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Families in 20th Century Totalitarian States

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Title: Families in 20th Century Totalitarian States


1
Families in 20th Century Totalitarian States
  • Russia, Italy and Germany

2
  • Big questions of modernity can be explored by
    looking at families

3
General Trends in 20s and 30s
  • State became increasingly rigid regarding the
    family
  • Decreasing fertility rate tied to
  • Later marriage
  • Economic costs of having children
  • More literatesmaller families

4
RUSSIA
5
Marxs Ideology
  • Goal was change state/economics
  • MUST CREATE NEW PEOPLE!
  • Everything would start from scratch, including
    personal relationships
  • Doesnt offer ideas of HOW

Russia
6
Marxs Ideology
  • Marx concerned with oppression of women
  • Marx saw marriage as a form of prostitution
  • Both sexes should be liberated from monogamous
    family
  • 19th century bourgeois women had no rights

Russia
7
Bolshevik Ideology
  • What is a good Communist like?
  • If people dont show up for work, what do we do?
  • Government
  • What is the role of the state?
  • Do we have one set of laws for everyone?
  • What if people break laws?
  • Do we even need laws?

Russia
8
Bolshevik Ideology
  • Family
  • Should there be marriage?
  • Do kids belong to their parents or do they belong
    to a collective?
  • Should parents and kids live together?
  • Should parents be obliged to care for their kids?

Russia
9
Bolshevik Ideology
  • Women
  • Were men more communistic than women??
  • Men worked in groups on farms
  • Women had worked in homes
  • Would women slow down communism?

Russia
10
Family
  • In 1917 denounced family as bourgeois institution
  • Aleksandra Kollontai, 1923
  • The family, in its bourgeois sense, will die
    out.
  • But utopian and practical campaigns did little to
    change it

Russia
11
Women (Zhenotdel)
  • At start, women were significant
  • Krupskaya
  • Lenin's wife
  • Took charge of shaping culture
  • Organized literacy program
  • Banned many authors
  • Alexandra Kollontai
  • Noblewoman turned Communist
  • Taught virtues of free love

Russia
12
Urban Women
  • Decide to focus on urban women to bring change
  • Write popular fiction
  • Relationships should exist as long as they make
    women happy
  • Most urban women educated so didnt buy it

Russia
13
Rural Women
  • Went after rural women
  • Rural women living same for centuries
  • Under thumb of religion/men
  • Poor
  • Sent emissaries out to preach divorce and abortion

Russia
14
Womens Equality
  • Political
  • Full equal voting rights
  • Elected to soviets
  • Economic
  • Lower pay
  • Social
  • Full legal equality in marriage
  • Free education led to new life

Russia
15
Kollontai
  • Soviet state would "lift the burdens of
    motherhood from women's shoulders and transfer
    them to the state.
  • The Love of Worker Bees
  • Woman communist in love with man with bourgeois
    tendencies (with a mistress)

Russia
16
Professional Women
  • Young women became professionals
  • Parents were barely literate
  • Young women raised on 1920s propaganda
  • Other women with less education or lower
    aspirations care for home and children?
  • Yet as girls were educated and entered
    professions, Soviet ideology on gender equality
    also changed

Russia
17
  • What the October Revolution has given to working
    and peasant women, 1920
  • Women, adhere to the cooperation, 1917

Russia
18
Family Problems
  • Problems in Stalins perfect society
  • Great impact in collectives
  • Women fought each other in kitchens and bathrooms
  • Millions of homeless children
  • Rising juvenile crime
  • Widespread male irresponsibility

Russia
19
Stalin Reorganized Party (1930)
  • Rise of women threatened his structure of Party
  • 1930 reverted to traditional emphasis on
    family/motherhood
  • Ceremonial weddings came back
  • Paid child allowance if parents married
  • Harder to get divorce
  • Strove to raise birthrate
  • Glorified motherhood
  • Banned birth control and abortion

