore,
    governments should play an active role in
    stimulating economy and consumer demand.

14
How did the New Deal of President Roosevelt
exemplify this solution?
  • After 1932, Roosevelt put in place a protected
    banking system, massive public works projects,
    and farm subsidies
  • Also, legislation established minimum wage,
    social security, workers' unions.

15
How did Lenin and the Bolsheviks secure their
power in Russia?
  • The industrial workers living in towns were
    discontent with working conditions.
  • 90 of the people living in Russia were peasants
    who were starving and who lacked the means to
    improve their lives.
  • Many middle-class Liberals and Social
    Revolutionaries (who supported the peasants)
    opposed the rule of the Tsar, but most
    revolutionaries were the Social Democrats or
    Communists.
  • The Communists believed in the ideas of Karl
    Marx. Marx claimed that history is all about the
    struggles between the classes. He claimed that
    the capitalist system was unfair because the
    factory owners (bourgeois) made profits from the
    toils of the workers (proletariat). Marx
    predicted that the proletariat would violently
    overthrow the bosses and take control of the
    country on behalf of the people.

16
How did Lenin and the Bolsheviks secure their
power in Russia?
  • Russia fared so badly in the First World War
    there was a spontaneous uprising against the Tsar
    in February 1917. This was sparked off by food
    riots, poor working conditions and the failure to
    win the war.
  • Lenin, in exile in Switzerland, raced to
    Petrograd so that he could attempt to seize
    control of the revolution.
  • In March 1917, without the support of the army,
    the Tsar was forced to abdicate and a Provisional
    Government was set up. Lenin believed that this
    new government was weak and would not impose
    communism on the Russian people.

17
Vladimir Lenin
18
How did Lenin and the Bolsheviks secure their
power in Russia?
  • In October 1917, Lenin and his Bolshevik Party
    led an armed uprising against the Provisional
    Government. His aim was to take control of Russia
    and turn it in to a communist country.
  • Lenin renamed the Bolshevik Party as the
    Communist Party in order to win wider support.
  • In December 1917 Lenin set up a secret police
    force known as the Cheka. Cheka agents spied on
    the Russian people in factories and villages.
  • Anyone suspected of being anti-Communist could be
    arrested, tortured and executed without a trial.
  • When opponents tried to assassinate Lenin in
    1918, he launched the Red Terror campaign against
    his enemies. It is said that 50,000 people were
    arrested and executed in this period.

19
How did Lenin and the Bolsheviks secure their
power in Russia?
  • The Whites were opponents of the Reds (AKA
    Lenin and the Communists).
  • The Whites were a mixture of aristocrats,
    royalists, churchmen, army officers and many
    others.
  • The Communists won the Civil War because the
    Whites were divided.
  • The Reds controlled the key cities, industrial
    centers and communication links.

20
How did Lenin and the Bolsheviks secure their
power in Russia?
  • He crushed workers strikes, peasant rebellions
    and a sailors revolt.
  • Faced with mounting economic problems, he
    implemented the New Economic Policy (NEP) which
    temporarily restored private enterprise in
    Russia.
  • Large industries, banks, and transportation and
    communications facilities remained under state
    control.
  • Government returned small-scale industries to
    private ownership.
  • The government allowed peasants to sell their
    surpluses at free market prices.
  • Technical schools were established.
  • Lenin died from a series of strokes in 1924.

21
How did Stalin secure his power within the party
and within the Soviet Union?
  • Joseph Stalin, who served as general secretary,
    promoted the ideal of socialism in one country.
  • A Russian nationalist, Stalin triumphed over his
    rivals to become an unchallenged dictator of the
    Soviet Union
  • Stalin replaced Lenins NEP with his First Five
    Year Plan, which was designed to transform the
    Soviet Union from an agricultural country to a
    leading industrial power.
  • It emphasized heavy industry, steel and
    machinery, instead of consumer goods.
  • Lenin established collective farm units whereby
    all the profits were shared by farmers.

22
How did Stalin secure his power within the party
and within the Soviet Union?
  • Though collectivization of agriculture failed,
    after four years, Stalin claimed success.
  • Though there was a scarcity of consumer goods,
    there was full employment, low cost utilities,
    cheap housing, and food.
  • While the U.S. stock market and capitalist
    nations struggled, the Soviet Unions planned
    economy created more jobs than workers could
    fill.

23
How did Stalin secure his power within the party
and within the Soviet Union?
  • Because of the failure of collectivization of
    agriculture, there was opposition. Stalin
    removed high ranking officers from posts, and
    persons suspected of opposition were executed or
    placed in labor camps.
  • In 1939, eight million Soviets were in labor
    camps and three million were dead. (Cleansing)
  • The establishment of the first dictatorship of
    the proletariat challenged liberal institutions
    everywhere.

