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Service-Learning: Improving Learning and Our Communities

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Title: Service-Learning: Improving Learning and Our Communities


1
Service-Learning Improving Learning and Our
Communities
  • William Oakes
  • EPICS Program
  • Purdue University

2
Educational Needs
  • What are educational challenges or issues related
    to students and student learning on your campuses?

3
Opportunities
  • Equipping graduates to
  • address global
  • grand challenges
  • Students need more than disciplinary knowledge to
    succeed
  • teamwork, communication,
  • customer-awareness,
  • project management,
  • leadership, ethics,
  • societal context,
  • professionalism
  • Both local and global communities need access to
    disciplinary expertise that is normally
    prohibitively expensive improved, enhanced, new
    capabilities

Universities/colleges will be engaged in their
communities and in the world
4
Calls to Action
  • U.S. National Academy of Engineering Studies
  • The Engineer of 2020Visions of Engineering
    inthe New Century
  • Educating the Engineer of 2020 Adapting
    Engineering Education to the New Century
  • What skills are needed in disciplines to address
    the challenges in todays global economy
  • How People Learn

5
Service-Learning Definition
  • We define service learning as a type of
    experiential education in which students
    participate in service in the community and
    reflect on their involvement in such a way as to
    gain further understanding of course content and
    of the discipline and its relationship to social
    needs and an enhanced sense of civic
    responsibility.
  • - Hatcher and Bringle, 1997

6
Context Learning Pedagogies
  • Experiential education
  • Active learning,
  • Problem-based learning
  • Inquiry-guided learning
  • Design education
  • Service learning
  • Engagement in the community
  • Tied to academic learning outcomes
  • Reciprocity
  • Reflection

7
Characteristics of Service-Learning
  • Service part of the service-learning experience
    involves service opportunities for students for
    the underserved in the local, regional or global
    community.
  •  
  • Academically-based - the service being performed
    by the students must provide reinforcement and
    connection with the subject material of the
    academic course.
  • Students given credit for mastery of course
    content, not simply for the service they perform

8
EPICS Course Outcomes (Design)
i. applies material from their discipline to the design of community-based projects
ii. demonstrates an understanding of design as a start-to-finish process
iii. an ability to identify and acquire new knowledge as a part of the problem-solving/design process
iv. demonstrates an awareness of the customer in engineering design
v. demonstrates an ability to function on multidisciplinary teams and an appreciation for the contributions from individuals from other disciplines
vi. demonstrates an ability to communicate effectively with audiences with widely-varying backgrounds
vii. demonstrates an awareness of professional ethics and responsibility
viii. demonstrates an appreciation of the role that their discipline can play in social contexts
9
Characteristics of Service-Learning
  • Partnerships
  • partnerships between those who serving and those
    being served.
  • Meeting needs together
  • Doing work WITH, not for
  • The students and community members are partners
    addressing community need
  • Adding capacity to the community
  • The community, students and faculty benefit from
    the service learning

10
Characteristics of Service-Learning
  • Reflection (Analysis or Metacognition)
  • Participants are intentionally guided through
    activities to analyze and reflect upon the work
    that is being performed and the larger social
    issues..
  • Metacognitive activities including reflection
    improve learning
  • Metacognition can help students understand
    academic material covered by the course
  • Activities for analysis and reflection can take
    several forms

11
Service vs Learning
12
New Context
  • A similar phenomenon occurs when students are
    able to marshal a body of knowledge to solve
    problems presented in class but fail even to see
    a problem, much less the relevance of what has
    been learned, in a different setting. The new
    situation does not provide the cues associated
    with what has been learned the key words from
    the classroom are not present in the wider
    environment. A service-learning student will
    have more ways to access this understanding.
  • Eyler and Giles

13
Benefits to Learning
  • Learners of all ages are more motivated when
    they can see the usefulness of what they are
    learning and when they can use that information
    to do something that has an impact on others
    especially in their local community Bransford
    et al., How People Learn

14
Kolbs Learning Cycle
Allows diverse students to contribute and be
valued. Reflection connects learning and
experiences
Concrete Experience
to experience
Active Experimentation
Reflective Observation
to examine
to apply
to explain
Abstract Conceptualization
15
Multi-Level Learning
  • Students learn
  • communication skills
  • Teamwork, leadership
  • Project planning
  • Resourcefulness
  • life-long learning
  • About themselves
  • Their place as professionals and as citizens
  • About others
  • Communities

16
Service-Learning and Diversity
  • Research on science education suggests that
    context is important to students.
  • Image is increasingly being cited as a
    deterrent to attracting women in the U.S.
  • What are the diversity issues facing your
    institutions?
  • Gender
  • Ethnicity
  • Cultural
  • Socio-economically

