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The road to federal reforms

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The road to federal reforms Michael C. McKenna University of Virginia Sharon Walpole University of Delaware is a long and winding one Let s start at the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The road to federal reforms


1
The road to federal reforms
Michael C. McKenna University of Virginia
Sharon Walpole University of Delaware
2
  • is a long and winding one
  • Lets start at the beginning.

3
1600s
  • John Locke proposes precursor of synthetic
    phonics by having children build words with
    letter dice.
  • Reading and spelling are taught together

4
1700s
  • Word-building approaches continue.
  • Reading Wars begin, in effect, when Rousseau
    attacks Lockes methods and recommends relying on
    motivation.

5
People make a great fuss about discovering the
best way to teach children to read. They use
desks and cards and turn a childs room into a
print shop. Locke would teach them to read with
dice. Now is that not a clever idea! What a pity!
A means surer than all of these is simply the
desire to learn. Give the child this desire, and
you can forget your desks and your dice any
method will be good enough.
Jean Jacques Rousseau, Emile, 1762
6
1786
  • Noah Webster publishes The American Spelling Book
    (actually a revision of his previous work)
  • Multi-leveled
  • Reading and spelling
  • are taught together

7
1800s
William McGuffey
  • Reading and spelling remain linked.
  • Phonics is emphasized in the McGuffey Readers.
  • Reading Wars continue as Horace Mann ridicules
    phonics and recommends a meaning-based approach.

Horace Mann
8
Letters are bloodless, ghostly apparitions.
Horace Mann
9
1st Half of 20th Century
  • Modern basals take shape and phonics emphasis
    declines.
  • Importance of automatic word recognition of
    high-frequency words is recognized.
  • Dolch word list published in 1936.
  • Spelling taught separately and deemphasized.

10
1940s and 50s
  • Look-Say approach is dominant, emphasizing
    sight word acquisition.
  • Phonics is minimized.
  • Basal stories stress repetition of high-frequency
    words.
  • Dick and Jane are born but refuse to grow up.

11
Why do you think these pendulum swings have
occurred? Can we stop the pendulum in the
middle? If so, would that constitute balance?
12
What do you know about Balanced Reading?
13
What are we trying to balance?
  • Isolated skills instruction with meaning- driven
    reading and writing?
  • Teacher-driven curriculum with state-controlled
    curriculum?
  • Phonics with whole language?
  • Small-guided reading with whole-class basal
    instruction?
  • Authentic, teacher-administered assessment with
    standardized testing?

14
What is whole language anyway?
  • Whole language is an approach to literacy
    education that emphasizes natural development of
    literacy competence. Immersion in real
    literature and daily writing is favored over
    explicit teaching of basic reading skills.
    Skills instruction occurs in whole language
    classrooms on an as-needed basis only, and then
    only in the context of real reading and writing,
    rather than as a focal point of instruction.
  • Pressley, M. (2002). Reading instruction that
    works The case for balanced teaching. New
    York Guilford Press.

15
  • To be honest, it took me a long time to learn a
    lesson most researchers and school administrators
    have not yet learned no research study, no
    brilliant discovery, no book, no seminal article,
    no journal, no program, no policy, no mandate, no
    law can change what happens to kids in our
    schools. Only teachers can do that.
  • Goodman, K. (1992). I didnt found Whole
    Language.
  • Reading Teacher, 46, 188-199.

16
What is the phonics argument?
  • Learning to read is not a natural process.
    Most children must be taught to read through a
    structured and protracted process in which they
    are made aware of sounds and the symbols that
    represent them, and then learn to apply these
    skills automatically and attend to meaning.
  • Moats, L. C. (2000). Whole Language lives on
    The illusion of balanced reading instruction.
    Washington, D.C. Fordham Foundation.

17
Where should we stand?
  • Outside of the argument?
  • In the middle?
  • On both sides?

18
Plan
  • Description/characteristics of seminal studies
    and policy responses

19
Big Issues
  • What do we know about development, curriculum,
    instruction?
  • What does it mean to know?
  • How much control should the government have?
  • How much freedom should teachers and schools have?

