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RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES

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Title: RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES


1
RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES
2
INDIAN POWER SECTOR SCENARIO
  • Installed capacity 152148 MW (as on 31.08.09)
  • Thermal - 97869 MW
  • Hydro - 36917 MW
  • Nuclear - 4120 MW
  • Renewable - 13242 MW
  • Source Central Electricity Authority of India
  • The 15th annual power survey of Central
    Electricity Authority (CEA) projects a power
    demand of 2,40,000 MW by the end of 11th
    five-year plan (2012-13).

3
INDIAN POWER SECTOR SCENARIO INSTALLED CAPACITY
IN MW
4
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NON-RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES
  • Conventional
  • Petroleum
  • Natural Gas
  • Coal
  • Nuclear
  • Unconventional (examples)
  • Oil Shale
  • Natural gas hydrates in marine sediment

7
RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES
  • Solar photovoltaic
  • Solar thermal power
  • Passive solar air and water heating
  • Wind
  • Hydropower
  • Biomass
  • Ocean energy
  • Geothermal
  • Waste to Energy

8
Primary sources of energy
  • Three independent primary sources providing
    energy to the earth are
  • The Sun
  • Geothermal forces
  • Planetary motion in the solar system

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10
NEED FOR ALTERNATIVES
  • Fossil fuel reserves (Coal, Oil Natural Gas),
    the dominant source of energy, are limited
  • India - 17 of World population, 4 of primary
    energy
  • Present pattern predominantly fossil based
  • India imports 110 million tonnes crude annually
  • 90 (112 million tonnes) of the total available
    oil is consumed by transportation sector in India
  • 52 of households unelectrified
  • Linkage between energy services

11
CHARACTERISTICS OF RENEWABLES
  • Large, Inexhaustible source -Solar energy
    intercepted by earth 1.81011 MW
  • Clean Source of Energy
  • Dilute Source - Even in best regions 1kW/m2 and
    the total daily flux available is 7 kWh/m2
  • Large Collection Areas, high costs
  • Availability varies with time
  • Need for Storage, Additional Cost

12
BENEFITS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY
  • Environment
  • Reducing emissions of CO2 and other pollutants
    (acid rain, etc.)
  • Local and regional development
  • Economic and social cohesion
  • Local job creation
  • Security of supply
  • Reducing Imports

13
POWER GENERATION OPTIONS
  • Power Generation
  • Centralised Grid Connected
  • Decentralised Distributed Generation Isolated
  • Cogeneration/Trigeneration
  • Demand Side Management (Solar Water Heater,
    Passive Solar)

14
Potential and Installation of Renewable Energy
Systems (As on 31.03.2009)
S. No Renewable Energy Sources Approx. potential (MW) Potential Harnessed (MW)
1 Wind Power 45195 10242
2 Small Hydro Up to (25 MW) 15000 2430
3 Cogeneration (Bagasse) 5000 1049
4 Gasifiers 16000 243
5 Waste to energy (Urban industrial) 2700 59
6 S.P.V. 50 MW/sq km 2.12 MW
7 Solar Thermal 140 m.sq. m. 2.5 m. sq.m.
TOTAL 83895 MW 14023 MW
15
WIND ENERGY
16
WIND POWER GENERATION - STATUS
  • India ranks fifth in the world after Germany, the
    USA, Denmark and the UK.
  • The wind energy potential in India has been
    estimated at 45,000 MW, of which 10000 MW
    installed
  • States with high wind power potential are TN,
    Gujarat, AP, Karnataka, Kerala, MP and
    Maharashtra
  • Single machine upto 4.5 MW
  • Average capacity factor - 14
  • Capital cost Rs 4-5crores/MW, Rs 2-3/kWh
  • (cost effective if site CFgt20)

17
WIND ENERGY - PRINCIPLES
  • Wind turbines are mounted on a tower to capture
    the most energy.
  • At 100 feet (30 meters) or more aboveground, they
    can take advantage of the faster and less
    turbulent wind.
  • Turbines catch the wind's energy with their
    propeller-like blades.
  • Usually, two or three blades are mounted on a
    shaft to form a rotor.
  • Wind turbines convert the kinetic energy in the
    wind into mechanical power.

