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Introduction To Animals

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Introduction To Animals The Invertebrates Phylum Annelida Have segmented bodies. 15,000 species length from less than 1 mm to 3 m Annelids live in the sea, most ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction To Animals


1
Introduction To Animals
  • The Invertebrates

2
Introduction
  • What is an Animal five criteria,
  • (1) Animals are multicellular, heterotrophic
    eukaryotes.
  • (2) Animal cells lack cell walls that provide
    structural supports for plants and fungi.
  • (3) Animals have two unique types of tissues
    nervous tissue for impulse conduction and muscle
    tissue for movement.
  • (4) Most animals reproduce sexually, with the
    diploid stage usually dominating the life cycle
  • (5) The transformation of a zygote to an animal
    of specific form depends on the controlled
    expression in the developing embryo of special
    regulatory genes called Hox genes.

3
Most Animal Reproduction
  • The larva - sexually immature stage that is
    morphologically distinct. Think Butterfly!!
  • Metamorphosis
  • Complete and Incomplete

4
Animal Origins
  • animal kingdom is monophyletic.
  • Likely a colonial flagellated protist that lived
    over 700 million years ago in the Precambrian
    era.
  • Hello Cousin!!!

5
Ideas
Universal Genes have let us understand just how
easy diversification would have been.
6
DIVERSITY
  • 35 phyla of animals
  • phylogenetic tree is always under construction in
    the light of new evidence
  • the molecular evidence of the past decade has
    challenged some of these long-held ideas about
    phylogenetic relationships

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8
When Did Animals Diversify
  • The Cambrian Explosion
  • This lasted about 40 million years (about 565 to
    525 million years ago)
  • Nearly all the major animal body plans appear in
    Cambrian rocks
  • Fossilized animal embryos in China - 570 mya
  • Fossilized burrows from rocks 1.1 bya.
  • Molecular evidence suggests the origin of
    multicellular animals to be approx. 1 bya

9
Diversification
  • 3 main hypotheses for what caused the
    diversification of animals.
  • (1) Ecological Causes predator-prey
    relationships
  • (2) Geological Causes Atmospheric oxygen
  • (3) Genetic causes Hox genes within the embryo.
  • The Universality of these body building genes is
    astounding!!!!!

10
Invertebrates
  • Over 1.6 million extant species of animals
  • Our sense of animal diversity is biased in favor
    of vertebrates,
  • less than 2 of all animal species.
  • 98 of all species are Inverts.
  • Estimate between 5 and 100 million species of
    animals on earth.

11
(Parazoa)
  • Phylum Porifera sponges
  • closest to the colonial choanoflagellates
  • Made of a loose federations of cells
  • Sessile animals
  • Lack nerves or muscles.
  • 9,000 or so species of sponges range in height
    from about 1 cm to 2 m and most are marine.
  • About 100 species live in fresh water.
  • Suspension feeders

12
Sponges Cont
  • 2 cell layers separated by a gelatinous region,
    the mesohyl.
  • Wandering though the mesohyl are amoebocytes.
  • They take up food from water and from
    choanocytes.
  • secrete tough skeletal fibers within the mesohyl.
  • Fibers are either sharp spicules of calcium
    carbonate or silica or flexible fibers from a
    collagen protein called spongin

13
Sponges Cont..
  • Most sponges are hermaphrodites
  • Some use fragmentation.
  • capable of extensive regeneration

14
Eumetazoa (Radiata)
  • Includes Cnidaria and Ctenophora
  • Cnidarians (hydras, jellies, sea anemones, and
    coral animals)
  • 10,000 living species, most of which are marine.
  • Gastrovascular cavity
  • 2 variations the sessile polyp and the floating
    medusa.

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16
Cnidarians Cont..
  • Cnidarians are carnivores
  • Have cnidocytes for feeding and defense.
  • Cnidae shoot out a thread
  • Cnidae called nematocysts are stinging capsules
  • Muscles and nerves exist in their simplest forms
    in cnidarians.
  • Know all 3 classes!

