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Civil War and Reconstruction

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Civil War and Reconstruction SS8H6 b. State the importance of key events of the Civil War, Include Antietam, Emancipation Proclamation, Gettysburg, Chickamauga, the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Civil War and Reconstruction


1
Civil War and Reconstruction
  • SS8H6 b. State the importance of key events of
    the Civil War, Include Antietam, Emancipation
    Proclamation, Gettysburg, Chickamauga, the Union
    blockade of Georgias coast, Shermans Atlanta
    Campaign, Shermans March to the Sea, and
    Andersonville. c. Analyze the impact of
    Reconstruction on Georgia and other southern
    states, emphasizing Freedmens Bureau,
    sharecropping and tenant farming, Reconstruction
    plans, 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments to the
    Constitution, Henry McNeal Turner and the Ku Klux
    Klan.

2
Confederate fortifications, Yorktown, VA
3
The War Begins in 1861
  • In April of 1861, Confederates fire on Ft. Sumter
    in South Carolina four more states secede from
    the Union, and the Confederate States of America
    (CSA) is formed.

4
Lincoln tries to Preserve the Union
  • Even though he faces opposition, Lincoln focuses
    on the preservation of the United States, (the
    Union).
  • He does not agree with slavery but does not want
    to initially push the issue.
  • He takes volunteers and also begins using a draft
    to built up the army.
  • Both sides think if there is war, it will end
    quickly.

5
The Confederacy
  • President-Jefferson Davis
  • Vice President- Alexander Stephens (from GA)

The cabinet of the Confederate States
at Montgomery, 1861 June 1 , Harpers Weekly
6
Resources of Each Side
  • North
  • South
  • 23 states
  • 22 million people
  • Trained army and navy
  • 22,000 miles of Railroad track
  • 100,000 factories with 1.1 million workers
  • 11 states
  • 9 million people(about 4 million were slaves)
  • No standing army or navy
  • 9,000 miles of Railroad track
  • 20,000 factories with 100,000 workers

7
Rating the North the South
8
Resources North the South
9
War Strategies
  • Northern (Union)
  • Southern (Confederacy)
  • Anaconda Plan (Gen Winfield Scott) - with a
    blockade of Atlantic Confederate ports including
    up the Mississippi River (to prevent Southern
    trade with foreign countries isolate TX, AK,
    and LA) Cut the South in half cut off all
    supplies like the snake suffocating the
    victim.
  • Capture the Confederate capitol of Richmond.
  • Destroy the Confederates on the battlefield.
  • Destroy the Confederate army and lay waste (burn
    or destroy) to the land so that Southern
    civilians would not support the war.
  • King Cotton Diplomacy- It was hoped that England
    and France who depended on South for cotton for
    their textile mills would side with the
    Confederacy. South tried to force support
    through an embargo on cotton to British. British
    refused began to import cotton from Egypt.
  • Wear down the invading Union and weaken Northern
    support for the war through the of casualties
  • Sink Union merchant ships (using Raiders
    lightly armed ships) and evade the blockade to
    continue trading and keep the ports open. Use
    blockade runners fast merchant ships.
  • Win a strategic victory on Union soil.

10
Overview of Civil War Strategy Anaconda Plan
11
War Preparations
  • NORTH
  • Population 22 million
  • Strong well-trained army and navy (Experienced)
  • INDUSTRY that could readily make war supplies
  • Many miles of railroad capable of moving troops
    and munitions.
  • FUNCTIONING GOVERNMENT!!!

12th New York Regiment
12
War Preparations
  • Training and supplying troops.
  • SOUTH
  • Population 9 million (4 ½ million were slaves)
  • Did NOT have a strong navy.
  • Did NOT have a well-trained army.
  • Not enough factories.
  • Railroads were too light to carry troops and guns
  • War fought mostly in the South-familiardefense
    of homes and families.

Gen. Stovall, GA Infantry
Alexandria Railroad
13
Great Britain and the Civil War
Wheat Harvesting
Charles Francis Adams
  • If Great Britain had recognized the South as an
    independent country, they could have entered the
    war as an ally to the Confederacy.
  • Charles Francis Adams, Ambassador sent by Lincoln
    to England, prevented this from happening.
  • In the end, Great Britain needed northern wheat
    more than southern cotton
  • Poor wheat harvest in England.
  • Great Britain was anti-slavery-abolished in 1863!

