Islamic Art - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

About This Presentation

Islamic Art


Religious Toponyms Figure 6-21 Compare religious toponyms within Quebec s boundaries with that of Ontario s, New York s, and Vermont s. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:216
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 70
Provided by: Autho226


Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Islamic Art

Human Geography and Religion
Where Are Religions Distributed?
  • As a cultural trait, religion helps to define
    people and how they understand the world around
  • There are essentially two major types of
    religions, universalizing and ethnic.

Where Are Religions Distributed?
  • Universalizing religions appeal to people of many
    cultures, regardless of where they live in the
    world. Nearly 60 of the worlds population
    adheres to a universalizing religion.
  • Ethnic religions appeal primarily to one group of
    people living in one place. About 25 of the
    worlds population follows an ethnic religion.
  • Some religions are monotheistic, believing in one
    god, whereas other religions are polytheistic,
    believing in many gods.

  • Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam are the three
    major universalizing or global religions.
  • Each is divided into branches, denominations, and
  • A branch is a fundamental division within a
  • A denomination is a division of a branch this
    term is most commonly used to describe the
    Protestant denominations of Christianity.
  • A sect is a group that is smaller than a

Where Are Religions Distributed?
  • Universalizing religions
  • Buddhism
  • About 400 million adherents (difficult to
  • Significant clusters in China, Southeast Asia
  • The Four Noble Truths
  • Three branches
  • Mahayana (China, Japan, Korea)
  • Theravada (Southeast Asia)
  • Tantrayana (Tibet, Mongolia)

  • Buddhism is the oldest of the worlds
    universalizing religions, with 300-400 million
    adherents, mostly in China and Southeast Asia.
  • Founded by Siddhartha Gautama in the sixth
    century B.C., Buddhism teaches that suffering
    originates from our attachment to the material
  • Buddhism split into two main branches, Theravada
    and Mahayana, as followers disagreed on
    interpreting statements by Siddhartha Gautama.
    Theravadists cite Buddhas wisdom, Mahayanists
    cite Buddhas compassion.
  • Unlike Christians and Muslims, most Buddhists
    also follow an ethnic religion, too.

Holy places in Buddhism. Note how most are
located in northeastern India and southern Nepal
because they were sites of important events in
Buddhas life.
Angkor Wat
Where Are Religions Distributed?
  • Universalizing religions
  • Christianity
  • The largest world religion (about 2 billion
  • Many adherents in Europe, the Americas
  • Three major branches
  • Roman Catholicism (51 percent)
  • Protestant Christianity (24 percent)
  • Eastern Orthodox (11 percent)
  • Other, smaller branches of Christianity comprise
    14 percent of all Christians

  • Christianity has about 2 billion adherents and is
    the worlds most geographically widespread
  • Christians believe in one God and his son, Jesus,
    was the Messiah.
  • The Roman Catholic Church, with its hearth at
    Vatican City in Rome, is the most important
    religion in large parts of Europe and North
    America, and is dominant in Latin America.
  • Catholicism also exists on other continents. The
    Protestantism began in the 1500s with Martin
    Luthers protests against the abuses of the
    Catholic Church.
  • It is the most important religion in large parts
    of northern Europe as well as the regions of
    North America to which many people from northern
    Europe migrated.
  • The Eastern Orthodox branch of Christianity is
    only dominant in Eastern Europe and Russia, but
    also has adherents in smaller populations
    throughout the world.

Distribution of Christians in the United States
Where Are Religions Distributed?
  • Universalizing religions
  • Islam
  • The second-largest world religion (about 1.3
    billion adherents)
  • Significant clusters in the Middle East, North
    Africa, and South Asia
  • Core of Islamic belief the five pillars
  • Two significant branches
  • Sunnis (83 percent)
  • Shias or Shiites (16 percent)

  • Islam, with more than one billion followers, is
    the dominant religion in North Africa and the
    Middle East, as well as Bangladesh and Indonesia.
  • Islam is a monotheistic religion, based on the
    belief that there is one God, Allah, and that
    Mohammed was Allahs prophet.
  • The word Islam in Arabic means submission to the
    will of God, and an adherent is a Muslim or one
    who surrenders to God.
  • Islam is divided into two branches Sunni and
  • In recent years there has been a rise in radical
    fundamentalism that has caused more division and
    conflict in the Muslim world.
  • Most fundamentalists accept the holy book of
    Islam, the Koran, as the unquestioned guide on
    both religious and secular matters.
  • Generally Islamic fundamentalism avoids Western
    influence and can contribute to intense conflict.

