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Culture in Practice:

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Culture in Practice: Naming Logic of Museums in Taiwan. LAI Ying-Y. ing. Director. Graduate School of Art Management and Culture Policy. National Taiwan University of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Culture in Practice:


1

Culture in Practice Naming Logic of Museums in
Taiwan
LAI Ying-Ying Director Graduate School of Art
Management and Culture Policy National Taiwan
University of Arts
2
Basic Information of Taiwan (Formosa)
An island of East Asia in the western Pacific.
The island is neighbored by strong powers of
China, Japan, etc. This map was made in 1726
after the Dutch East India Company came to build
a commercial post at Fort Zeelandia.
3
Basic Information of Taiwan
4
Basic Information of Taiwan
Taiwan Denmark Taiwan Denmark
Area 36,000 square kilometers 43,098 square kilometers 0.8 1
Population 23,000,000 5,564,219 4 1
Language Mandarin / Taiwanese / Hakka / Indigenous Danish / English
Religions Confucianism / Buddhism / Taoism / Christianity / Islam Christianity
5
Basic Information of Taiwan
Dutch Empire rule
Spanish Empire rule
Zheng Family Dynasty
Empire of Japan rule
1624
1895
1970
1990
1684
1945
1980
2000
Qing Dynasty rule
Republic of China
  1. In the first half of the 17th Century, the Dutch
    established a presence at the South of Taiwan,
    and then Taiwan was ruled under various different
    empires, the Spanish Empire, the Zheng Family
    Dynasty and the Qing Dynasty.
  2. In the late 19th century, the island became a
    colony of Japan and remains under Japanese rule
    for 50 years.
  3. After World War II in 1945, Taiwan was ruled by
    the KMT government.
  4. From 2000, the other party DPP won the president
    election. Taiwan priority.

6
Chinese Association of Museums, Taiwan
7
Chinese Association of Museums
Institutional Members (499)
Art 52 Natural History 75 Industry 65
Craft 52 Historical Relics 93 Science 10
Architecture 15 Anthropology 27 Subject 23
Image 5 Archaeology 3 Religion 11
Music 4 School 15 History 17
Drama 7 Memorial 18 (Others) 7
8
History of Taiwanese Museum
by Prof. Chen, Kuo-Ning
Empire of Japan rule
Republic of China
1895
1970
1990
1945
1980
2000
Booming Period
Infancy Period
Recovery Period
Thrive Period
23
30
90
400- Why booming? Under policy of community
revitalization
(Defined by museum numbers)
9
History of Taiwanese Museum
by Dr. Chang, Yu-Teng
Empire of Japan rule
Republic of China
1895
1975
2000
1945
1990
Colonial Period
Nationalist Period
Modernist Period
Communitarian Period
Neoliberal Period
(Defined by ideological/historical phases)
10
Summary
  • The birth of the museums in Taiwan was during
    the Japanese rule. The development of museums was
    about industrial product display and economic
    priorities under the Imperial Japanese
    colonization.
  • After 1945, the KMT government retreated to
    Taiwan. The establishment of museums then was
    meant to consolidate the regime and to confirm
    its cultural orthodoxy of Chinese culture.

11
  • From the 80s and onward, museums were considered
    as symbols of a modernized society, and major
    science and art museums were established. Council
    of Culture Affairs (CCA) was established in 1981.
  • From the 90s, with CCAs funding of over 40
    billion, over 300 local museums were established
    served to re-engine/revitalize the local
    community.
  • Under government reform and economic depression,
    in name of New-liberalism from the 2000s, museums
    serve for tourism and are under crisis of
    commercialism.

12
The Naming Logic of Museums in Taiwan, two study
perspectives 1. National Museums as the cultural
instrument performing Identity 2. Local Museums
as the economical modifier for community
reengineering, local industry and culture tourism
13
The Importance of Naming
  • If names are not rectified, then speech will not
    function properly, and if speech does not
    function properly, then undertaking will not
    succeed..
  • When the gentleman names a thing, that naming can
    be conveyed in speech, and if it is conveyed in
    speech, then it can surely be put into action.
    When the gentlemen speaks, there is nothing
    arbitrary in the way he does so.
  • Zi Lu, Book Thirteen, The
    Analects of Confucius

14
The Importance of Naming
  • British cultural researchers Jordan and
    Weedon(1995) argue that naming is an operation of
    power in culture, which includes the power to
    name, the power to create official statement and
    to represent knowledge, the power from the legal
    society, etc.