18
RENEWABLE ENERGY IMPLEMENTATION MAJOR STATES
INDIA MAP
Jammu Kashmir
Himachal Pradesh
Uttaranchal
Rajasthan
Arunachal Pradesh
Gujarat
Maharashtra
Active Wind Sector
Andhra Pradesh
Active Wind Hydro Sector
Karnataka
Huge Small Hydro Potential
Tamil Nadu
19
Wind Resources Map of India
20
WIND FARM
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COMPONENTS OF WIND TURBINE
  • Anemometer Measures the wind speed and
    transmits wind speed data to the controller.
  • Blades Most turbines have either two or three
    blades. Wind blowing over the blades causes the
    blades to "lift" and rotate.
  • Brake A disc brake, which can be applied
    mechanically, electrically, or hydraulically to
    stop the rotor in emergencies.
  • Controller The controller starts up the machine
    at wind speeds of about 8 to 16 miles per hour
    (mph) and shuts off the machine at about 55 mph.
    Turbines do not operate at wind speeds above
    about 55 mph because they might be damaged by the
    high winds.

24
COMPONENTS OF WIND TURBINE
  • Gear box Gears connect the low-speed shaft to
    the high-speed shaft and increase the rotational
    speeds from about 30 to 60 rotations per minute
    (rpm) to about 1000 to 1800 rpm
  • Generator Usually an off-the-shelf induction
    generator that produces 50-cycle AC electricity.
  • High-speed shaft Drives the generator.
  • Low-speed shaft The rotor turns the low-speed
    shaft at about 30 to 60 rotations per minute.

25
COMPONENTS OF WIND TURBINE
  • Pitch Blades are turned, or pitched, out of the
    wind to control the rotor speed and keep the
    rotor from turning in winds that are too high or
    too low to produce electricity.
  • Rotor The blades and the hub together are called
    the rotor.
  • Tower Towers are made from tubular steel (shown
    here), concrete, or steel lattice. Because wind
    speed increases with height, taller towers enable
    turbines to capture more energy and generate more
    electricity.

26
COMPONENTS OF WIND TURBINE
  • Wind vane Measures wind direction and
    communicates with the yaw drive to orient the
    turbine properly with respect to the wind.
  • Yaw drive Upwind turbines face into the wind
    the yaw drive is used to keep the rotor facing
    into the wind as the wind direction changes.
    Downwind turbines don't require a yaw drive, the
    wind blows the rotor downwind.
  • Yaw motor Powers the yaw drive.

27
ADVANTAGES OF WIND ENERGY
  • Clean fuel source
  • Inexhaustible
  • One of the lowest-priced renewable energy
    technologies
  • Benefiting the economy in rural areas

28
DISADVANTAGES
  • Higher initial investment than fossil-fueled
    generators.
  • Wind is intermittent Wind energy cannot be
    stored
  • Good wind sites are often located in remote
    locations, far from cities where the electricity
    is needed.
  • May compete with other uses for the land

29
SMALL HYDRO POWER
30
WHAT IS SMALL HYDROPOWER (SHP)
  • Water is fed from stream/canal to the turbine by
    a closed pipe (penstock) through diversion works.
    The turbine in turn rotates the generator for
    electricity generation.
  • Power (kW) 9.81 x Discharge (cum/s) x Head (m)
    x Efficiency

31
ADVANTAGES OF SMALL HYDRO
  • Non-consumptive use of water
  • Does not require large capital investment
  • Short gestation period ranging from 6 to 24
    months.
  • Low operation costs
  • Unmanned power stations are possible
  • Can be connected with electricity grid
  • Can act as a catalyst in promoting socio-economic
    changes in remote areas.
  • More environment friendly than conventional hydro
  • Small hydro is significant for off-grid, rural,
    in far flung isolated communities having no
    chances of grid extension for years to come.