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18
3 Classes of Cnidaria
19
Phylum Ctenophora
  • Comb Jellies
  • Ctenophora means comb-bearer
  • Have a pair of long retractable tentacles.
  • These tentacles armed with (colloblasts)

20
Bilateria (Protostomia)
  • 2 clades Lophotrochozoa and Ecdysozoa
  • Lophotrochozoa is made up of 6 phyla
    Platyhelminthes, Rotifera, Lophophorates
    (Bryozoans Phoronida, Brachiopods), Nemertea,
    Mollusca, and Annelida
  • Ecdyzoan has 2 phyla Nematoda and Arthropoda

21
Platyhelminthes
  • Platyhelminthes Acoelomates with gastrovascular
    cavities
  • 20,000 species of flatworms living in marine,
    freshwater, and damp terrestrial habitats
  • many parasitic species, flukes and tapeworms.
  • Size from nearly microscopic to tapeworms over 20
    m long
  • Triploblastic
  • Flatworms are divided into four classes
  • Turbellaria, Monogenia, Trematoda, and Cestoidea

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Cont
  • Turbularians Ex. Planarians,
  • are carnivores or scavengers in unpolluted ponds
    and streams.
  • lack organs specialized for gas exchange and
    circulation, wastes are removed by diffusion,
  • move using cilia,
  • has a head with a pair of eyespots to detect
    light
  • lateral flaps that function mainly for smell,
  • can learn to modify their responses to stimuli,
  • reproduce asexually through regeneration

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25
The Monogeneans Trematodes
  • (class Monogenea) and the trematodes live as
    parasites in or on other animals.
  • Many have suckers
  • A tough covering protects the parasites.
  • Reproductive organs nearly fill the interior of
    these worms.
  • The fluke Schistosoma infects 200 million people

26
Class Cestoidea
  • Tapeworms
  • parasitic.
  • The adults live mostly in vertebrates
  • scolex anchor the worm in the digestive tract of
    the host.
  • A long series of proglottids
  • Ultimate parasite

27
Phylum Rotifera
  • 1,800 species
  • tiny animals (0.05 to 2 mm),
  • most of which live in freshwater
  • have a complete digestive tract
  • pseudocoelom, a body cavity that is not
    completely lined with mesoderm

28
Phyla Lophophorate
  • includes the Bryozoa, Phoronida, and Brachiopoda.
  • named after a common structure, the lophophore.
  • lophophore circular fold of the body wall bearing
    ciliated tentacles that surround the mouth.
  • The cilia draw water toward the mouth of these
    suspension-feeders.

29
Cont
  • Bryozoans colonial animals
  • resemble mosses.
  • hard exoskeleton
  • the lophophore extend through pores in the
    exoskeleton.
  • Almost all the 5,000 species of bryozoans are
    marine.
  • Phoronids tube-dwelling marine worms ranging from
    1 mm to 50 cm in length.
  • extend the lophophore from the tube when feeding
    and pull it back in when threatened,
  • 15 species of phoronids
  • Brachiopods, resemble clams and other bivalve
    mollusks.
  • All of the 330 extant species of brachiopods are
    marine, 30,000 species of these brachiopods in
    the fossil record

30
Phylum Nemertea
  • proboscis worms or ribbon worms
  • bodies much like that of flatworms.
  • length from less than 1 mm to more than 30 m
  • 900 species are marine, but a few species inhabit
    fresh water or damp soil,
  • some are active swimmers, others burrow into the
    sand.
  • nemerteans have a complete digestive tract and a
    closed circulatory system

31
Phylum Mollusca
  • 150,000 known species of diverse forms
  • snails and slugs, oysters and clams, and
    octopuses and squids
  • Most mollusks are marine, though some inhabit
    fresh water, and
  • some snails and slugs live on land,
  • mollusks are soft-bodied animals, but many are
    protected by a hard shell of calcium carbonate
  • Foot, Visceral mass, Mantle
  • Radula

32
General Body Plan
33
8 classes of Mollusca Only 4 Prominent
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Phylum Annelida
  • Have segmented bodies.
  • 15,000 species
  • length from less than 1 mm to 3 m
  • Annelids live in the sea, most freshwater
    habitats, and damp soil.
  • digestive system consists of a pharynx, an
    esophagus, crop, gizzard, and intestine.
  • Closed circulatory system
  • Metanephridia
  • brainlike pair of cerebral ganglia
  • cross-fertilizing hermaphrodites

36
Cont
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38
Poly-Hir.
39
Ecdysozoa
  • Ecdysis
  • Phylum Nematoda and Phylum Arthropoda.
  • 1. Phylum Nematoda- nonsegmented pseudocoelomates
    covered by tough cuticles
  • Roundworms are found in most aquatic habitats
  • 90,000 described species 1 mm to more than a
    meter
  • sheds its old cuticle and secretes a new, larger
    one
  • have a complete digestive tract and use the fluid
    in their pseudocoelom to transport nutrients
    since they lack a circulatory system
  • engage in sexual reproduction.
  • play a major role in decomposition and nutrient
    recycling.
  • The soil nematode, C. elegans, has become a model
    organism in developmental biology

40
Nematoda Cont
  • Over 50 nematode species, including various
    pinworms and hookworms, parasitize humans
  • Trichinella spiralis
  • Heartworms

41
Arthropods
  • segmented coelomates
  • exoskeletons and jointed appendages
  • estimated at a billion billion (1018) individuals
  • 2 out of every 3 organisms known are arthropods.
  • Arthropods must be regarded as the most
    successful animal phylum
  • 3 features body segmentation, a hard
    exoskeleton, and jointed appendages.

