Social Psychology: PSY 321 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Social Psychology: PSY 321 PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 5fe3b4-MjU2M



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Social Psychology: PSY 321

Description:

Title: Chapter One Last modified by: Diana Sanchez Created Date: 9/12/2013 2:24:27 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) Other titles – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:103
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 74
Provided by: sanchezla
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Social Psychology: PSY 321


1
Social Psychology PSY 321
  • Prof. Diana T. Sanchez
  • disanche_at_rci.rutgers.edu

2
This LECTURE INCLUDES THIS VIDEO
  • Research Methods Insight Media
  • Available at Media Library Rutgers

3
Social Psychology
  • Recognizes the importance of social relationships
  • ____________ is why social context matters

4
Social PSYCHOLOGICAL QUESTIONS
5
Social Psychological Questions
6
Social Psychologys Fundamental Contribution
  • Our responses are largely determined
  • by ___________________
  • they are not simply the products of
  • our individual personalities.

7
Todays Plan
  • Introductions
  • Syllabus
  • What is Social Psychology?
  • Introduction to Research Methods

8
RESEARCH INTERESTS
9
Syllabus
  • Syllabus Available at Sakai or www.sanchezlab.com
  • Course format
  • Reading
  • Kassin, S.M., Fein, S., Markus, H. R. (2014).
    Social Psychology (9th Edition). Wadsworth,
    Cengage.
  • Supplementary readings available on line.
  • Pared-down lectures notes will be posted at
  • http//www.sanchezlab.com
  • Click courses

10
Syllabus
  • Course format
  • Reading
  • Grading
  • 3 Exams (1-Online, Timed, Not Open Book, Via
    Sakai)
  • Each worth 1/3 of your grade
  • Missing exams
  • Extra credit worth .5 credits 2 points on final
    grade

11
Syllabus
  • Studying
  • Etiquette
  • Academic Honesty
  • Students with Disabilities

12
Defining Social Psychology
  • The scientific study of how individuals think,
    feel, and behave in social context.
  • Each part of this definition needs to be examined
    closely
  • Scientific study
  • How individuals think, feel, and behave
  • Social context

13
Scientific Study
  • Social psychology relies on the scientific
    method.
  • Not just intuition and casual observation
  • Scientific method involves
  • Forming hypotheses testable predictions
  • Systematically testing hypotheses
  • Organizing ideas and findings into theories

14
How Individuals Think, Feel, and Behave
  • Social psychology concerns a diverse set of
    topics.
  • Focus is on the psychology of the individual.

15
Social Context
  • Emphasis is on the social nature of individuals.

16
Example Stampede in Iraq
17
Three Sections
  • Section 1 Social Perception
  • The social self
  • Perceiving other individuals
  • Perceiving groups (stereotyping, prejudiced
    emotions, and discrimination)
  • The effects of social stigma
  • Reducing prejudice

18
Three Sections
  • Section 2 Social Influence Thinking
  • Conformity, compliance
  • Obedience
  • Group processes and influence
  • Attitudes Behavior
  • Persuasion

19
Three Sections
  • Section 3 Social Relations Applications of
    Social Psychology
  • Attraction and close relationships
  • Gender/Body
  • Helping
  • Aggression
  • Law and social psychology
  • Health

20
How does Social Psychology Differ FROM OTHER
DISCIPLINES??
21
Social Psychology and Sociology
  • How are they different?
  • Sociology tends to focus on ______________.
  • Social psychology tends to focus on
    _________________.
  • How do the fields intersect?
  • Often share the same training and publish in the
    same journals.
  • Both can help in understanding societal and
    immediate factors that influence behavior.

22
Social Psychology and Personality Psych
  • How are they different?
  • Personality psychologists
  • Social psychologistsregardless of personality,
  • How are they similar?
  • Joint journals/programs
  • Combined theoretical approaches

23
Social Psychology and Cognitive Psychology
  • How are they different?
  • Cognitive psychologists study learning,
    reasoning, mental processes, not necessarily
    social processes
  • How do the fields intersect?
  • Social cognition

24
Social Psychology and Clinical Psychology
  • How are they different?
  • Clinical psychologists
  • Similarities? examine how social contexts help or
    hinder anxiety.

25
Social Psychology and Related Fields
26
Research Methods in Social Psychology
27
Todays Plan
  • Developing Ideas
  • Refining Ideas
  • Testing Ideas

28
Developing Ideas
29
Beginning the Research Process
  • Step 1 Start asking questions.
  • Step 2 Search the literature.
  • Step 3 Begin shaping the idea into a
    hypothesis
  • An testable prediction about the conditions under
    which an event will occur

30
Theories
  • An organized set of principles used to explain
    observed phenomena.
  • Usually evaluated in terms of three criteria
  • Simplicity (Parsimony).
  • Comprehensiveness.
  • Generativity
  • Preference for mini-theories rather than the
    all-encompassing grand theory.