(No Transcript)
(No Transcript)
Where Are Religions Distributed?
  • Ethnic religions
  • Hinduism
  • The third-largest religion in the world
  • 97 percent of Hindus are found in India
  • Many paths to spirituality.
  • Caste System (based on reincarnation principle)
  • Many followers tend to worship Vishnu or Shiva or

  • Ethnic religions have much more clustered
    distributions than universalizing religions the
    vast majority of Hindus live on the Indian
  • For thousands of years Hindus in India have
    developed a unique society that integrates
    spiritual practices with daily life.
  • Hindus believe that there is more than one path
    to reach God there are thousands of deities in
    the Hindu belief system and thus the religion is

Where Are Religions Distributed?
  • Ethnic religions
  • Other ethnic religions
  • Confucianism (China)
  • Daoism (China)
  • Shinto (Japan)
  • Judaism (today the United States, Israel)
  • Considered first monotheistic religion
  • Ethnic African religions
  • Animism

  • The other major ethnic religion is Judaism, which
    was the first major monotheistic religion.
  • Both Christianity and Islam have some of their
    roots in Judaism Jesus was born a Jew, and
    Mohammed traced his ancestry to Abraham.
  • Judaism is based on a sense of ethnic identity in
    the lands bordering the eastern Mediterranean.
  • Jewish people have been returning to this land
    since the end of the 19th century, and in 1948
    the Jewish state of Israel was created.
  • Today most Jews live in Israel and the United

Where Are Religions Distributed?
  • Animist Religions
  • Native American
  • System based upon belief of in a supreme or Great
    Spirit that oversees the universe. It is
    interpreted by shamans.
  • Diffusion by migration diffusion north to south
    through the Americas.
  • Voodoun (Voodoo)
  • West African, Afro-Brazilian, Afro Caribbean
  • Multiple deities that control different parts of
    the lived world.
  • Diffusion by relocation diffusion as West
    Africans were forced to migrate under European
    directed slavery.

Figure 6-5
Hindus bathe in the Ganges River
Figure 6-4
Locals meet with Monks and present them with food.
Religions of the United States
How would having approx. 30 million citizens who
are atheist or nonreligious affect the nation?
How could you explain why such a strong number
exists in the United States?
(No Transcript)
(No Transcript)
Why do religions have different distributions?
  • Origin of religions
  • Universalizing precise origins, tied to a
    specific founder
  • Christianity
  • Founder Jesus
  • Islam
  • Prophet of Islam Muhammad
  • Buddhism
  • Founder Siddhartha Gautama

Why do religions have different distributions?
  • Origin of religions
  • Ethnic unclear or unknown origins, not tied to a
    specific founder
  • Hinduism
  • No clear founder
  • Earliest use of Hinduism sixth century B.C.
  • Archaeological evidence dating from 2500 B.C.

Why do religions have different distributions?
  • Diffusion of religions
  • Universalizing religions
  • Christianity
  • Diffuses via relocation and expansion diffusion
  • Islam
  • Diffuses to North Africa, South and Southeast
  • Buddhism
  • Slow diffusion from the core

  • Christianity diffused through relocation
    diffusion, with missionaries carrying the
    teachings of Jesus around the Mediterranean
  • Expansion diffusion was also important as pagans,
    followers of ancient polytheistic religions, were
    converted to Christianity.
  • It diffused beyond the European realm during the
    age of colonialism beginning in the early 1500s.
  • Islam diffused from its hearth at Mecca through
    military conquest across North Africa, Southern
    Europe, and other parts of Southwest Asia. Arab
    traders brought the religion to Sub-Saharan
    Africa and later Indonesia.
  • Buddhism diffused from its hearth in northern
    India to the island of Ceylon (present day Sri
    Lanka) and eastward into East and Southeast Asia
    as a result of missionary activity and trade.

Diffusion of Universalizing Religions
Church of the Holy Selpuchre, Jerusalem
Why do religions have different distributions?
  • Limited diffusion of ethnic religions
  • Universal religions usually compete with ethnic
  • Examples of mingling
  • Christianity with African ethnic religions
  • Buddhism with Confucianism in China and with
    Shinto in Japan
  • Ethnic religions can diffuse with migration
  • Judaism exception

Why do religions have different distributions?
  • Holy places
  • In universalizing religions
  • Buddhist shrines
  • Holy places in Islam associated with the life
    of Muhammad
  • In ethnic religions
  • Holy places in Hinduism closely tied to the
    physical geography of India

Read the key at the bottom. Take a sampling of
the sites and note the main deity or form of
Why do religions have different distributions?
  • The calendar
  • In ethnic religions celebration of the seasons
  • The Jewish calendar
  • The solstice
  • In universalizing religions celebration of the
    founders life

Why Do Religions Organize Space in Distinctive
  • Places of worship
  • Many types Christian churches, Muslim mosques,
    Hindu temples, Buddhist and Shinto pagodas,
    Baháí houses of worship

Figure 6-19
Why Do Religions Organize Space in Distinctive
  • Sacred space
  • Disposing of the dead
  • Burial
  • Other ways of disposing of the dead
  • Religious settlements
  • Religious place names

Why Do Religions Organize Space in Distinctive
  • Administration of space
  • Hierarchical religions
  • Latter-day Saints
  • Roman Catholics
  • Locally autonomous religions
  • Islam
  • Protestant denominations

Religion Vs. Religion
  • Religious conflict continues in many parts of the
    world, especially at the boundaries between
    different religions, branches, and denominations.
  • These conflicts have complex historical, social,
    and ethnic roots and must be also understood in
    the context of political geography.
  • For example, there has been longstanding conflict
    in the Middle East. The city of Jerusalem
    contains sites that are sacred to Judaism,
    Christianity, and Islam.
  • There have been religious wars in Ireland between
    Catholics and Protestants that have their origins
    in the English conquest of Ireland centuries ago.