14
Famous leader from the North General Ulysses Grant
  • Became the
  • Commanding General
  • of the United States
  • Army from 1864 to
  • 1865
  • Lee surrenders to
  • Grant at Appomattox
  • Elected the 18th
  • President (1869-1877)
  • Graduated West
  • Point in 1843
  • Spent much of the
  • Civil War in the
  • Western Campaign
  • Aggressor/victor
  • in the Battle of
  • Shiloh and Vicksburg
  • U.S. Grant gen. U.S.A

15
Major General William Tecumseh Sherman Union
  • Maj. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman, after
    capturing Atlanta in 1864, led his March to the
    Sea

16
Sherman
  • Served under Ulysses S. Grant in 1862-63
  • Succeeded Grant as the Union commander in the
    western theater of the war in 1864
  • Known for Scorched earth policy
  • 1864 - Union troops laid waste (destroyed/burned)
    to Atlanta destroying businesses, farms, homes
    and transportationstayed for 2 months
  • 1864 - Shermans March to the Sea destroyed
    everything in a 60 mile wide path 300 miles to
    the Atlantic100 million damage

17
Brady, Mathew B., ca. 1823-1896,photographer
  • General Robert E. Lee
  • Confederacy
  • Graduated top in his class from
  • West Point and served on its faculty
  • Spent 32 years in the U.S. Army
  • Asked by Lincoln to serve as
  • Commander of the Union Army
  • Declined this offer when his home
  • State of VA seceded
  • Became senior military advisor to
  • President Davis of the CSA
  • Later became the commander of the
  • Confederate eastern army or The
  • Army of Northern Virginia
  • Loved by his troops and considered
  • one of the best military minds of his
  • time
  • Surrendered to Grant at Appomattox

18
Lieutenant General Stonewall Jackson Confederacy
  • Graduated from West Point in 1846,
  • and served in the U.S. Army with
  • Robert E. Lee.
  • Corp commander of the Amy of
  • Northern Virginia.
  • Gifted and brilliant military mind -
  • became part of the faculty of VA
  • Military Institute.
  • Led many successful Civil War battles.
  • Shot (friendly fire) at the Battle of
  • Chancellorsville died eight days later of
  • pneumonia (May 1863).

19
The Progress of War 1861-1865
20
Major Battles
  • 1st Manassas/ 1st Bull Run July 1861- Thinking
    an invasion of Richmond would bring a quick end
    to the war, the Union marches into VA. Victory
    CSA.
  • Jackson received his famous nickname Stonewall
    from this battle because he stood his ground like
    a stone wall.

21
Battle of Antietam Creek/Sharpsburg, MD
  • First battle on Union soil
  • Bloodiest single day of fighting in all of US
    history
  • Three phases of fighting corn field, sunken road
    and Antietam Creek bridge
  • McClellan fails to destroy Lee's army
  • Tactically inconclusive but Lincoln sees it as a
    positive event because Lee retreats back to VA so
    he issues his Emancipation Proclamation

22
Emancipation Proclamation, September 22, 1862
  • This document ultimately discouraged the British
    and French governments from helping the
    Confederacy
  • Lincoln uses his power as Commander-in-Chief to
    free the slaves in the Confederate States he
    issued the executive order that the slaves of any
    state that did not return to the Union would be
    free
  • Slavery, not preserving the Union, is now a
    primary reason for fighting the war

23
The Battle of the Ironclads, March, 1862
The Monitor vs. the Merrimac
24
Gettysburg
  • Second battle on Union soil
  • Battle lasted three days, July 1-3, 1963
  • During the first day of fighting the Confederates
    were very successful, on the second the Union
    held their ground and on the third Pickets
    Charge was repulsed leaving Lee no other option
    but to retreat back to Virginia
  • Major turning point in the war due to heavy
    casualties, the Confederacy never regained enough
    replacements while the Union had many more men to
    draft

25
The Road to Gettysburg 1863
26
Gettysburg Casualties
27
  • Gettysburg, Pa. Confederate dead gathered for
    burial at the edge of the Rose woods, July 5,
    1863

28
Chickamauga, GA
  • September 1920, 1863
  • One of the most significant Union defeats
  • Gen. Braxton Bragg should have followed the Union
    retreat to Chattanooga

Federal camp by the Tennessee River,
29
Kennesaw Mt. and the Atlanta Campaign
  • Battle of Kennesaw Mt. was the last Confederate
    victory before Atlanta falls
  • fought on June 27, 1864
  • Johnston blocked Shermans path to Atlanta with
    fortifications on Kennesaw Mt.
  • The Union army eventually went around the Mt. and
    headed toward Atlanta, an important railroad and
    supply center for the Confederacy
  • September 2,1864, Atlanta falls to Union forces
    and this politically helps Lincoln get re-elected

30
Shermans March to the Sea
  • After Sherman captured Atlanta he sent his troops
    through GA to Savannah, Nov.-Dec. 1864
  • He operated without supply lines and took what he
    needed along the way, resulting in complete
    destruction of industry, infrastructure and
    civilian property (Total War)

31
Shermans March through Georgia to the Sea, 1864
32
Andersonville, A Prisoner of War Camp
  • Andersonville was a Confederate POW camp that was
    overcrowded with too many prisoners and extremely
    undersupplied which caused many to die.