31
Basic and Applied Research
  • Basic research Designed to test a specific
    hypothesis from a specific theory.
  • Applied research Designed to find solutions to
    practical problems.

32
Refining Ideas
  • Defining and Measuring Social Psychological
    Variables

33
Conceptual Operational Definitions
  • empirical realization
  • translating the conceptual or abstract variables
    contained in your hypothesis to real, measurable
    constructs
  • conceptual variable abstract level
  • operational variable the way you measure the
    conceptual variable

34
Effects of Guilt (Regan, Williams, Sparling,
1972)
  • people who feel guilty are more likely to help
    others than people who do not feel guilty
  • description of study
  • Ps were asked to take a paid actors (i.e., a
    confederate) picture in mall
  • Operationalization of guilt
  • ½ Ps were induced to believe that they had broken
    his very expensive camera
  • ½ Ps were informed that the camera malfunctioned
    all of the time they were not responsible

35
Construct Validity
  • Used to evaluate the manipulation and measurement
    of variables.
  • Refers to the extent to which
  • The manipulations in an experiment really
    manipulate the conceptual variables they were
    designed to manipulate.
  • The measures (often self-report) used in the
    study really measure the conceptual variables

36
Measuring Variables Self-Reports
  • Participants disclose their thoughts, feelings,
    desires, and actions.
  • Problems with self-reports

37
How Many Hours of TV Do You Watch? (Schwarz et
al. 1985)
38
Global Warming or Climate Change?
39
Measuring Variables Self-Reports
  • Participants disclose their thoughts, feelings,
    desires, and actions.
  • Problems with self-reports

40
EXPERIENCE SAMPLING
  • Interval contingent
  • Participants are asked to report
  • Signal contingent
  • Participants are asked to report
  • Event contingent
  • Participants are asked to report

41
Measuring Variables Observations
  • Observations can be simple or elaborate
  • Interrater reliability degree to which multiple
    observers agree on their observations
  • Advantages
  • Disadvantages

42
Measuring Variables Technology
  • New technologies used in contemporary social
    psychology include
  • Computers in experiments
  • Reaction time measurements
  • Physiological/biological measures measures
  • Brain imaging techniques fMRI

43
Testing Ideas
  • Research Designs

44
Descriptive Research
  • Goal is to describe people and their thoughts,
    feelings, and behaviors.
  • Observational studies
  • Interrater reliability
  • Archival studies existing records
  • Surveys
  • Importance of random sampling
  • A method of selection in which everyone in a
    population has an equal chance of selection

45
RESEARCH Methods
  • Well focus on two other methods
  • Correlational designs
  • Experimental designs

46
Correlational Designs
  • Represents the strength of the relationship
    between two variables
  • e.g., of hours of media exposure to violence
    level of aggression
  • e.g., sickness/illness and optimism
  • e.g., ability to delay gratification as a child
    and success in college
  • Concurrent v. Prospective
  • Correlation coefficient (r) ranges from 1 to
    -1
  • e.g., r .34
  • e.g., r -.52

47
Interpreting Correlations
  • Positive correlation
  • increase in exposure associated with increase in
    aggression
  • Negative correlation
  • increase in exposure associated with decrease in
    aggression
  • No correlation
  • Variables are not related

48
Correlations Positive, Negative, and None
49
Correlation ? Causation
50
Why cant we infer causality?
  • Reverse-Causality Problem
  • X ? Y or Y ? X

Is there a relationship between exposure to
violent TV and aggression?
51
Why cant we infer causality?
  • Reverse-Causality Problem
  • X ? Y or Y ? X
  • Third-variable problem
  • A ? X and A ? Y
  • e.g., ice cream sales (X) and violence (Y) (r
    .29)
  • What is A in these cases? What is the third
    variable that can explain this relationship?
  • VERY IMPORTANT FOR INTERPRETING NEWS ABOUT HEALTH
    RESEARCH!!!

52
NEW YORK TIMES ARTICLE Coffee as a Health
Drink?
  • Researchers have found strong evidence that
    coffee reduces the risk of several serious
    ailments, including diabetes, heart disease and
    cirrhosis of the liver.
  • Still, after controlling for age, smoking and
    alcohol consumption, women who drank one to five
    cups a day caffeinated or decaffeinated
    reduced their risk of death from all causes
    during the study by 15 to 19 percent compared
    with those who drank none.