20
Now back to memory lane
21
1955
  • Rudolph Flesch publishes Why Johnny Cant Read
  • Theoretical but popular book about the need for
    phonics instruction

22
Sputnik, 1957
  • Russians launch first artificial satellite
  • Space race is born
  • Missile gap develops, favoring USSR
  • American paranoia soon focuses on education
  • Readers Digest publishes Can Ivan Read Better
    than Johnny?

23
Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965
  • Title I One billion dollars of federal money to
    improve reading and math skills of poor children

24
Chall, 1967
  • Learning to read The great debate
  • Private funding
  • Research synthesis plus observations and
    interviews
  • Concluded that research supports a code
    emphasis in beginning reading
  • Balanced approach, with phonics for beginning and
    struggling readers

25
Bond Dykstra (1967/1997)
Guy Bond
  • The First-Grade Studies (RRQ)
  • Federally funded studies at multiple sites
  • Experimental design, but problematic
  • Key findings
  • Phonics better than no phonics
  • Teachers more important than programs

26
NAEP, 1969
  • National Assessment of Educational Progress
  • Large-scale federal assessment program begins
  • Stratified sample is tested in reading, math,
    science, writing, U.S. history, civics,
    geography, and the arts
  • Results are reported for the nation as a whole,
    for large regions, for ethic groups, genders,
    etc.
  • Results are NOT reported by state, district, or
    school
  • NAEP is therefore not high stakes.

27
CSR, 1976
  • Center for the Study of Reading founded
  • Federally funded
  • Main mission was to conduct research into reading
    comprehension
  • Located at the University of Illinois
  • Underscored the notion of strategic reading
  • Still exists, but without federal funding

28
Anderson, Hiebert, Scott, Wilkinson, 1985
  • Becoming a nation of readers
  • Published by CSR
  • Best-selling reading book of all time
  • Supported a balanced approach, including both
    phonics and read-alouds, both reading and writing

Dick Anderson
29
Adams, 1990
  • Beginning to read
  • Thinking and learning about print
  • Federally funded
  • Research synthesis
  • Summary published by CSR in 1990
  • Early establishment of alphabetic principle
    coordination of orthographic, phonological,
    semantic, and syntactic processors

30
NRRC, 1992
  • National Reading Research Center founded
  • Federally funded
  • Main mission was to conduct research into reading
    engagement
  • Shared by University of Georgia and University of
    Maryland
  • Ended its five-year span in 1997

Steve Stahl, UGA
John Guthrie, UMD
31
NAEP, 1992
  • National Assessment of Educational Progress
  • Federal assessment program publishes state
    results for the first time
  • California, spearhead of whole language in
    America, finishes near last in NAEP Reading, a
    result that demographics cannot explain.
  • Whole language is blamed, perhaps simplistically,
    for Californias plight.
  • Bill Honig, California state superintendent,
    leaves office and becomes phonics-firster.

Bill Honig
32
NAEP, 1992
Whole language died of natural causes in
California
Steve Stahl
33
CIERA, 1997
  • Center for the Improvement of Early
  • Reading Achievement founded in 1997
  • Federally funded
  • Focus on beginning reading
  • Library of reports is still online
  • (http//www.ciera.org/library/index.html)
  • Consortium of five universities
  • Michigan, Michigan State, Virginia,
  • Georgia, Southern Cal

P. David Pearson
34
Snow, Burns, Griffin, 1998
Catherine Snow
  • Preventing reading difficulties in young children
  • Federally funded panel
  • Research synthesis
  • Included context (home and school)
  • Phonemic awareness and phonics, especially for
    children at risk of failure

35
Reading Excellence Act of 1998
  • Clinton administrations reform legislation,
    based on 1997 priority that all students will
    read independently and well by the end of third
    grade.
  • 260 million in state grants
  • Professional development
  • Instructional materials
  • Assessments
  • Scientifically based reading research/instruction

36
Process
  • State Grants
  • Expert Reviews
  • Local Grants
  • (Each year had a deadline for applications
    failed applications were sent back for rewriting
    until the next years competition there was no
    guarantee of funding.)