17
Accreditation and S-L
  • Service Learning projects provide opportunities
    for students to demonstrate that they have
    achieved outcomes (e.g. ABET Criterion 3 )
  • apply knowledge
  • design/analyze/interpret
  • design system/component/process
  • techniques/skills/tools
  • problem solving
  • professional/ethical responsibility
  • multidisciplinary teams
  • communication
  • societal context
  • contemporary issues
  • life-long learning

18
Industry Boeing List
  • A good understanding of engineering science
    fundamentals.
  • Mathematics (including statistics) 
  • Physical and life sciences 
  • Information technology (far more than "computer
    literacy")
  • A good understanding of design and manufacturing
    processes. 
  • (i.e., understands engineering)
  • A multi-disciplinary, systems perspective. 
  • A basic understanding of the context in which
    engineering is practiced.
  • Economics (including business practices) 
  • History 
  • The environment 
  • Customer and societal needs
  • Good communication skills.
  • Written, oral, graphic and listening 
  • High ethical standards.
  • An ability to think both critically and
    creatively - independently and cooperatively.
  • Flexibility. The ability and self-confidence to
    adapt to rapid or major change. 
  • Curiosity and a desire to learn for life. 
  • A profound understanding of the importance of
    teamwork. 

19
Teaching Design
  • The Design Process As a Full Cycle
  • Traditional courses use a piece of the design
    cycle
  • Problem Definition phase is often skipped
  • S-L provides an opportunity for start-to-finish
    design
  • Problem definition
  • Working designs for fielded projects
  • Support for fielded projects
  • redesign opportunities
  • Design for x-ability

20
Real Contexts
  • Compelling Context for Classroom Material
  • Kinematics course analyze playground safety
  • Active exercises to engage students
  • Diversity of learning styles
  • Answers When would I ever have to use this

21
Educating Citizens
  • Engineerings responsibility to educate the
    whole person
  • Educating future professionals
  • Educating future community members
  • Engaged/educated citizens
  • Future neighbors
  • Lifelong impact
  • Career choices
  • Outside interests
  • or activities

22
Why Community Projects?
  • Real projects start-to-finish design problem
    definition, specifications,version control,
    sustainability,design/coding standards,rigorous
    testing, reliability,maintainability,
    safety,satisfying a customer,accountability,
    pride
  • A different view of engineering and computing
  • The university as citizen

23
Integrating the Curriculum
innovation design resourcefulness ethics team
work communication

C
O
N
T
E
X
T



T
I
M
E


problem solving analysis engineering fundamental
s science mathematics
EPICS has the potential to realize
new efficiencies in the engineering curriculum
24
Examples
  • Four models
  • Co-curricular
  • ProCEED U. of Michigan
  • U. de Sherbrooke
  • International
  • Integrated within a course
  • U. Massachusetts-Lowell
  • U. of Utah
  • Separate courses
  • Freshman courses U. of South Alabama, CWRU
  • Senior design
  • Programs or series of courses
  • EPICS
  • Service Learning works in engineering

25
Co-Curricular Service-Learning
  • Programs incorporate co-curricular activities
    with engineering-based projects in the community
  • ProCEED U. of Michigan
  • ME Honorary Society Senior design course
  • Ohio State
  • ECOS Student organization doing international
    work
  • Universite de Sherbrooke
  • Contest to design toys for autistic children
  • Follow-on to freshman ECE design course

26
Integrated in Specific Courses
  • ME Kinematics analyze playground safety and
    write report to responsible entity
  • Measurements Laboratory data acquired in
    community (e.g. environmental data)
  • What to do with the data?
  • CE Hydrology hydrological analysis of local
    wet lands or lakes
  • Biology in Engineering play ground design for
    local schools
  • First-Year Projects
  • Projects for the community
  • Present projects to schools or hospital

27
Service-Learning Courses
  • Institutions have created separate courses for
    Service Learning
  • Capstone courses
  • UML Assistive Technology Capstone for
    electrical engineers
  • First-Year Design or Introduction to Major
    Courses (Improves retention)
  • Case Western Reserve Univ.
  • University of Colorado
  • Columbia
  • General Elective
  • University of Pretoria course partnering
    witharea townships

28
EPICS
Engineering Projects in Community Service
Purdue undergraduates are learning real-world
skills by defining, designing, building, testing,
deploying, and supporting engineering solutions
in a unique academic program that assists local
community service and education organizations.
EPICS successes
  • 1995-2008 2500 Purdue students to date
  • Over 250 projects deployed
  • 2007-2008 500 students from 30 Purdue
    departments on 30 teams
  • A growing Purdue-community-industry partnership
    11 industry advisors
  • 13M total from grants, industry, Purdue, and
    alumni
  • Support for national expansion from NSF,
    Corporation for National Community Service,
    Microsoft, HP
  • 19 EPICS universities, 35 High Schools