32
CLASSIFICATION OF SHP IN INDIA
Class Station Capacity
Micro Upto 100 kW
Mini 101 kW to 2000 kW
Small 2001 kW to 25000 kW
33
TYPE OF SCHEMES
  • RUN OF RIVER
  • No storage.
  • The output is subject to instantaneous flow.
  • Reliability of discharge and geological
    conditions should be ensured.
  • CANAL BASED
  • Utilizes the fall and flow in the canals.
  • May be planned in main canal or in bye-pass
    canal.
  • Nearby drops should be clubbed in existing
    canals.
  • In canals under planning concentrated drops
    should be considered.
  • DAM BASED
  • Dam toe schemes are most common in India.
  • Water stored during monsoon is utilized for power
    generation.

34
Cost Aspects of SHP Scheme
  • Parameters affecting cost are
  • Physical sizes of Civil Works and EM Equipments
  • Construction Aspects
  • Operating costs
  • Unit cost of hydro schemes is inversely
    proportional to the head
  • Per kW cost may be ranging from Rs 40,000/- to
    Rs.90,000/-depending upon the layout and capacity
    of the scheme.
  • Costs may very 20 depending upon the location
    of the project and the topographical terrain.

35
Small hydro vis-à-vis other renewables
  • It is the highest-density renewable energy source
    against widely spread and thinly distributed
    solar energy, biomass, wind resource, etc.
  • Its cost of generation is cheapest amongst
    renewables. (Re 1.00 to 1.50 /kWhr)
  • Small hydro efficiencies are highest amongst
    renewables (85 to 90)

36
MNES Database of Small Hydro Potential Sites
Identified in India up to 25 MW Capacity
Average PLFs vary from 30 to 60 depending on
location.
37
INCREASE OF HYDRO SHARE
  • In India there is huge potential for hydropower
    projects, and very less has been harnessed so
    far.
  • Coal requirement for power generation may not
    last for more than 150 years. In addition, higher
    transportation cost is incurred on transportation
    of coal over longer distances.
  • Power generation from hydro sources is almost
    free of running cost and is completely pollution
    free.

38
SOLAR ENERGY
39
Why Solar Energy ?
  • Solar energy is the most readily available source
    of energy.
  • It is free.
  • It is also the most important of the
    non-conventional sources of energy because it is
    non-polluting.
  • Earth surface receives 1.2x1017 W of power from
    sun. India receives solar energy equivalent to
    5000 trillion kWhr per year

40
SOLAR ENERGY - CLASSIFICATION
  • Solar Energy can be classified as two types
  • 1. Passive solar and
  • 2. Active solar

41
Passive Solar Energy
  • Passive solar energy is making direct and
    indirect use of thermal energies from the sun
  • A southern exposure of a building guarantees the
    maximum exposure of the suns rays
  • Special metal leaf covering over windows and
    roofs can block out the sun during the summer
    months

42
Active Solar Energy
  • Active Solar Energy is the use of the suns
    Electromagnetic radiation in generating
    Electrical Energy
  • It can be further divided into two forms
  • Solar Thermal (Heating Application)
  • Solar Photovoltaic (Electricity Generation).

43
Solar Thermal
  • Employed for collecting converting the sun
    energy to heat energy for application such as
    water air heating, cooking drying, steam
    generation, distillation, etc.
  • Basically a solar thermal device consists of a
    solar energy collector - the absorber, a
    heating or heat transferring medium and a heat
    storage or heat tank.
  • Solar thermal technology employs an elaborate use
    of a black body, good heat conducting materials,
    insulation and reflectors.
  • Solar geyser, solar concentrators, solar cookers,
    solar still are some example of devices based on
    solar thermal technology.

44
Solar Photovoltaic (SPV)
  • Solar Photovoltaic Technology is employed for
    directly converting solar energy to electrical
    energy by the using Solar Silicon Cell.
  • Solar PV has found wide application in rural
    areas for various important activities besides
    rural home lighting.
  • Remote villages deprived of grid power can be
    easily powered using the Solar Photovoltaic
    technology. The economics of rural
    electrification can be attractive considering the
    high cost of power transmission and erratic power
    supply in the rural areas.

