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Introduction to Animals

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Introduction to Animals Digestive systems Simple animals have a gastrovascular cavity with only one opening, while more-complex animals have a one-way gut. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Animals


1
Introduction to Animals
2
  • Over a million different types have been
    identified!
  • Animals likely evolved from protozoans.
  • Kingdom Protista

3
Word wall words
  1. blastula 15. porifera
  2. ectoderm 16. cnidaria
  3. endoderm 17. platyhelminthes
  4. mesoderm 18. Pogonophoran
  5. body plan 19. nematoda
  6. asymmetrical 20. Bryozoan
  7. radial symmetry 21. Mollusca
  8. bilateral symmetry 22. Echinodermata
  9. cephalization 23. urochordata
  10. coelom 24. annelida
  11. acoelomate 25. arthropoda
  12. pseudocoelomate 26. ctenophorans
  13. coelomate 27. if not enough words choose
  14. phylogenetic tree something new from the
    powerpoint

4
Characteristics of Animals
  • All animals share these general features
  • heterotrophy,
  • mobility,
  • multicellularity,
  • sexual reproduction,
  • diploidy,
  • the absence of a cell wall,
  • cells organized as tissues, and
  • blastula formation.

5
heterotrophy,
  • Cant make their own food must eat things.

6
mobility,
  • Animals can swim, crawl, walk, run, and even fly.
  • Some only move in the larval stage the sponge

7
multicellularity,
  • Made up of more then one cell!
  • Although animals come in a wide range of sizes,
    the cell sizes are all very similar!

8
sexual reproduction
  • Almost all animals reproduce sexually by
    producing gametes.
  • Unlike the egg cells, the sperm cells of animals
    have a flagella and are highly mobile.

9
diploidy,
  • adults have two copies of each chromosome, one
    inherited from their father and one from their
    mother.

10
the absence of a cell wall,
  • Among the cells of multicellular organisms, only
    animal cells lack rigid cell walls. The absence
    of a cell wall has allowed animals mobility that
    other multicellular organisms do not have.

11
blastula formation
  • In all animals except sponges, the zygote
    (fertilized egg cell) undergoes cell divisions
    that form a hollow ball of cells called a
    blastula.

12
cells organized as tissues
Cells within the blastula eventually develop into
three distinct layers of cells endoderm,
ectoderm, and mesoderm . These layers are called
the primary tissue layers because they give rise
to all of the tissues and organs of the adult
body.
13
tissues
  • tissues are groups of cells with a common
    structure that work together to perform a
    specific function.

14
Body Symmetry
  • All animals have their own particular body plan,
    a term used to describe an animals shape,
    symmetry, and internal organization.

15
3 body symmetry
16
Asymmetry.
  • Animals that grow in an irregular pattern, such
    as a sponge, show asymmetry.

17
radial symmetry
  • Animals with radial symmetry have body parts
    arranged
  • around a central axis.

18
bilateral symmetry
  • Animals with bilateral symmetry have
  • a distinct right and left half, and most display
    cephalization.

19
body plans
  • Animals have one of three basic body plans
    acoelomate, pseudocoelomate, and coelomate.

20
coelom
  • a body cavity, coelom or (SEE luhm), a
    fluid-filled space found between the body wall
    and the digestive tract (gut).
  • This space is lined with cells that come from
    mesoderm.

21
  • Coelomates are either protostomes or
    deuterostomes.
  • Protostomes (first mouth) are coelomates whose
    embryonic development shows a blastopore
    associated with a mouth.
  • Deuterostomes (second mouth) are coelomates whose
    embryonic development shows a blastopore
    associated with an anus, with a second opening
    forming the mouth (hence "second mouth").

22
acoelomate
  • Animals with no body cavity are called acoelomate
    (ay SEEL oh mayts).
  • The space between an acoelomates body wall and
    gut is completely filled with tissues

23
pseudocoelomate
  • have a body cavity located between the mesoderm
    and endoderm. Their body cavity is called a
    pseudocoelom (false coelom)

24
Body plans
25
Segmentation
  • Segmentation in body structure underlies the
    organization of all advanced animals.

26
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27
  • Some animals have their bodies divided into
    segments. This allows them to specialize certain
    segments, such as for antennae, eyes, claws, etc.
    Humans, insects, and earthworms are examples of
    segmented animals.

28
animal phyla
  • There are about 35 animal phyla, which contain an
    extraordinary range of body forms and body
    systems.
  • .

29
phylogenetic tree
  • To visually represent the relationships among
    various groups of animals, scientists often use a
    type of branching diagram called a phylogenetic
    tree.
  • It shows how animals are related through evolution

30
  • Scientists classify animals using several
    different types of data, which include comparing
    anatomy and physiology, patterns of development,
    and DNA.

31
  • The animal kingdom is divided in two groups
    vertebrates and invertebrates

32
Section 2
  1. gastrovascular cavity (605)
  2. respiration (605)
  3. gill (605)
  4. open circulatory system (606)
  5. closed circulatory system (606)
  6. hydrostatic skeleton (607)
  7. exoskeleton (607)
  8. endoskeleton (608)
  9. hermaphrodite (609)
  10. external fertilization (610)
  11. internal fertilization (610)

33
Animal Body Systems
  • Body systems are specialized to carry out
    different tasks.
  • Levels of organization
  • Cells tissues organs organ
    systems
  • organisms

34
Digestive systems
  • Simple animals have a gastrovascular cavity with
    only one opening, while more-complex animals have
    a one-way gut.

35
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37
Respiration/ gas exchange
  • Simple animals exchange gases directly through
    their skin.
  • More-complex aquatic animals use gills, while
    terrestrial animals use a variety of respiratory
    organs, such as lungs.

38
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41
circulatory system
  • In an open circulatory system, circulatory fluid
    leaves the vessels and enters the body cavity.
  • In a closed circulatory system, blood remains in
    the vessels.

42
open circulatory system -- primitive system found
in insects and crustaceans -- blood not always
contained in blood vessels -- heart pumps
hemolymph (blood and cell fluids) into vessels,
but vessels empty into large cavities or sinuses
containing organs -- blood diffuses through
tissues and back into heart.
43
closed circulatory system -- found in higher
animals -- system is "closed" because the blood
is always contained in vessels.
44
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46
Nervous System
  • While simple animals have little coordination
    among their nerve cells, complex animals have
    nerve cords and a brain with associated sensory
    structures.

47
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49
Excretory System
  • For most animals, eliminating wastes is linked to
    maintaining the correct water balance in their
    body.

50
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51
Skeleton/Support
Hydrostatic support Exoskeleton Endoskeleton
52
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53
Frog
54
Asexual
  • Asexual reproductive methods include
    fragmentation, splitting in two, and
    parthenogenesis.

55
  • Reproduction that does not involve the fusion of
    two gametes is called asexual reproduction. A
    sponge, for example, can reproduce by fragmenting
    its body. Each fragment grows into a new sponge.
  • Some species of sea anemone reproduce by pulling
    themselves in half, forming two new adult anemones

56
sexual reproduction
  • In sexual reproduction, male and female gametes
    combine to form a new individual
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