29
EPICS Programs
EPICS Curriculum Provides EPICS Curriculum Provides EPICS Curriculum Provides EPICS Curriculum Provides
Service-Learning Design Education Project Management Community Partnerships
Disciplinary Knowledge from Departments EPICS Programs EPICS Programs EPICS Programs EPICS Programs
Projects and Problems from Local Community EPICS Programs EPICS Programs EPICS Programs EPICS Programs
Institutional Curriculum and Culture EPICS Programs EPICS Programs EPICS Programs EPICS Programs
30
EPICS Characteristics
  • Long term projects
  • Long-term partnerships with community
    organizations
  • Vertically-integrated teams firstyearsophomores
    juniorsseniors
  • Extended design experience academic credit
    throughout the students undergraduate career,
    1-2 credits/semester
  • Large-team experience teams of 8-18 students
  • Broadly multidisciplinary teams EE, CmpE, CS,
    ME, CE, IE, Sociology, Education, Biology,
    Audiology, Child Development, Visual Design,
    Technical Writing, Natural Resources,
  • Open-ended designdefine-design-build-test-deploy
    -support

31
EPICS Decouples Timescales
Student Learning
Student Learning
Semester/Quarter
Semester/Quarter
Semester/Quarter
Project
Project
Community Receives Long-Term Support They Need
32
Entrepreneurship and EPICS
  • Goals of the Initiative
  • Spread benefits of Products
  • Learn about entrepreneurship
  • Protect IP developed by teams and partners
  • I2P Competition
  • 2007, Princeton University
  • 2008, Georgia Tech

33
Examples of Scope
  • International Projects
  • Local Projects
  • All four models are used
  • Advantage is that students can see need and
    results
  • Integrates them into the local community
  • Regional or national projects
  • Example EPICS and Habitat for Humanity

34
International
  • Students from here go there
  • John Duffy - U. Mass.-Lowell
  • http//faculty.uml.edu/jduffy/PerUML
  • Students work on projects for remote villages in
    Peru and deliver/install on trips.
  • Water purification, solar and hydro-electrical
    power systems
  • Engineers without Borders students chapters and
    professionals
  • http//www.ewb-usa
  • Projects in Indiahttp//www.ewb-usa.org/project_s
    earch.php?countryIndia
  • Water and electrification

35
Local EPICS Projects
Access Abilities
Education Outreach
Human Services
Environment
36
EPICS Projects Human Services
  • Design chemical sensing equipment to help and
    protect local law enforcement in their work to
    inhibit drug making laboratories.
  • Develop database system to assist the Tippecanoe
    and Jasper County Probation Departments to track
    and supervise offenders.
  • Develop scheduling software to assist local
    crisis center to schedule volunteers 24/7.
  • Complete analysis of sustainability and energy
    efficiency techniques for HFH homes.      

37
EPICS Projects Environment
  • Waiheke Island, New Zealand
  • Processing waste glass into construction
    materials
  • bio-diesel fuel processing
  • Purdue
  • Constructed Wetlands and Water quality
  • Sustainability on campus

38
EPICS Projects Access Abilities
  • Reducing barriers on campus
  • Students with disabilities
  • Classroom learning
  • Campus barriers
  • Interactive play environments for young children
    with disabilities
  • Walking swing
  • Remote controlled bowling ramp
  • Develop devices to increase safety and efficiency
    of employees with disabilities

39
EPICS Projects Education
  • Outreach projects for research centers
  • Nano-technology
  • Partnerships with local K-12 schools
  • Hands-on science projects
  • Technology-assisted job training
  • Projects with local museums and zoos

40
(Inter)National-Scale Project
  • Habitat for Humanity - EPICS
  • Teams from multiple universities
  • Projects
  • Multimedia volunteer tutorials
  • Data collection of homeowner assessment
  • Global disaster relief home designs
  • Community Partner is the HFHI staff in Americus,
    GA
  • Students coordinate work betweencampuses and
    with partners at HFHI

41
Impact Meeting Students Needs
  • 15 semesters of data, 2385 responses
  • Impact of EPICS on your Topic
  • of students giving A or B rating

42
Impact Meeting Students Needs
What are the 3 most valuable things you have
learned from being a part of the EPICS
program Responses from 9 semesters, 2044
respondents
Objectives responses
Teamwork 1751
Communication Skills 1008
Organizational Skills 793
Technical Skills 754
Leadership Skills 534
43
Student Quotes
  • (S-L) completely changed my opinion of
    engineering.
  • Working on this project has helped me guide the
    rest ofmy course work and ideas for a future
    profession.
  • Other engineering courses only directly benefit
    me.(S-L) benefits everyone involved.
  • I have learned that engineering includes more
    than theory, it includes teamwork, communication,
    organization and leadership.
  • It made me understand how every aspect of
    engineering (design, implementation, team work,
    documentation) come together.
  • No longer is engineering just a bunch of
    equations,now I see it as a means to help
    mankind.
  • Opened my heart.

