Causes of the American Civil War - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Causes of the American Civil War PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 6057de-ZGM4M



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Causes of the American Civil War

Description:

Causes of the American Civil War End of Chapter 16 (Ch. 17)- Emancipation Proclamation Many abolitionists pressured Lincoln to emancipate slaves. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:114
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 88
Provided by: AshleyE152
Learn more at: http://www.humble.k12.tx.us
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Causes of the American Civil War


1
Causes of the American Civil War
2
5 Causes of the Civil War
  1. Economies
  2. Tariffs
  3. States Rights
  4. Slavery
  5. Cultural Differences

3
Economies
  • The North had an economy based on commerce and
    industry.
  • The South had an economy based on agriculture

4
Tariffs
  • The North wanted to protect its manufactured
    goods against foreign goods.
  • The South needed to import many finished goods
    from other countries.

So
5
  • The South was opposed to tariffs.
  • The North favored tariffs.

6
States Rights
  • The South wanted state sovereignty
  • The North wanted national sovereignty

7
States Rights
  • What is sovereignty?

Power
8
Cultural Differences
  • The Southern culture was based on a planters
    life.
  • The Northern culture was based on an
    industrialists life.

9
Slavery
  • Northerners opposed slavery mainly because of job
    competition.
  • In 1860 only about 25 of southerners owned
    slaves but most southerners felt slave labor was
    essential for their economy.

10
Example The Missouri Compromise 1820
11
The Missouri Compromise
As America grew the goal was to keep the number
of free states and slave states equal. In 1818
11 free states and 11 slave states.
12
The Missouri Compromise
Missouri was north of Ohio River, and wanted to
be a slave state. Making it free or slave would
tip the balance in Congress.
13
(No Transcript)
14
  • So what happened?

Senator Henry Clays solution -Admitted
Missouri as a slave state -Maine as a free
state
AND
15
Outlawed slavery above the 36º 30 latitude line
in the rest of the Louisiana Territory. The
problem of seeking a balance of slave v. free
states continued.
16
o
36 30
17
Example The Compromise of 1850
18
  • By 1850 6 new states were added to the USA
  • Free Michigan, Iowa, Wisconsin
  • Slave Arkansas, Florida, Texas
  • The balance of Free v. Slave was kept.
  • .

19
Questions that needed to be addressed through
the Compromise of 1850
  • California wanted to be admitted as a free
    statethis will create an uneven balance.
  • Texas claimed that its territory extended all the
    way to Santa Fe.
  • Washington, D.C. Not only did the nation's
    capital allow slavery, it was home to the largest
    slave market in North America. .

20
So What Happened?
  • Texas would relinquish the land in dispute in
    return, the US would pay off her 10 million debt
    from the days of being a Republic.
  • New Mexico, Nevada, Arizona, and Utah would be
    organized so the territories could vote on
    whether to permit (allow) slavery.
  • The slave trade would be abolished in Washington
    D.C. although slavery would still be permitted.

AND
21
So What Happened?
  • Finally, California would be admitted as a free
    state.
  • Fugitive Slave Act was passed.

22
(No Transcript)
23
Example Fugitive Slave Act
  • The Fugitive Slave Act was very controversial.
  • All citizens must help recover runaway slaves,
    even in the North.
  • 1000 fine/6 months in jail for letting a runaway
    slave escape.
  • Freed slaves were always in danger because of
    this law.
  • Southerners support Fugitive Slave Law,
    Northerners hated it.

24
(No Transcript)
25
(No Transcript)
26
Example Kansas-Nebraska Act
  • The Nebraska Territory was a very large section
    of central USA.
  • People wanted this land organized and governed to
    expand business and railways.
  • Nebraska wanted to be a free state, but this
    would make two more free states than slaves
    statesno deal for the South.

27
  • Illinois Senator Stephen A. Douglas drafted a
    bill to organize Nebraska Territory.
  • Douglas wrote the Kansas-Nebraska Act using the
    constitutional principle of popular sovereignty -
    giving the people the ability to decide between
    slave and free state.
  • The law was passed in 1854, which got rid of the
    Missouri Compromise of 1820.

28
Example Kansas-Nebraska Act
  • Decided to divide Nebraska into two
  • Kansas
  • Nebraska
  • People in those territories would vote and decide
    on slavery issue for themselves. (popular
    sovereignty)
  • Southerners thought Kansas would vote for slavery
    so they agreed.
  • Northerners hated it!