Russia
20
Womens Employment
  • Rights took 2nd place to industrialization
  • Womens equality meant equal work responsibility
  • Childbirth had negative effects on promotions
  • Equal rights postponed until communism achieved
  • Would improve family income/Russian economy
  • Collectivization forced peasants onto state farms
  • Urban women in work force increased
  • Nothing changed at home
  • Worked outside home as much as men
  • Took care of household when not on job

Russia
21
Women at Home
  • Water
  • 2/3s of urban families got water from communal
    tap
  • Doing laundry could take 2 days
  • Food shopping
  • Traveled further to shop
  • Shortages caused long lines
  • Needed
  • Different attitudes about home responsibilities
  • More and better childcare facilities
  • Better shopping arrangements

Russia
22
  • You, working women of all countries! Get into
    the front lines with the fighters against the
    war, fascism and capitalist exploitation! USSR,
    Hurrah to March 8thThe International Communistic
    Womens Day! 1936
  • Female delegate, stand to the fore!, 1931

Russia
23
Womens Social Changes
  • By end of 1930s
  • In theory, all jobs open to women
  • Only real change took place in image state
    created for women
  • Many revolutionary ideals discarded
  • Idea of free love abandoned
  • Kollontai shipped off to Norway
  • Later complained "the women's question raised by
    the revolution had received a man's answer.

Russia
24
WWII Patriotism
A Partisan's Mother
The Homeland-Mother Calls!
Russia
25
Children
  • Should be in collective
  • Guided toward Soviet ideology
  • Began childcare
  • Rural women thought kids would be kidnapped if
    they went to daycare
  • Usually used corporal punishment
  • Husbands against wives
  • Parents against kids
  • Belt-Burying Campaign
  • Must talk to kids, use reason

Russia
26
Childrens Education
  • Education controlled by state
  • In 1932, Stalin introduced program of discipline
    and education
  • Fabricated Stalins role in 1917 revolution and
    his relationship with Lenin
  • Books strictly censored

Russia
27
Youth Organizations
  • Children expected to join
  • Taught to be good communist
  • Emphasized outdoor activities and clean living
  • Groups
  • Octobrists for 7 to 9 year olds
  • Pioneers for 10 to 15 year olds
  • Komsomol for 14 to 28 year olds

Russia
28
  • Young Men and Women! Go to FZO construction
    schools, learn to be the best in your specialty!
    1941
  • Care for Children1923

Russia
29
  • Long live the great Stalin! 1931
  • "Praised be the Great Stalin!" 1950

Russia
30
ITALY
31
Ideology
  • Italian Risorgemento of 1861
  • Created notion of woman as Mother of the Hearth
  • Mussolini attempted to subjugate everything to
    state
  • Like Communism
  • Had nostalgia for family that never existed
  • Communism wanted to make whole new family
    configuration

Italy
32
Family
  • Women and family have only one purpose
  • Battle of the Births
  • Nations virility measured by number of babies
  • Create large number of people for cheap labor
  • Imperialist expansion

Italy
33
Women
  • "Women must obey...my idea of her role in the
    state is in opposition to all feminism.
    Naturally she shouldn't be a slave, but if I
    conceded her the vote, I'd be laughed at.  In our
    state, she must not count. -----Benito
    Mussolini
  • All women were married to Mussolini
  • Had them send him their wedding rings
  • Melted them down to have gold for international
    market

Italy
34
Family Structure
  • Mussolini needed population increase
  • Women moving to city more likely to start
    controlling birth of children
  • Wanted to keep women in country
  • Returned to Roman model
  • Men owned wives/kids
  • Husbands could use police to track down run-away
    wives
  • Men could do anything with adulterous
    wife/sister/mother

Italy
35
Family Legislation
  • Reversed all laws giving women rights
  • Bachelor's tax
  • Laws of Public Safety
  • Abortions/birth controlcrimes against state
  • Took prostitutes off street
  • Granted family allowances
  • Based on number of children
  • Birth and marriage loans
  • Career preference to fathers of large families