44
Service-Learning Definition
  • We define service learning as a type of
    experiential education in which students
    participate in service in the community and
    reflect on their involvement in such a way as to
    gain further understanding of course content and
    of the discipline and its relationship to social
    needs and an enhanced sense of civic
    responsibility.
  • - Hatcher and Bringle, 1997

45
Reflection in Service-Learning
  • Reflection (and Analysis)
  • Participants are intentionally guided through
    activities to analyze and reflect upon the work
    that is being performed and the larger social
    issues..
  • Metacognitive activities including reflection
    improve learning
  • Metacognition can help students understand
    academic material covered by the course
  • Activities for analysis and reflection can take
    several forms

46
Why do we need reflection?
  • Connect service to academic learning
  • Metacognitive activity
  • Students compartimentalize experiences and
    learning
  • Draw out learning
  • Students may miss learning opportunities if not
    pointed out
  • Address student reaction and/or experience from
    service
  • Were stereotypes challenged or reinforced?
  • Was there unintended learning?

47
Methods for Reflection
  • Written questions
  • Notebooks (journals)
  • Essays collect in Blackboard
  • Small group discussions
  • Class discussions
  • Readings
  • Combinations

48
Reflection Model
Technical Level or Discipline Specific
Personal Values
Social Systems and Issues
Developed by Edward Zlotkowski
49
How much is enough?
  • Janet Eyler (Vanderbilt) studied reflection
  • Amount of reflection was not a significant factor
    in effectiveness
  • Key elements were intentional (targeted at
    learning objectives) and frequent

50
Reflection (Analysis)
  • What strategies will you use to have students
    process (reflect on) the many aspects of the
    service experience and connect these aspects to
    the rest of the course?
  • Academic context and learning objectives
  • Personal experience
  • Connection to and implications for the
    profession/discipline
  • Social/community issues

51
Partnerships
Communities
Universities High Schools
Corporations/Societies
52
Benefits and Learning
Participants How will they benefit? What will they learn?
Students
Community Participants
Faculty/ Staff
53
EPICS Programs
54
Core Values
  • The core values of EPICS Programs are those
    elements required of all EPICS programs.
    Following a model of service-learning
  • EPICS students earn academic credit for
    participation in team-based design projects that
    solve engineering, computing, and
    technology-based needs in the local community 
  • EPICS teams provide service to the local
    community by partnering with not-for-profit
    community organizations, educational
    institutions, and governmental agencies and  
  • EPICS programs support these reciprocal local
    partnerships over multiple years without
    obligation for remuneration to EPICS.

Adapted to Local Institutional Culture and
Constraints
55
Goals for EPICS Programs
  • In addition to the core values, there are
    attributes of EPICS Programs that provide a
    richer learning experience and add value to
    community partnerships.
  • Long-term Participation by Students
  • Large Team Structure and Continuity
  • Multidisciplinary Teams
  • Advisors for teams
  • Reflection on the Broader Social Context and
    Impact
  • Learning Design
  • Meeting the Needs of the Underserved
  • Vertically Integrated
  • Integration into Core Curricula
  • Innovation and Entrepreneurship
  • Collaboration with Other EPICS Programs

56
Phases of an EPICS Team
  1. Establishing project partnerships
  2. Creating a curriculum structure basic
    infrastructure
  3. Assembling a project team
  4. Implementing the projects
  5. Supporting the partnerships
  6. Ending the partnership

57
Academic Credit / Plans of Study
  • EE 3 credits senior design 6 ECE elective
    credits 2 lab credits if not used as senior
    design
  • CmpE 3 credits senior design 6 CmpE elective
    credits
  • ME 6 credits tech elective 3 credits free
    elective
  • CE 6 credits tech elective
  • IDE 6 credits engineering/design 3 senior
    design
  • CS CS elective 3 senior design
  • AAE 3 credits as tech electiveadditional AAE
    elective with permission
  • LA 3 credits count as core in Social Ethics
  • CFS fulfills specialization requirement in
    selected areas elective for all areas
  • Others free elective credit
  • Entrepreneurship Certificate Option Capstone