37
National Reading Panel, 2000
  • Federally funded through National Institutes of
    Health and Human Development
  • Research synthesis, limited to experimental and
    quasi-experimental methodology
  • Subgroup reports in phonemic awareness, phonics,
    fluency, vocabulary, comprehension, teacher
    education, and technology

38
No Child Left Behind Act of 2001
  • (Reauthorization of ESEA of 1965)
  • Annual spending of 12 billion dollars for Title I
  • 1.9 billion to the states in Reading First
  • (professional development, curriculum materials,
    assessments, evaluations)

39
No Child Left Behind A primer
  • http//www.ed.gov/policy/elsec/leg/esea02/index.ht
    ml

40
  • What do you know about NCLB?

41
NCLB
  • NCLB became law in 2002
  • New federal moneys to the states
  • Historically, 90 of education spending comes
    from the states
  • Federal moneys come in the form of categorical
    grants which the states can accept or decline,
    such as IDEA
  • New federal involvement in education
  • http//www.ed.gov/policy/elsec/leg/esea02/index.ht
    ml

42
Structure of the law
Title I Title I
Improving academic achievement of the disadvantaged Basic programs, reading, migrant children, prevention and intervention for neglected, delinquent, or at-risk children, national assessment of Title I, comprehensive school reform, advanced placement, dropout prevention
43
Structure of the law
Title II Title II
Preparing, training and recruiting high quality teachers and principals Teacher and principal training and recruitment, math and science, innovation for teacher quality, technology
44
Structure of the law
Title III Title III
Language instruction for limited English proficient and immigrant students English language acquisition, improving language instruction
45
Structure of the law
Title IV Title IV
21st Century Schools Safe and drug-free schools, 21st century learning centers, Tobacco smoke
46
Structure of the law
Title V Title V
Promoting informed parental choice and innovation Innovative programs, public charter schools, magnet schools
47
Structure of the law
Title VI Title VI
Flexibility and accountability Improving academic achievement, rural education
48
Structure of the law
Title VII Title VII
Indian, Hawaiian, and Alaskan native education Indian education, Native Hawaiian education Alaska native education
49
Structure of the law
Title VIII Title VIII
Impact aid program
50
Structure of the law
Title IX Title IX
General provisions Definitions, Flexibility, Coordination, Waivers, Uniform provisions, Unsafe school choice
51
Structure of the law
Title X Title X
Repeals, redesignations, and amendments Repeals, Redesignations, Homeless education, Native American education improvement, Higher education act of 1965 General education provisions act
52
4 major principles
  1. Accountability
  2. Research-based instruction
  3. Local control and flexibility
  4. Parental choice

53
Accountability
  • States must make plans
  • Rigorous academic standards
  • Assessments every year from grades 3 to 8 in both
    reading and math
  • Assessment data must be reported
  • Individually, by subgroup, by school
  • Low-ses, disabled, LEP, race, ethnicity
  • Annual report cards

54
Standards
  • Reading-language arts, math, and science
  • What students must know and do
  • Coherent and rigorous
  • Encourage teaching of advanced skills
  • Elementary years grade-by-grade or in clusters
    secondary years end proficiencies

55
Accountability
  • Assessments must include at least three levels
    (advanced, proficient, basic)
  • At least 95 of individuals in each subgroup must
    take the assessment
  • Annually in Reading and Math 3-8
  • Once between 10 and 12
  • Science added in 2006

56
Students with Disabilities
  • Standards are the same, but not necessarily
    conditions
  • Accommodations?
  • Alternative assessments?
  • Discretion left to the states to prepare
    guidelines

57
Students with LEP
  • LEP students must be included
  • Accommodations
  • First-language versions (until 3 years of
    schooling in US)
  • State plans must include testing of oral
    language, reading and writing for LEP students

58
Cross-state comparisons
  • NAEP in 4th grade and 8th grade in reading, math,
    and other areas every two years
  • Data are reported at the national and state level
    rather than at the school or individual level
  • Results appear as the Reading Report Card,
    available online
  • http//nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/reading/