45
How electricity is generated through Solar Energy
  • Solar photo voltaic (SPV). Can be used to
    generate electricity form the sun.
  • Silicon solar cells play an important role in
    generation of electricity.

46
Solar cells Characteristics.
  • Isc-short circuit current.
  • Voc-open circuit voltage.
  • Peak power.

Isc
Voc
47
How solar cells Generate electricity
48
From Cells to Modules
  • The open circuit voltage of a single solar solar
    cell is approx 0.5V.
  • Much higher voltage voltage is required for
    practical application.
  • Solar cells are connected in series to increase
    its open circuit voltage.

49
Solar Power projects Map
50
BIOMASS POWER
51
BIO MASS
  • Biomass is the most important source for energy
    productions supplied by agriculture
  • This energy is also available in the form of
    biodegradable waste, which is the rejected
    component of available biomass
  • Organic matter in which the energy of sunlight is
    stored in chemical bonds
  • When the bonds between carbon, hydrogen and
    oxygen molecules are broken by digestion,
    combustion (or) decomposition these substances
    release stored energy

52
BIO MASS - CLASSIFICATION
  • Biomass Grown (plantation)
  • Agricultural Waste (straw, husk)
  • Animal waste (dung)
  • Industrial waste (bagasse, dry waste)
  • Municipal waste (garbage, nightsoil)

53
BIO MASS
  • Biomass is currently the worlds fourth largest
    energy source
  • India produces 540 million tonnes of crop and
    plantation residues every year
  • Higher Capacity factors than other renewables
  • Fuelwood, agricultural residues, animal waste
  • Atmospheric gasification with dual fuel engine
  • 500 kW gasifier largest installation

54
Biogas
  • 45-70 CH4(Methane) rest CO2
  • Calorific value 16-25MJ/m3
  • Digestor- well containing animal waste
  • Dome - floats on slurry- acts as gas holder
  • Spent Slurry -sludge- fertiliser
  • Anaerobic Digestion- bacterial action
  • Family size plants 2m3/day
  • Community Size plants 12- 150 m3/day
  • Rs 12-14000 for a 2m3 unit
  • Cooking, Electricity, running engine

55
Potential for Bagasse-based Cogeneration in Major
Sugar Producing States in India
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57
BIO FUELS
  • What are biofuels
  • Renewable fuels from biosources.
  • Include
  • 1. Ethanol
  • 2. Biodiesel
  • 3. Biogas
  • Why Biofuels
  • Pollution threat
  • Reduction of green house gas emission
  • Regional development
  • Social structure Agriculture
  • Security of supply.

58
Importance of Biodiesel
  • Environment friendly
  • Clean burning
  • Renewable fuel
  • No engine modification
  • Increase in Engine life
  • Biodegradable non toxic
  • Easy to handle and store.

59
Biodiesel program in India
  • In India most of the trials were done using bio
    diesel from Jatropha Pongamia.
  • Other than Jatropha Pongamia, the raw material
    used for bio-diesel production are sunflower,
    soyabean, rapeseed and palm oil
  • In December 31, 2002 - Indian Railway Conducted
    a successful trial run of an Express
  • Passenger train on the Delhi-Amritsar rout using
    5 of biodiesel as fuel.
  • Indian Oil Corporation began in January 2004
    field trials of running buses on diesel doped
    with 5 biodiesel.

60
GEOTHERMAL ENERGY
  • Geothermal energythe heat from the earth.
  • This heat can be drawn from several sources
  • hot water or steam reservoirs deep in the earth
    that are accessed by drilling
  • geothermal reservoirs located near the earth's
    surface
  • the shallow ground near the Earth's surface that
    maintains a relatively constant temperature of
    50-60 F.