29
(No Transcript)
30
Example Bleeding Kansas
To determine if Kansas would be a slave or free
state, Southerners and Northerners rushed to
Kansas
31
  • Pro-slavery and anti-slavery people rushed into
    Kansas to impact the vote illegally
  • Political authorities came into dispute, both
    sides armed.
  • The Sack of Lawrence occurred when
  • proslavery mob attacked Lawrence, Kansas
  • John Brown, abolitionist extremist with a group
    of
  • 7 men, murdered 5 proslavery settlers in
    revenge. These violent events are known as
    Bleeding Kansas

32
The Dred Scott Case (Dred Scott v Sandford)
  • Sued for his freedom after his master took him to
    Wisconsin, a free state.
  • Claimed he should be free after his owner dies.
  • Case went to the Supreme Court.

33
What happened?
  • African-Americans are not citizens so had no
    right to sue
  • Scott remains a slave under Missouri law
  • Congress cannot ban slavery in any territory
  • The Missouri Compromise is unconstitutional

Chief Justice Roger Taney
34
  • Taney, speaking for the majority, also ruled that
    since Scott was considered private property, he
    was subject to the Fifth Amendment to the United
    States Constitution, which prohibits taking
    property from its owner "without due process".

35
So what??
  • This ruling means that slaves are still property,
    not citizens.
  • Slaves can be taken anywhere! Even FREE STATES
    property cannot be taken from an owner.
  • Free states would not really be free states!
    Missouri Compromise unconstitutional.

36
Example Abolitionist Newspapers
  • Illustrations of slavery published in the
    Emancipator.
  • William Lloyd Garrison publishes the Liberator.
  • Newspapers are able to spread anti-slavery
    message.
  • Causes pro and anti slavery unrest.

37
Example Nat Turner Rebellion
  • Slaves rebelled by quiet defiance, striking back
    or running away
  • Nat Turner led a bloody uprising in VA to kill
    every white person they found.
  • Two days later 57 people had been violently
    killed.
  • Revolts panicked white Southerners who tightened
    slave codes and created harsher punishments.

38
Example Uncle Toms Cabin
  • Uncle Toms Cabin written by Harriet Beecher
    Stowe.
  • This book told the story of slavery to those who
    hadnt heard it and angered many.

39
John Browns Raid on Harpers Ferry
  • A fanatical abolitionist John Brown and his
    followers seized a federal arsenal at Harpers
    Ferry, VA. They hoped to stir a slave revolt in
    Virginia and end slavery. He was captured and
    executed . Brown became a hero to many
    Northerners.
  • He thought God single handedly chose him to end
    slavery.
  • http//www.history.com/topics/abolitionist-movemen
    t/videosjohn-brown

40
Example Argument in Congress
  • Preston Brooks beats Charles Sumner in Congress
    with a cane!

41
  • Because of the Kansas-Nebraska Acts the Whig
    party splits and the Republican party is formed.
  • Republican Party is formed by Free-Soilers, who
    are Northern Whigs and Northern Democrats who
    oppose slavery.

42
Example Lincoln-Douglass Debates
  • Lincoln ran for Senate for new Republican party
  • Senator Stephen Douglas ran for Democrats.
  • Lincoln country could not last ½ slave and ½
    free. Douglass disagreed.
  • Douglas won 1858 election, but Lincoln is now
    known to the entire nation as an upcoming
    political leader.

43
  • Northern and Southern Democrats disagreed about
    slavery and split cause party to have two
    candidates
  • North Stephen A. Douglas South John
    Breckinridge
  • Abraham Lincoln was the only Republican candidate
  • Lincoln won the North, Breckinridge won the
    South
  • North had more electoral college votes so Lincoln
    won the Election of 1860
  • The main goal of Lincolns presidency was to
    Preserve the Union.

44
Example 1860 Abraham Lincoln Elected President
  • Many southern states threatened to secede from
    the Union if Lincoln was elected.
  • This is the last straw for many southern states.
  • Dec. 1860-South Carolina is the first state to
    secede.

45
8-5.2.1Q
46
  • Lincoln promised not to abolish slavery in the
    South, but white Southerners did not trust him.
  • Several southern states feared Republicans would
    abolish slavery so they seceded their argument
    based on states rights.
  • The Confederate States of America was then formed
    with Jefferson Davis as President.
  • Lincolns Inaugural Address is mostly directed
    towards the Southern states trying to encourage
    them not to secede.
  • http//www.history.com/shows/america-the-story-of-
    us/videosamerica-divided

47
  • Start of Chapter 16

48
The Civil War Begins!!
49
April 12, 1861-Fort Sumter
  • Confederate forces took control over most of the
    federal forts within their borders
  • U.S. troops, led by Major Robert Anderson, tried
    to keep control of Ft. Sumter in the harbor of
    Charleston, South Carolina
  • The garrison was running low on supplies
  • President Lincolns Choices ? Supply the troops
    or surrender fort.

So
50
  • Confederate troops attacked Ft. Sumter before
    supply ships arrived and the bombing lasted for
    34 hours.
  • Anderson was forced to surrender the fort to the
    Confederacy.
  • No one was killed but this was the 1st battle of
    the Civil War.