24
What are the defining characteristics of fascism?
Why did it appeal to the people of Italy and
Germany?
  • Fascism emphasized an extreme form of
    nationalism, often expressed as racism
    veneration of the state devotion to charismatic
    leaders and militarism uniforms and parades.
  • There was widespread disillusionment, ineffective
    government, widespread economic and social
    discontent, and a growing fear of socialism.
  • There was widespread disappointment over Italy
    and Germanys territorial consequences after the
    Great War.

25
Discuss three of Hitlers beliefs as stated in
Mein Kampf.
  • Cross-breeding between two unequal beings will
    result in a less superior race.
  • Nature disapproves of the blending of higher
    races with lower ones.
  • All of the great civilizations died out because
    of the contamination of their blood.
  • The Aryan race is responsible for all great
    developments in art, science, and technology.
  • The Jews provide the greatest contrast to the
    Aryans (anti-Semitism).

26
Describe three actions of the Nazi party that
allowed them to impose their rule.
  • They eliminated all working class and liberal
    opposition.
  • They eliminated all other political parties and
    made it a crime to create a new party.
  • They eliminated all constitutional and civil
    rights.
  • They made the National Socialist Party (Nazi
    Party) the only legal party.
  • They replaced Germanys federal structure with a
    highly centralized state and eliminated state and
    municipal governments.
  • They eliminated trade unions and collective
    bargaining which prohibited strikes.
  • They took control of all police forces. And
    removed enemies of the regime through
    incarceration or murder.

27
Two warring factions emerged in China between the
wars the Nationalists and the Communists. What
was the motivation for each, what were their
beliefs or values, and what advantages did each
have? You can create a chart if you would like.
28
The Nationalists Peoples Party
  • Motivation Disappointed in the results of the
    1919 Paris Peace Conference which allowed more
    Japanese interference in China.This gave rise to
    the May Fourth Movement which was spearheaded by
    students and intellectuals in Chinas urban
    areas.
  • Beliefs Rid China of imperialism and
    re-establish national unity.
  • Sun Yatsens Three Principles of the People
    Elimination of special privileges for foreigners
    national reunification, economic development and
    a democratic republican government based on
    universal suffrage.
  • Sun Yatsens Goal Bring the country under
    control of his Nationalist Peoples Party or
    Guomindang.

29
The Chinese Communist Party
  • Motivation (1) Disillusionment with the
    self-interest of the U.S. and European powers and
    (2) Intrigue with Lenins Marxist thought and the
    Economic Experiments in the Soviet Union.
  • Beliefs Mao Zedongs Chinese form of
    Marxist-Leninism or Maoism the belief that
    peasants rather than urban proletariats were the
    foundation for a successful revolution. He also
    believed in womens equality and divorce and he
    opposed arranged marriages and foot binding.

30
Chinas Civil War
  • With the help of Soviet advisors, China
    implemented a political system which unified
    Chinas Communist Party and the Guomindang
    temporarily.
  • When Sun Yatsen died in 1925, Jiang Jieshi, a
    general who trained in Japan and the Soviet
    Union, did not believe in the idea of a social
    revolution involving the masses of China.
  • Jieshi turned against his Communist alllies and
    set up a central government in Nanjing, declaring
    the Guomindang the official government.

31
Chinas Civil War
  • Jieshis new national government had three
    problems
  • Nationalists only controlled part of China,
    leaving the rest of the country in the hands of
    warlords.
  • By the 1930s communist revolution was still a
    threat.
  • The Guomindang faced increasing Japanese
    aggression.
  • Jieshi focused his attention on eliminating the
    Chinese Communist Party and the Red Army.

32
Chinas Civil War
  • The Communist forces fled in October 1934 to
    avoid annihilation (The Long March).
  • 80,000 troops of the Red Army traveled some 6,215
    miles, fighting hunger, disease and the
    Guomindang forces.
  • This march inspired many Chinese to join the
    Communist Party.
  • Mao Zedong emerged as the leader of the Chinese
    communist movement and came up with a Chinese
    form of Marxist-Leninism.

33
A problem with Indias nationalist movement
centered around two contrasting ideas. Contrast
the views of Mohandas Gandhi and Muhammad Ali
Jinnah.
  • Gandhi He advocated uniting India through
    manual labor and the revival of rural cottage
    industries and the boycott of British
    institutions.
  • Muhammad Ali Jinnah, who headed the Muslim
    League, proposed two states Pakistan (land of
    the pure) and India (Hindu).
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