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63
Map showing Geothermal Provinces of India
64
How a Geothermal Power Plant Works
65
TIDAL ENERGY
  • Tidal energy traditionally involves erecting a
    dam across the opening to a tidal basin.
  • The dam includes a sluice that is opened to allow
    the tide to flow into the basin the sluice is
    then closed, and as the sea level drops,
    traditional hydropower technologies can be used
    to generate electricity from the elevated water
    in the basin.
  • Tidal range may vary over a wide range (4.5-12.4
    m) from site to site. A tidal range of at least 7
    m is required for economical operation and for
    sufficient head of water for the turbines

66
TIDAL ENERGY
  • Tidal energy schemes are characterised by low
    capacity factors, usually in the range of 20-35.
  • There is a high capital cost for a tidal energy
    project, with possibly a 10-year construction
    period.
  • Tidal power generation may change the
    sedimentation and erosion patterns in the
    estuary. Pollutants discharged into the rivers
    upstream from the barrages may accumulate in the
    estuary.

67
Emerging Developments in Renewables
  • Ocean Energy
  • Ocean energy draws on the energy of ocean waves,
    tides, or on the thermal energy (heat) stored in
    the ocean.
  • The ocean contains two types of energy thermal
    energy from the sun's heat, and mechanical energy
    from the tides and waves.
  • Oceans cover more than 70 of Earth's surface,
    making them the world's largest solar collectors.
    The sun warms the surface water a lot more than
    the deep ocean water, and this temperature
    difference stores thermal energy. Thermal energy
    is used for many applications, including
    electricity generation.

68
Emerging Developments in Renewables Contd.
  • Ocean mechanical energy A barrage (dam) is
    typically used to convert tidal energy into
    electricity by forcing the water through turbines
  • For wave energy conversion, there are three basic
    systems channel systems that funnel the waves
    into reservoirs, float systems that drive
    hydraulic pumps, and oscillating water column
    systems that use the waves to compress air within
    a container.

69
WAVE ENERGY
  • The total power of waves breaking on the world's
    coastlines is estimated at 2 to 3 million
    megawatts. Three approaches to capturing wave
    energy are
  • Floats or Pitching Devices These devices generate
    electricity from the bobbing or pitching action
    of a floating object.
  • Oscillating Water Columns (OWC) These devices
    generate electricity from the wave-driven rise
    and fall of water in a cylindrical shaft. The
    rising and falling water column drives air into
    and out of the top of the shaft, powering an
    air-driven turbine.
  • Wave Surge Or Focusing Devices These shoreline
    devices, also called "tapered channel" or
    "tapchan" systems, rely on a shore-mounted
    structure to channel and concentrate the waves,
    driving them into an elevated reservoir. Water
    flow out of this reservoir is used to generate
    electricity, using standard hydropower
    technologies

70
Geothermal/OTEC/Tidal/Wave
World Cost Estimates
Geothermal Commercial 8240 MW 4c/kWh 2000/kW No Indian experience 50 MW plant J K planned
Tidal Prototype 240 MW FRANCE LF 20 No Indian experience
OTEC Prototype 50 kW 210 kW NELHA India 1MW gross plant under construction
Wave Energy Prototype lt 1MW Grid Connected India 150 kW plant Thiruvananthpuram
71
WAVE ENERGY
72
ECONOMICS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY
Sector Capital Cost (Rs Crore/MW) Cost of Generation (Rs/kWh)
Natural Gas CC 2.5 3.5 1.5 - 2
Coal 5 6.5 2 2.75
Nuclear 6 - 10 1.65 - 4
Wind 4 - 10 1.5 - 4
Biomass 7.5 12.5 2 4.5
Small Hydro 4 - 6 2.5 - 5
Solar thermal electric 20 - 30 6 - 9
Solar PV 30 - 40 15 - 20
73
CONCLUSION
  • India has competitive strengths in wind energy,
    solar energy, and biofuels. It has advantage in
    terms of human capital and scientific and
    engineering capabilities.
  • India also has an advantage because it has urgent
    needs. Need generates urgency, which generates
    demand, which, in turn, generates innovation.
  • These factors create conditions for India to move
    ahead.

74
THANKS
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