51
Choosing Sides
  • Border States Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, and
    Missouri would play a key role in the wars
    outcome because of their resources and location.
  • Keeping Maryland was especially important for the
    North because of Washington D.C.s location
  • All 4 border states stayed in the Union

52
Strategies of the War
  • Confederate Strategy- defensive because their
    purpose was to be independent hoped European
    countries would side with South for cotton later
    on became offensive
  • Union Strategy- offensive to get Southern states
    back Anaconda Plan

53
Jefferson Davis
  • Was appointed the president of the Confederate
    States of America.

54
Generals
  • Robert E. Lee led the Confederate troops to stay
    loyal to his state of Virginia despite Pres.
    Lincolns offer to lead the Union Army. Good
    strategist.

55
Generals
  • Ulysses S. Grant led the Union Army.
  • Most successful general appointed by Pres.
    Lincoln.
  • Later became US president.

56
First Battle of Bull Run
  • The Union army wanted to take over Richmond, the
    Confederate capital
  • To do so, they had to defeat the Confederate
    troops stationed at Manassas, Virginia
  • July 21, 1861, Union forces commanded by General
    Irvin McDowell attacked Confederate forces led by
    General Pierre Beauregard near a Creek called
    Bull Run

57
  • A confederate officer rallied his troops by
    declaring, There is Jackson standing like a
    stone wall! Rally behind the Virginians!
  • Thomas J. Jackson Stonewall Jackson
  • Additional Confederate troops arrived and they
    launched a countercharge with the rebel yell.
  • In a panic, Union troops scattered and it was a
    victory for the Confederates

58
  • The South was thrilled with their victory at Bull
    Run and thought the war was won.
  • The North was shocked at their loss and realized
    it had underestimated its opponent.
  • Lincoln sent the 90-day militias home and called
    for a real army of 500,000 volunteers for three
    years.

59
Changes in Military Technology
  • Improvements in the weaponry had a major impact
    on the war
  • Battle tactics changed which increased the number
    of casualties
  • Rifles with minié balls- gun that causes a bullet
    to spin in the air-could shoot farther and with
    better accuracy
  • Ironclad ships- warships covered with iron-were
    an improvement over wooden ships.
  • http//www.history.com/topics/american-civil-wa
    r/videoscivil-war-tech

60
Monitor vs. Merrimack
61
  • March 9, 1862 Confederate Virginia (originally
    the Merrimack) and Union Monitor battled off the
    coast of VA.
  • 1st ironclad battle
  • After 4 hours of fire, the battle ended in a draw.

62
Bloody Antietam
63
Battle of Antietam
  • Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee invaded Maryland
    hoped this would show South was capable of
    winning.
  • Reasons for invading
  • 1. Crucial to attack the North while they are
    down
  • 2. Victory in the North could force Lincoln to
    talk peace
  • 3. Invasion could give Virginia farmers a rest
    from war during harvest season
  • 4. Still hoping for European support
  • Lees plans to continue his campaign in the North
    were left discovered by Northern troops.

64
  • The captured plans gave Union General McClellan
    the opportunity to go stop Lees troops.
  • Clashed at Antietam Creek near Sharpsburg,
    Maryland
  • Bloodiest day in all of American history
  • After fighting all day, 25,000 were dead or
    wounded.
  • Lee retreated to Virginia- McCellan did not follow

65
  • Because Lee was stopped this is considered a
    Union victory.
  • General McClellan could have crushed the
    remaining Confederate Army if he had followed
    them but he did not follow.
  • Lincoln fired McClellan.
  • Europe refused to give support to the South.
  • Lincoln was now prepared for his next action!

66
  • End of Chapter 16

67
(Ch. 17)- Emancipation Proclamation
  • Many abolitionists pressured Lincoln to
    emancipate slaves.
  • Lincoln hesitated he did not believe the
    Constitution gave govt the right to end slavery
    where it already existed.
  • Top priority was to keep Union together.
  • After the victory of Antietam, Lincoln decided
    that freeing slaves would weaken Southern
    strength and morale.