Why Do Territorial Conflicts Arise?
  • Religions versus government policies
  • Religion versus social change
  • Religion versus communism

  • Religion and Conflict Case Studies
  • 1- Afghanistan

  • Religions versus government policies
  • Religion versus social change
  • Taliban
  • Afghanistan 1996
  • Taliban government takes over with support within
    the country and from abroad.

  • 1979 The Soviet Union invades Afghanistan.
    Mujahedeen Islamic fighters from across the
    globe, including Osama bin Laden, come to fight
    Soviet forces.
  • 1989 Last Soviet troops leave Afghanistan.
  • 1996 The Taliban take control of Afghanistan,
    imposing fundamentalist Islamic law. Osama bin
    Laden takes refuge in the country.

  • Religions versus government policies
  • Religion versus social change
  • Once the Taliban is in power things change
  • Banning of western non-Islamic activities
  • Watching tv
  • Going on the internet
  • Flying kites
  • Listening to music

  • Religions versus government policies
  • Religion versus social change
  • Soccer stadiums were converted
  • Executions and floggings
  • Physical Violence
  • Men could be stoned for adultery
  • Homosexuals were sometimes buried alive
  • Prostitutes were hanged in front of large
  • Thieves had their hands cut off

  • Religions versus government policies

Taliban Islamic Scholars
Believed they were called upon by Allah to cleanse Afghanistan, purge it of sins and make it pure. Taliban are poorly educated in Islamic law and history Misinterpret the Quran
  • Religion and Conflict Case Studies
  • 2- India

  • Religions versus government policies
  • Hinduism and Social Equality
  • Mid 20th Century discrimination against the
    Dalits (untouchables) is made illegal.
  • Narayanan became Indias first Dalit president
  • Indian government considering quota system to
    ensure there is no discrimination against Dalits

  • Religion and Conflict Case Studies
  • 3- Ireland

Distribution of Protestants in Ireland
Ireland was a colony of England for a long time.
Figure 6-23
Distribution of Protestants in Ireland
Northern Ireland Protestant Majority
Ireland was a colony of England for a long time.
Republic of Ireland Roman Catholic Majority
Figure 6-23
Distribution of Protestants in Ireland
Northern Ireland Protestant Majority
How could problems arise from this arrangement?
Republic of Ireland Roman Catholic Majority
Figure 6-23
  • Discrimination in Northern Ireland
  • Roman Catholics are denied employment at high
    paying jobs
  • Roman Catholics are denied admission to certain
  • Formation of the IRA (Irish Republican Army)
  • Formation of the Ulster Defense Force (UDF)

  • Religion and Conflict Case Studies
  • 4- Southeast Asia

Diffusion of Universalizing Religions
Originally a Hindu Temple Complex in Cambodia,
now a Buddhist location of pilgrimage
  • Religion and Conflict Case Studies
  • 5- Soviet Union

  • Soviet Union and Communism
  • Marxism became official doctrine of the Soviet
    Union in 1917
  • Karl Marx said religion is the opium of the
  • Religion was believed to threaten the revolution.
  • Religious artifacts were seized from both
    religious groups.
  • Places of worship were closed.

Field Study Soviet Union
Why let them collapse? Why not tear them down?
Divide and diminish plan
  • Religion and Conflict Case Studies
  • 6- Israeli/ Palestinian Conflict

Why Do Territorial Conflicts Arise?
  • Religion versus religion
  • Fundamentalism
  • Religious wars in the Middle East
  • Crusades (Christians in Muslim lands)
  • Jews and Muslims in Palestine

Israels Separation Fence
Figure 6-27
Voodoo Shrine in New Oreleans
(No Transcript)
(No Transcript)
(No Transcript)
Vatican City
Religious Toponyms
  • Compare religious toponyms within Quebecs
    boundaries with that of Ontarios, New Yorks,
    and Vermonts.
  • Quebec has a predominantly Roman Catholic
    population and a large number of settlements are
    named after saints.

Figure 6-21
Mughal gardens are a group of gardens built by
the Mughals in the Islamic style of architecture.
This style was influenced by Persian gardens and
Timurid gardens. Significant use of rectilinear
layouts are made within the walled enclosures.
Some of the typical features include pools,
fountains and canals inside the gardens.
Mughal gardens at Taj Mahal
Shalimar Gardens, Lahore, Pakistan
The Emperor Shah Jahan Standing on a Globe
Flower Detail from Shahdara Garden
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)