42
Arthropods Cont
43
Arthropods Cont
  • exoskeleton made of layers of protein and chitin.
  • molt (ecdysis)
  • have well-developed sense organs, including eyes
    for vision, olfactory receptors for smell, and
    antennae for touch and smell
  • Arthropods have an open circulatory system
  • hemolymph fluid is propelled by a heart through
    short arteries into sinuses (the hemocoel).
  • Variety of specialized organs for gas exchange.
  • Gills Book Lungs Trachea
  • trilobites (all extinct) chelicerates (horseshoe
    crabs, scorpions, ticks, spiders) uniramians
    (centipedes, millipedes, and insects) crustaceans
    (crabs, lobsters, shrimps, barnacles, and many
    others)

44
Major Classes
45
Phylum Trilobita
  • disappeared in the Permian extinctions about 250
    million years ago

46
Chelicerates
  • cephalothorax and a posterior abdomen.
  • chelicerae (pincers or fangs).
  • Most marine chelicerates are extinct four marine
    species, including the horseshoe crab, survive
    today
  • modern chelicerates
  • are terrestrial and
  • belong to the
  • class Arachnida.

47
Arachnids
  • scorpions, spiders, ticks, and mites
  • six pairs of appendages.four pairs of walking
    legs
  • pair of pedipalps function in sensing or feeding
  • chelicerae usually function in feeding
  • Spiders inject poison from glands on the
    chelicerae

48
Spiders Book Lungs
  • gas exchange is carried out by book lungs.
  • extensivesurface area,enhancingexchange
    ofgases betweenthe hemo-lymph and air

49
Uniramians
  • Millipedes (class Diplopoda) 2 pairs of walking
    legs
  • eat decaying leaves and plant matter
  • Centipedes (class Chilopoda) are terrestrial
    carnivores.
  • Centipedes have poison claws
  • 1 pair of walking legs.

50
Class Insecta
  • outnumber all other forms of life combined
  • live in almost every terrestrial habitat and in
    fresh water, and flying insects fill the air
  • 26 orders
  • date back to the Devonian period, 400 million
    years ago.
  • flight evolved in Carboniferous and Permian
    periods
  • What came 1st pollinating insects or flowers???
  • Flight is one key to the great success of insects

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54
FlightThe Insects Triumph
  • escape many predators, find food and mates, and
    disperse to new habitats.
  • Wings are extensions of the cuticle and are not
    true appendages. So HOW DID THEY EVOLVE???
  • Absorb heat, glide, gills, swimming
  • For sure did something before flight!!!

55
Crustaceans
  • 40,000 species of crustaceans most marine and
    freshwater environments
  • lobsters, crabs, crayfish, shrimp, and barnacles,
  • multiple appendages extensively specialized.
  • crayfish have 19 pairs of appendages, adapted to
    a variety of tasks.
  • separate sexes
  • Isopods, with about 10,000 species, are one of
    the largest groups of crustaceans.
  • Most are small marine species.
  • They also include the land-dwelling pill bugs

56
Cont
  • Copepods (Krill)
  • Decapods, including lobsters, crayfish, crabs,
    and shrimp, are among the largest crustaceans.

57
Metamorphosis
  • Incomplete metamorphosis
  • Complete metamorphosis.

58
Insect Impact
  • Insects are important natural and agricultural
    pollinators.
  • carriers for many diseases, including malaria and
    African sleeping sickness.
  • Insects compete with humans for food
  • Food for many organisms
  • Billions of dollars each year are spent by
    farmers on pesticides to minimize their losses to
    insects.

59
Deuterostomia
  • Made of 2 phyla Echinodermata and Chordata we
    belong to chordata.
  • share the deuterostome characteristics of radial
    cleavage, development of the coelom from the
    archenteron, and the formation of the anus from
    the blastopore.
  • These developmental features that define the
    Deuterostomia are supported by molecular
    evidence- DNA

60
Phylum Echinodermata
  • Sea stars
  • sessile, or slow-moving animals.
  • water vascular system, a network of hydraulic
    canals branching into extensions called tube
    feet.
  • These function in locomotion, feeding, and gas
    exchange.
  • Reproduce sexually
  • All 7,000 or so species of echinoderms are marine

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