15
The Importance of Naming
  • The Australian cultural researcher
  • Chris Barker states
  • Culture Politics is about the power to name,
    and thus legitimate objects and events, including
    both common sense and official versions of the
    social and cultural world.

16
The Importance of Naming
  • The core meaning of cultural legitimacy is
    about who or what could become the standard and
    the mainstream values that would be surfaced and
    be seen, be heard, and be followed. These are the
    effective methods for those in power who would
    use text, image, symbols and other creative
    objects strategically in order to achieve the
    objectives of ruling.

17
Whose culture shall be the official one and whose
shall be subordinated? Whose history shall be
remembered and whose forgotten? What voices shall
be heard and which be silenced? Who is
representing whom and on what basis?
18
  • The Naming Logic of Museums in Taiwan,
  • Perspective One
  • National Museums serve as the cultural instrument
    performing Identity
  • National Taiwan Museum, 1908-
  • National Museum of History, 1956-
  • National Museum of Taiwan History, 2007-

19
National Museums
National Taiwan Museum(1908-)
Since 1908- Reason of Naming Taiwan
Governor's Office of Civil Affairs Bureau of
colonial production subsidiary Memorial
Museum Showcase of agriculture/industry
demonstrating the modernization of Taiwan under
Japanese rule.
Taiwan Provincial Museum, 1945- National Taiwan
Museum, 1998- Mission Statement Cultural and
Natural Diversity of Taiwan
20
(No Transcript)
21
National Museums
National Museum of History (1956-)
  • Since 1956-
  • Reason of Naming
  • Heritage Museum, 1956-
  • National Museum of History, 1957-
  • Main Collections
  • Orthodoxy of Chinese culture
  • Henan Museums collection, along with the
    retreat of the Nationalist government in 1945

Mission Statement Diversity, Learning,
Identity, Creativity of Contemporary Society
22
(No Transcript)
23
National Museums
  • The National Museum of Taiwan History, 2007-
  • Provincial History Museum, 1992- under
    preparation
  • Reason of Naming
  • Voices of Taiwan, the indigineous, the early and
    new immigrants


24
  • The Naming Logic of Museums in Taiwan,
    perspective Two
  • Local Museums as the economical modifier for
    community reengineering, local industry and
    culture tourism
  • Yigge Ceramics Museum, 2000-
  • Jioufen Gold Mine Museum, 2004-
  • Ping Lin Tea Museum, 1997-
  • Tainan Furniture Museum, Puli Wine Museum, etc.

25
Yigge Ceramics Museum, since 2000
Mission Promotion the township and local
ceramic industry
26
(No Transcript)
27
Jioufen Gold Mine Museum, opened in 2004-
Mission Promotion of identity, industry and
tourism
28
Ping Lin Tea Museum, opened in 1997-
Mission Promotion of identity, industry and
tourism
29
Tainan Furniture Museum Mission Promotion of
identity, industry and tourism
30
Question Are museums demanded by people?
  • In name of museum, certain culture
  • is visible and legitimized. Different government
    cares for different culture and history.
  • 2. In name of culture, museum serves as
    economical modifier for city reengineering and
    tourism.
  • 3. What culture is practiced inside the
    museum? What is the true value of museum?

31
Observation
Museum can be the governing instrument for
culture practice, but its values should be
seen. Museums are political, but we need to
locate the social values of the public and to
secure funding and policy support. By examining
the changes of the museums in Taiwan, we observe
the change of attitude among those in power as
well.
32
Museums are not only a cornerstone of cultural
heritage, but also the arena for cultural
practice, and finally they appeal for the
cultural identity of all the public. Therefore,
it is the museum professionalism that come to
play the role. Professionalism makes museums
perform differently. Professional dialogues and
meetings shall be encouraged. Come and join
INTERCOM.
33
Museum and its Value
  • Stephen Weil advocated that
  • museums must be
  • social radicals, enrichers, developers,
  • service providers and change agents.
  • If lacking social value,
  • museums will be useless.

34
Museum and its Value
  • David Flemming promotes
  • museum has its social responsibility
  • Museum is
  • the heart defibrillator of a society
  • the group therapy of a society
  • the freedom fighters of a society
  • the ladders to heaven of a society.

35
Museums means or ends? What are museums
for? Lets continue to explore more in
INTERCOM Thank You for your attention!
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