58
Purdue Course Structure
  • 1 or 2 credits / semester -emphasis on long-term
    participation
  • 5 hours/week outside of lab for 2 credits
  • 2.5 hours/week outside of lab for 1 credit
  • 2-hour team lab each week
  • Each team meets separately to do administration,
    planning, and project work
  • Common lecture time for all teams
  • Supplemental learning experiences to lectures
  • TA-run Skills Sessions and workshops
  • Final Presentation (Exam)

59
Lectures
  • Common Lecture hour
  • Required common and Introductory lectures
  • 1 credit students attend 5 lectures units
  • 2 credit students attend 10 lecture units
  • Lectures are on video server
  • Topics
  • Administrative orientation, resources, and
    assessment
  • Design process
  • Communication topics
  • Project planning
  • Team building / leadership
  • Community context
  • Entrepreneurship
  • Best practices

60
Skills Sessions and Workshops
  • Alternative/supplementary ways of earning lecture
    credit
  • Facilitators (TAs, students, faculty, EPICS
    Admin, Corporate partners) run sessions on
    specific skills
  • Target students after their first semester
  • Also give credit for relevant seminars etc.
  • Topics
  • ME shop
  • Specific programming skills tools
  • Webmaster training
  • Disability awareness
  • Ethical issues
  • Social context

61
Textbook Readings and Reflections
  • Lima and Oakes Service-Learning Engineering in
    Your Community
  • Readings to supplement lectures
  • Reflections on reading and lab work
  • Targeted readings for team roles
  • Leaders
  • Partner liaisons

62
Labs
  • Student run team leader
  • Administration and milestones
  • Project status and planning
  • Team building
  • Breakout for project work

63
Team Roles Students
  • Team Leader/Co-Leaders
  • Project leaders - lead individual projects
  • Liaison - primary contact for the community
    partner
  • Financial officer - manages teams budget
  • Manager of Intellectual Property - leads
    entrepreneurship activities, patent searches
  • ESAC Student Advisory Council recruiting and
    placement
  • Webmaster

64
Team Roles Advisors
  • Faculty play key role
  • Advising teams in areas of expertise
  • Academic credibility
  • Industry advisors
  • Non-faculty advisors with expertise
  • Co-advisors from other disciplines
  • Add multidisciplinary components
  • Meet with team weekly
  • Responsible for progress of team and individuals
  • Grading

65
Team Roles TAs
  • Technical guidance to supplement background of
    advisors
  • Administrative assistance for operation of
    program 1 administrative TA assigned to each
    team
  • Talent pool for all teams to tap
  • Office hours
  • Skills sessions
  • Lab oversight
  • Grading
  • design notebooks, reflections, etc.

66
Roles Administration
  • Program planning, development, management, and
    oversight
  • Course management
  • Community partner identification and selection
    community relations
  • Resource management (funds, labs, staff)
  • Assessment and data collection
  • Reporting

67
Milestone Highlights
Week
1 Transition and Integrating New Students Planning and setting expectations
2 Transition and Integrating New Students Planning and setting expectations
3 Transition and Integrating New Students Planning and setting expectations
4 Transition and Integrating New Students Planning and setting expectations
5 Execute Semester Plans Deliver if Appropriate Document As You Go
6 Execute Semester Plans Deliver if Appropriate Document As You Go
7 Execute Semester Plans Deliver if Appropriate Document As You Go
8 Execute Semester Plans Deliver if Appropriate Document As You Go
9 Execute Semester Plans Deliver if Appropriate Document As You Go
10 Execute Semester Plans Deliver if Appropriate Document As You Go
11 Execute Semester Plans Deliver if Appropriate Document As You Go
12 Execute Semester Plans Deliver if Appropriate Document As You Go
13 Complete semester commitments Transition to next semester Coordinate with Project Partner Focus on Project Partner and Transition
14 Complete semester commitments Transition to next semester Coordinate with Project Partner Focus on Project Partner and Transition
15 Complete semester commitments Transition to next semester Coordinate with Project Partner Focus on Project Partner and Transition
Finals Complete semester commitments Transition to next semester Coordinate with Project Partner Focus on Project Partner and Transition
Slow
Fast
Delivery Deadline
68
Milestones Schedule(s)
69
Administering EPICS Outline
  • Ten elements
  • Students
  • Community partners projects
  • Academic staff Advisors TAs
  • Administrative staff
  • Funds for project expenses
  • Labs infrastructure
  • Space
  • Curricular structures
  • Risk management
  • Institutional support
  • Budgets
  • Challenges
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