59
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Percent Below Basic Grade 8
62
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64
Public reporting
  • State report cards
  • District report cards
  • School report cards

65
Measuring AYP
  • States must measure adequate yearly progress of
    districts and schools to the goal of 100
    proficiency by 2013
  • Starting point average proficiency in the
    lowest-performing school district or the
    lowest-performing subgroup (whichever is higher)
  • Annual increase is the state-level goal that
    moves from the starting point to 100 by 2013

66
Safe harbor
  • If the total scores in a school or district
    indicate AYP, but one subgroup fails, schools can
    meet AYP if failure was reduced in the subgroup
    by at least 10

67
AYP rewards
  • States must reward schools with especially good
    progress in a two-year period, either with money
    or with recognition

68
AYP sanctions
  • Two consecutive years of failure to make AYP
    identified for improvement
  • State must provide technical assistance school
    must make an improvement plan
  • Parents must be notified and offered choice
  • Three consecutive years of failure to make AYP
    continued improvement
  • Addition of supplemental educational services

69
AYP sanctions
  • Four consecutive years of failure to make AYP
    corrective action
  • Restructuring, firing, extending the school day
    and year, assignment of outside expert
  • Five consecutive years of failure to make AYP
    restructuring
  • Remove and replace all administration, reopen as
    a charter school, consider an outside private
    management company

70
Adequate yearly progress
  • The act specifies that all children will be
    proficient in reading and math by 2013-2014
  • AYP is the minimum level of improvement necessary
    each year

71
Research-based instruction
  • Federal funds can not be used except to fund
    programs and practices with reliable evidence of
    effectiveness
  • What Works Clearinghouse established to share
    information on research-based instruction
  • http//www.w-w-c.org
  • (Now linked to GARF PD Web site)

72
Highly qualified teachers
  • Elementary school Bachelors degree, full state
    certification, general proficiency tests (e.g.,
    Praxis general tests)
  • Middle and high school Same plus
    subject-specific tests (e.g., Praxis specific
    tests)
  • Special education teachers Same plus
    subject-specific tests in ALL the areas in which
    they teach!

73
Current teachers
  • States make a plan for documenting that current
    teachers are highly qualified
  • Alternative certification routes are also
    available

74
Paraprofessionals
  • Paraprofessionals can provide direct
    instructional support to children if teachers
    supervise them
  • Beginning in 2002, they must have two years of
    college!

75
Local control and flexibility
  • States can combine federal funds from one program
    to another without seeking federal approval

76
  • What are the current issues in implementation and
    reauthorization of NCLB?

77
Reading First Process
  • States grants reviewed by expert panels
  • Feedback and chances for revision
  • States identified eligible districts, provided
    technical assistance, and ran grant competitions
  • Schools, nested in districts

78
RAND report, 2002
  • Privately funded panel
  • Model of and research about text comprehension
  • Agenda for researchers

79
Education Sciences Reform Act of 2002
  • Federally-funded educational research now held to
    the SBRR standard?
  • Institute for Education Sciences

Russ Whitehurst
80
What Works Clearinghouse
  • Federally funded source for summaries of evidence
    of effectiveness of programs, products, and
    strategies
  • http//www.whatworks.ed.gov/

81
The Partnership for Reading
  • NIFL, the Secretary of Education, and the
    director of NICHD must collaborate to disseminate
    information, including information for parents
  • http//www.nifl.gov/partnershipforreading/

82
National Reading First Centers, 2004
  • Technical assistance centers funded to support
    Reading First in the states
  • Resources
  • Reviews
  • Capacity building efforts
  • Consultation
  • http//www.fcrr.org/ERRFTAC.htm

83
Striving Readers, 2005
  • Enhance overall reading achievement in middle and
    high schools
  • Improve the literacy skills of struggling
    adolescent readers
  • Help build a strong, scientific, research base
    around specific strategies that improve
    adolescent literacy skills.
  • http//www.ed.gov/programs/strivingreaders/index.h
    tml

84
The general argument
  • We know how children learn to read
  • We know how to study educational issues
  • Its just a matter of getting that information
    into classrooms
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