Italy
36
Propaganda toward Women
  • Put out in school and on the streets
  • Women expected to be good wives and mothers
  • Domesticity, maternity, and self-sacrifice
  • Medals to women with many children
  • 17-20 children brought gold medal
  • Made winners national heroes
  • Sent out across Italy on promotional tours
  • Pictures put in magazines and newspapers

Italy
37
Work Legislation
  • Italy did not need women to work
  • Not very industrialized
  • Women legally paid 2/3 less than men
  • Only allowed to work in jobs considered strictly
    for women
  • Telephone operators and secretaries
  • NOT teachers
  • 10 limit on female employment in offices
  • Most restrictions ended during WWII

Italy
38
Womens Daily Life
  • Upper class women had few freedoms
  • Main function was to have/raise children
  • Active in Fascist Women
  • Middle class women enjoyed more freedom
  • Worked
  • Lower class women enjoyed most freedom
  • Little time for leisure
  • Usually bore more children than others

Italy
39
  • June, 1936

40
Children
  • Realized family was most influential part of
    childs life
  • If regime could get adults to believe, then
    children would, too
  • Conformity
  • To create 'Fascist religion' regime put together
    elaborate shows of national pride
  • Young children most prone to these

Italy
41
Children
  • "The Government demands that the school be
    inspired by the ideals of fascism...it demands
    that the school at all levels and in all its
    instruction train Italian youth to understand
    fascism, to ennoble itself through fascism, and
    to live in the historic climate created by the
    Fascist revolution.
    ---Benito Mussolini

Italy
42
Childrens Education
  • Goals
  • To suppress intellectual independence
  • To teach ideology of Fascist state
  • To select and promote elite
  • Textbooks taught woman's place in home
  • Duty was to procreate for good of state
  • Teachers tried to deter girls from getting higher
    education

Italy
43
Childrens Organizations
  • To create Fascists without spot... Fascist
    soldiers who would be conservators of national
    values and to secure military garrison of the new
    Italy."
  • Boys to produce good citizens/soldiers
  • Uniforms
  • Mysterious rituals for sense of belonging
  • Girls' to produce good citizens/mothers

Italy
44
Childrens Organizations
  • Figli della Lupa (four-and five-year-olds) to the
    Fascisti Universitari
  • Membership voluntary
  • Assured preferential treatment in military
    service and careers
  • Pressured families and children
  • Northern cities had 70 joining
  • Higher than other areas of Italy

Italy
45
  • Children's school notebooks, 1935
  • Children were required to use these notebooks
    with colored Fascist cartoons and quotations
    from Mussolini on the front
    and back

46
  • 1934
  • 1938

47
GERMANY
48
Blood Heritage
  • You carry in your blood the holy inheritance of
    your fathers and forefathers. You do not know
    those who have vanished in endless ranks into the
    darkness of the past. But they all live in you
    and walk in your blood upon the earth that
    consumed them in battle and toil and in which
    their bodies have long decayed. Your blood is
    therefore something holy. In it your parents gave
    you not only a body, but your nature. To deny
    your blood is to deny yourself. No one can change
    it. But each decides to grow the good that one
    has inherited and suppress the bad. Each is also
    given will and courage. You do not have only the
    right, but also the duty to pass your blood on to
    your children, for you are a member of the chain
    of generations that reaches from the past into
    eternity, and this link of the chain that you
    represent must do its part so that the chain is
    never broken. But if your blood has traits that
    will make your children unhappy and burdens to
    the state, then you have the heroic duty to be
    the last.
  • Faith and Action, 1938

Germany
49
  • January, 1938, Commemorating Nazi seizure of
    power January 30, 1933

Germany
50
Ideology
  • Marriage cannot be an end in itself, rather it
    must have the larger goal of increasing and
    maintaining the species and the race. That only
    is its meaning and its task.
  • Mein Kampf

Germany
51
Family
  • Germany needed
  • More soldiers
  • More mothers
  • More population to fill gained land
  • Lebensraum
  • A man could have girlfriend to bear more children