33
Inventions/ Innovations
  • Telegraph
  • Davis uses it to gather forces for Shiloh.
  • Fredericksburg sees first extensive use on the
    battlefield.
  • Railway
  • Greatly changes logistics and strategic
    maneuvers.
  • North had good system South had acceptable
    quantity, but no standardized track width and
    poor bedding for the rails.

34
WEAPONS
  • Rifle (muzzle loader) greatly changes tactics,
    although most leaders are slow to grasp its
    impact.
  • Cold Harbor
  • 2k dead in twenty minutes, another 5k wounded.
  • Calvary is not used to charge/exploit, but to
    scout/skirmish.
  • reconnaissance

35
Casualties on Both Sides
36
Civil War Deaths in Comparison to Other Wars
37
Reconstruction Era
  • Lincoln had a plan to rebuild the south and
    restore it to the Union
  • It was to be quick and easy
  • Everyone would be pardoned(except high ranking
    officials) and when 10 of the voters take a
    loyalty oath the state would be permitted back
    into the Union
  • Johnson takes over when Lincoln is assassinated
  • His plan was much like Lincolns but expanded the
    group that would not be granted the general
    pardon
  • In this group he included large property owners
    and they had to apply to the president for their
    pardon
  • Declared that Reconstruction was complete because
    the war goals were met, national unity and an end
    to slavery
  • Congress and the Radical Republicans take over in
    1866, (felt it was their job to be in control
    Reconstruction)
  • They returned the south to military control, and
    overruled Johnson vetos
  • Passed the 14th and 15th Amendments
  • By 1877 Army intervention in the South ceases and
    Republican control collapses

38
Freedmans Bureau
  • Key agency during Reconstruction Bureau of
    Refugees, Freedman, and Abandoned Lands
  • Initiated by President Lincoln in March of 1865
    and intended to last for one year
  • Was part of the War Dept.
  • Designed to help former slaves and poor whites
    cope with their everyday problems
  • Main job was to help set up work opportunities
    and supervise labor contracts, as well as help
    with education and other daily necessities like
    food and clothing

39
Making a living doing what they know
  • Sharecropping
  • Tenant Farming
  • Landowners provide the land for farming, the
    tools, the shelter, the seed, the animals and the
    fertilizers
  • Worker agrees to share the harvest for the use of
    the land and the credit of supplies
  • Landowners provide the land for farming and the
    shelter, the tenant usually owns his own tools
    and animals
  • Worker agrees to share the harvest for the use of
    the land and usually makes a little more than a
    sharecropper because less us credit in needed

40
Opposition to the Reconstruction Plans
  • This opposition sometimes took violent measures
  • Ku Klux Klan was a secret organization that tried
    to prevent the newly freed slaves from exercising
    their new rights
  • They did this through intimidation, beatings, and
    murder
  • This appeared in Harper's Weekly
  • January 27, 1872
  • Three Ku Klux Klan members
  • arrested in Mississippi, September
  • 1871, for the attempted murder
  • of an entire family.

41
New Amendments
  • 13th Amendment makes slavery illegal
  • 14th Amendment granted citizenship to the
    freedmen (remember the Dred Scott decision) and
    forbade any state from discrimination, states
    could not deny anyone equal protection of the
    law
  • 15th Amendment gave all male citizens the right
    to vote (The right of citizens of the United
    States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by
    the U.S or by any State on account of race,
    color, or previous condition of servitude)

42
Henry McNeal Turner
  • Elected to the Georgia Legislature in 1868, part
    of the new legislators elected during
    Reconstruction

43
Review
  • The War began in April of 1861 and ends in April
    of 1865
  • Each side creates strategies and the CSA has to
    create their own government and army
  • Most battles are fought on Confederate soil, many
    in VA
  • Following the war there is a turbulent period
    known as Reconstruction
  • The newly freed slaves begin adjusting to freedom
    with the help of the Freedmens Bureau
  • New amendments are passed to enable the freed
    slaves the ability to enjoy Constitutional Rights
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