53
Explaining Correlations Three Possibilities
54
Advantages of Correlational Methods
  • Allow assessment of behavior as it occurs in
    peoples everyday lives
  • Allow study of variables that cannot be studied
    in experimental designs
  • Gender, Age, Race

55
Experiments
  • Cornerstone of social psychological research.
  • Used to examine cause-and-effect relationships.
  • Two essential characteristics
  • Researcher has control over the experimental
    procedures.
  • Participants are randomly assigned to different
    treatment conditions.

56
Random Sampling vs. Random Assignment
  • Random Sampling
  • Selecting Ps to be in study so that everyone in
    population has an equal chance of being in the
    study.
  • Representative samples ? Generalization
  • Random Assignment
  • Assigning Ps (who are already in study) to the
    different conditions so that each P as equal
    chance of being in any of the conditions.
  • Equalizes the conditions of experiment so that it
    is unlikely that conditions differ because of
    pre-existing differences
  • Required for inferences of causality.

57
Variables
  • Independent Variable
  • variable that we expect causes an outcome
  • the antecedent event
  • variable that the experimenter can control and
    manipulate
  • Dependent Variable
  • the variables measured to see if they are
    affected by IV
  • the outcome variable or the effect
  • its value depends on the changes introduced by
    the IV

58
IVs and Conditions
  • Must have two conditions (also called levels)
    of the IV in order to demonstrate that the IV has
    an effect on the DV
  • Experimental group (IV present) vs. control group
    (IV not present)
  • Example
  • interested in mood and helping
  • experimental group told they received A or
    F
  • control group does not grade feedback

59
Laboratory Experiments
  • Conducted in settings in which
  • The environment can be controlled.
  • The participants can be carefully studied.

60
Field Experiments
61
Some exercises
62
Crusco Wetzel (1984)
  • interested in how touching influences
    individuals perceptions of others
  • description of study
  • waitress performed normal duties
  • when she gave change to customer, she approached
    the paying customer from the side, leaned
    forward, and w/out making eye contact, said in a
    friendly yet firm tone, Heres your change.
  • 1/3 no touch control condition
  • 1/3 a brief hand-touch condition
  • 1/3 a longer shoulder-touch condition
  • left a blank survey for customers to complete
  • collected survey and tip

63
A social psychologist wants to assess the optimal
level of crowd noise for enhancing the shooting
accuracy of professional basketball players. She
has individual professional basketball players
shoot free throws in a gym as she varies the
intensity of crowd noise by playing an audiotape
of a crowd at low, medium, and high levels. She
randomly assigns the players to the conditions.
IV Conditions DV Design
64
Two psychologists are interested in the effects
of mood on helping (based on Isen Levin, 1972).
They go to shopping malls and set up observation
near phone booths. Their participants are
individuals who use the phone booths when the
vicinity is otherwise unoccupied. For half of
the Ps, the researchers leave a quarter to be
found near the booth. For all of the Ps, when the
phone call is completed and the person leaves the
telephone booth, a confederate walks by the
booth, and drops a file folder full of papers.
The researchers watch to see if the Ps help pick
up the dropped papers.
  • Conceptual
  • IV
  • DV
  • Operational
  • IV
  • DV

65
Researchers are interested in influences on
self-esteem. Specifically, researchers want to
assess how performing a difficult task under
pressure influences college students
self-esteem. Ps are given a set of anagrams to
solve. Half are randomly assigned to receive
very easy anagrams, and half are given difficult
ones. Crossed with this, half are randomly
assigned to be given 10 minutes to complete the
anagrams, and half are given 30 minutes to
complete the task. After completing as many of
the anagrams as they can, Ps are given a Qaire
labeled Thoughts and Feelings Questionnaire
that is really a measure of self-esteem.
Last One!
  • Conceptual
  • IV1
  • IV2
  • DV
  • Operational
  • IV1
  • IV2
  • DV

66
Main Effects and Interactions
  • Main Effect
  • Interaction

67
Female Infidelity, Male Honor, and Culture
Based on Vandello Cohen, 2003, 2005.
68
The Results (How manly?)
69
Statistical Significance
  • How likely is it that the results could have
    occurred by chance?
  • If 5 or fewer times in 100 possible outcomes,
    then considered to be statistically
    significant.
  • Replication

70
Internal Validity
  • How reasonably certain is it that the IV caused
    the effects obtained on the DV?
  • Control groups are important in ruling out
    alternative explanations for results.
  • Important to minimize experimenter expectancy
    effects.

71
External Validity
  • To what degree can the findings be generalized to
    other people and to other situations?
  • External validity considerations
  • Is the sample representative?
  • What is the setting in which the research is
    conducted?

72
Mundane vs. Experimental Realism
  • Mundane Realism The extent to which the research
    setting resembles the real-world setting of
    interest.
  • Experimental Realism

73
Meta-Analysis
  • A set of statistical procedures for examining
    relevant research that has already been conducted
    and reviewed.
About PowerShow.com