Germany
52
Family Legislation
  • 1933Law for the Encouragement of Marriage
  • 800,000 newlyweds got govt loan of 1000 marks
  • Woman agreed to not to work during loan
  • ¼ loan forgiven for each child
  • 1934Encouraged ideal Germans to marry
  • Rigorous exams to prove purest German blood
  • Interracial marriages not allowed
  • Banned birth control and abortion
  • Except for Jews, Gypsies, etc. who were
    encouraged to abort

Germany
53
  • 1939
  • "The Führer Speaks"
  • "Winter Solstice 1943"

Germany
54
Women
  • "The mission of women is to be beautiful and to
    bring children into the world. This is not at all
    as...unmodern as it sounds. The female bird
    pretties herself for her mate and hatches eggs
    for him. In exchange, the male takes care of
    gathering food, and stands guard and wards off
    the enemy. Joseph Goebbels, 1929

Germany
55
WomenPhysical Constraints
  • Hitler believed proper German woman should not
    flaunt her sexuality
  • Long hair put in bun or plaits
  • Not allowed to
  • Wear make-up
  • Have hair dyed
  • Have perms
  • Only wear flat shoes and no pants
  • Be healthy to have babies
  • No losing weight
  • No smoking

Germany
56
Breeding Program
  • Women had biological purpose
  • Not social problem if unmarried woman had child
  • Encouraged unmarried women to have kids via
    Lebensborns
  • Women impregnated by racially pure SS officers
  • Government openly publicized them

Germany
57
Women
  • A common rhyme for women
  • "Take hold of kettle, broom and pan, Then youll
    surely get a man! Shop and office leave alone,
  • Your true life work lies at home." 
  • Reich's Mother Service (RMD)
  • Nazis had complete control over what women were
    taught
  • Courses on domesticity and motherhood

Germany
58
Motherhood Cross
  • Awarded on Mothering Sunday
  • Hitlers mothers birthday (August 12th)
  • One of most important Nazi holidays
  • Given for large number of children
  • Bronze4 children
  • Silver5 children
  • Gold8 children
  • Soldiers had to salute woman if she wore mothers
    medals

Germany
59
Women
  • "In the Germanic nations there has never been
    anything else than equality of rights for women.
    Both sexes have their rights, their tasks, and
    these tasks were in the case of each equal in
    dignity and value, and therefore man and woman
    were on an equality. Hitler, 1935

Germany
60
Womens Employment
  • Weimar Germany had female teachers, doctors and
    musicians
  • In Third Reich real men worked
  • Only single women worked outside home
  • Germany couldnt afford to keep women out of
    workforce
  • Problem of how to get them back to work after
    years of driving them out

Germany
61
Womens Employment
  • Duty Year1937
  • Women could work 'patriotically' in factory to
    help Nazi "Economic Miracle"
  • Marriage loan abolished
  • In 1939 Hitler was forced to call on women
    fulltime
  • Worked in armament factories
  • Helped on farms
  • Accompanied Jews on railways to concentration
    camps

Germany
62
Opposition from women
  • Many joined left wing groups
  • 1933Nazis opened first concentration camp for
    women
  • Some committed suicide in opposition to Nazis

Germany
63
  • Advertisement for county Nazi rally
  • 1941
  • 1937/38
  • 1940

Germany
64
  • Mid-1930's
  • "Support the assistance program for mothers and
    children"
  • 1938
  • "Happy families are the best foundation of our
    people."