68
  • Jan. 1, 1863 Lincoln issued Emancipation
    Proclamation.
  • Freed all slaves in Confederate territory. (Very
    few people were actually freed because most
    slaves were too far away for Union troops to
    enforce the law)
  • Lincoln could not end slavery in USA because of
    Const. but he could as military action towards
    the South.

http//www.history.com/topics/emancipation-proclam
ation/videosgilder-lehrman-the-emancipation-procl
amation
69
The 54th Massachusetts Regiment
  • 54th Massachusetts was one of the first African
    American Regiments of the Civil War.
  • Two of Frederick Douglass sons belonged to the
    regiment.
  • The 54th fought for the Union at Fort Wagner,
    South Carolina.
  • African American soldiers faced execution instead
    of becoming a prisoner of war if they were
    captured.
  • William Carney served with the 54th
  • Massachusetts and won the Medal of Honor for
  • his actions at Fort Wagner.
  • http//www.history.com/topics/the-54th-massachuset
    ts-infantry/videosgilder-lehrman-massachussetts-5
    4th

70
Gettysburg
71
  • Confederate and Union troops ran into each other
    at Gettysburg, PA in July of 1863.
  • Battle lasted for 3 days.
  • Union troops were able to weaken Confederate
    troops.
  • Death toll
  • 23,000 Union men dead
  • 28,000 Confederate men dead
  • Considered a Union victory and turning point
    battle.
  • South will never make offensive attack again and
    General Lee led his army back to Virginia.

http//www.history.com/topics/battle-of-gettysburg
/videoslast-charge-at-gettysburg
72
Gettysburg Address
73
  • Pres. Lincoln spoke at the cemetery for soldiers
    killed in Battle of Gettysburg.
  • Gave short speech
  • Declared the nation is founded on the
    proposition that all men are created equal.
  • The fight for
  • democracy should
  • continue so that
  • government of the
  • people, by the
  • people, for the
  • people shall not perish from the earth.

http//www.history.com/topics/battle-of-gettysburg
/videosgilder-lehrman-gettysburg-address
74
The Siege of Vicksburg
  • Grants Union Army defeats Confederate troops at
    the Siege of Vicksburg (Miss.)
  • Long battle (siege) lasted from May-July 1863.
  • Grants troops surrounded the city and prevented
    the delivery of food and supplies.
  • Confederate soldiers ran out of food and had to
    eat mules, dogs, and rats!
  • Unions Anaconda Plan was fulfilled.
  • After victories at Gettysburg and Vicksburg, the
    war turns in favor of the North.

75
(No Transcript)
76
  • Union General Ulysses S. Grant defeated
    Confederate troops at Vicksburg, Mississippi.
  • Vicksburg was the last major Southern stronghold
    on the Mississippi River.
  • With the Union control of the
  • Mississippi River,
  • the Confederacy
  • is now split into
  • two.

http//www.history.com/videos/the-union-siege-of-v
icksburgthe-union-siege-of-vicksburg
77
Shermans Total War
78
  • Gen. Sherman was ordered by new Gen. Grant to
    take control of Atlanta and rest of Deep South.
  • Moved from Tenn. to attack Atlanta.
  • Swept through the rest of Georgia destroying
    everything along the way to Savannah.
  • Total War war against troops and things that
    support troops crops, railroads, burned
    looted towns.

79
  • This attack affected troops and citizens.
  • Shermans destruction made most Southerners
    bitter about rejoining the Union.

80
Lincolns Re-election
  • Northern victory streak helped Lincoln with
    re-election campaign.
  • Lincoln won 55 of popular vote and re-election.
  • Lincoln wanted a speedy end to the war With
    malice toward none with charity for allcherish
    a just , and a lasting peace.

81
Appomattox Courthouse, VA
82
  • Surrender at Appomattox Courthouse
  • Lee sent a message to Grant that he was ready to
    surrender.
  • April 9, 1865 Lee and Grant met in small town of
    Appomattox Court House, VA
  • Lee was offered generous terms after laying
    down arms, Confederates could return home, taking
    their possessions horses.

83
Lincolns Assassination
http//www.history.com/videos/the-other-side-of-li
ncoln-lincolns-assassinationthe-other-side-of-lin
coln-lincolns-assassination
84
Lincolns Assassination
  • 5 days after Lees surrender Lincoln and his wife
    went to Fords Theater in Washington D.C.
  • During the play John Wilkes Booth shot President
    Lincoln.
  • This was a part of a larger plot to kill several
    government officials such as Vice President
    Andrew Johnson and Secretary of State William
    Seward.
  • Lincoln first President to be assassinated.

85
(No Transcript)
86
Reconstruction Amendments
  • Union army, both during after the War, notified
    slaves of their freedom.
  • January 1865, 13th (Free) Amendment passed and
    slavery became illegal.
  • 14th (Citizens) Amendment, Republicans wanted
    equality and citizenship for all people to be
    protected in the Constitution.
  • Amendment made former slaves citizens and
    protected equal rights, but not suffrage for
    African Americans.

87
Reconstruction Amendments
  • 15th (Vote) Amendment, Stated citizens couldnt
    be stopped from voting based on race, color, or
    previous condition of servitude.
  • Made many educated white women very angry.
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vpemkR3k3kyM
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vjCvxKIb7P8A
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vHPzB2cEzuFM
About PowerShow.com