Germany
65
  • late in the war
  • "Mother! Fight for your children!"
  • 1939

Germany
66
  • 1941
  • Commemorates January 30, anniversary of Nazi
    seizure of power in 1933
  • Major national holiday during Third Reich
  • 1940
  • Hermann Göring with his daughter Edda

Germany
67
New Germanys Educational Principles
  • German people, German parents! The new Germany
    created by our people's chancellor Adolf Hitler
    places special demands on the German youth. The
    German youth are a foundation of the rebuilding
    of the German people and the German fatherland.
    The people and the fatherland place their hands
    on the shoulders of the youth and determine what
    educational and cultural values and goals are
    necessary for this youth to meet the needs of
    people and fatherland. This requires a truly
    national and social education for the German
    youth, and all involved in education has to serve
    these educational and cultural goals with their
    full energy. Parents and teachers above all! All
    those involved in education must have a clear and
    unified idea of the educational tasks before
    them. The four iron pillars of the national
    school and educational system are race, military
    training, leadership, and religion! What Schools
    and Parents Need to Know About the Goals of
    National Socialist Education

68
Youth Groups
  • Had to undergo extensive medical exams to prove
    true German blood by tracing back their lineage
  • No one with any Jewish blood allowed to join
  • Brainwashed with Nazi ideology
  • Taught they were superior race
  • Taught about inferior races
  • Required for all youth by 1936

Germany
69
Hitler Youth (HJ)
  • To groom boys into loyal soldiers
  • Taught boys to
  • Be aggressive
  • Develop strong sense of camaraderie
  • Believe in unquestioning loyalty and brutality
  • Activities
  • Songs to promote national pride and devotion to
    Hitler
  • Daily rituals to teach discipline and respect
  • Paramilitary drills
  • Beat other boys and people on street

Germany
70
  • 1940
  • "Youth Serves the Führer. All 10-year-olds into
    the Hitler Youth."
  • 1936/37
  • "Germany's youth belongs to the Führer!"

Germany
71
Germany
72
  • 1944
  • Lead article titled "Freedom and Heaven"
  • Last paragraph "Freedom is also the goal of the
    battle of our day. It grows from the behavior of
    us boys as we join the war and the front, from
    our inner conduct which results from a conscious
    return to the truth and genuine values of life,
    the values of art and culture, that we are
    defending from the arsonists of this war."

Germany
73
Germany
74
Girls Education
  • The goal of female education must be to prepare
    them for motherhood. --Mein Kampf

Germany
75
League of German Maidens (BDM)
  • Why girls joined
  • Part of national cause
  • Independence from parents
  • Taught 3 Kskinder, kuche, kirche
  • Similar camps to those of HJ
  • Learned basics of domestic life and child-rearing
    skills
  • Taught their bodies were not private, but they
    belonged to national cause
  • Strong emphasis on physical fitness
  • Worshipped Hitler as god-like figure
  • Love letters to Hitler offering to have his child

Germany
76
Germany
77
Resistance to HJ and BDM
  • 3 resistance groups formed
  • Some members publicly executed
  • Edelweiss Pirates
  • Went on outings
  • Changed HJ song lyrics to protest songs
  • Wrote anti-Hitler graffiti on buildings
  • Style of dress went against fashion
  • Taunted HJ and physically beat its late-night
    patrols

Germany
78
Resistance to HJ and BDM
  • White Rose Group
  • Mostly university students
  • Distributed anti-Nazi pamphlets
  • Swing Kids
  • Mostly upper middle class young adults
  • Non-violent resistance
  • Swing clubs open to Jews
  • Listened to American jazz
  • Allowed young adults to think freely

Germany
79
Bibliography
  • Michael Wilson, University of Texas at Dallas
  • pandora.cii.wwu.edu/vajda/russ110/russwomenslides.
    htm
  • womenshistory.about.com/
  • www.calvin.edu/academic/cas/gpa/ww2era.htm
  • www.dickinson.edu/history/dictators/
  • www.historylearningsite.co.uk/
  • www.library.wisc.edu/libraries/dpf/Fascism/Educati
    on.html
  • www.majbill.vt.edu/history/ewing/
  • www.marxists.org/
  • www.northstarcompass.org/nsc0211/stalinera.htm
  • www.schoolhistory.co.uk/lessons/germany/women.html
  • www.touritaly.org/magazine/articles01/WomenFascism
    .htm

80
Families in 20th Century Totalitarian States
  • Russia, Italy and Germany
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