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Telecommunication

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... (voice, data, text, images, audio, video) over ... a standard model for network architectures Transmission Control ... Networks Local Area Network ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Telecommunication


1
Telecommunication
  • The exchange of information in any form (voice,
    data, text, images, audio, video) over networks

2
Trends in Telecommunications
3
Telecom Network Components
  • Terminals any input/output device that uses
    telecommunications networks to transmit or
    receive data
  • Telecommunications Processors devices that
    perform control and support functions
  • Telecommunications Channels media over which
    data are transmitted and received
  • Computers all sizes and types
  • Telecommunications Control Software programs
    that control telecommunications activities

4
Telecom Network Components
5
Telecommunications Processors
  • Modems convert digital signals from a computer
    into analog frequencies that can be transmitted
    over ordinary telephone lines
  • Multiplexers allows a single communications
    channel to carry simultaneous data transmissions
    from many terminals

6
Bandwidth
  • Information carrying capacity
  • Measured in cycles per second/Hz.
  • Indicates the difference between lowest and
    highest frequencies.
  • Higher the bandwidth, greater the volume of data
    that can be transmitted per unit time.
  • Narrow-band very low BW e.g. telegraph links.
  • Voice Band- telephone line with a frequency range
    of 300-3400 Hz.
  • Broadband high-speed high capacity. e.g.
    microwave, cable, fibre optics

7
Data Transfer Rate
  • Amount of data that can be transmitted through
    the channel.
  • Expressed in number of bits per second or bit
    rate (Bps).
  • Baud rate - signal change from positive to
    negative or vice versa.
  • - may not be always same as bit rate.

8
Types of Signals Analog and Digital
  • Analog signal
  • Continuous waveform
  • Passes through communications medium
  • Used for voice communications
  • Digital signal
  • Discrete waveform
  • Transmits data coded into two discrete states as
    1-bits and 0-bits
  • Used for data communications

9
Telecommunications Media
  • Twisted-Pair Wire copper wire twisted into
    pairs. e.g. telephone system (300bps-10Mbps)
  • Coaxial Cable sturdy copper or aluminum wire
    wrapped with spacers to insulate and protect it.
    e.g. Cable TV.
  • - faster data rate (56 Kbps-200 Mbps), larger
    BW.
  • Fiber Optics one or more hair-thin filaments of
    glass fiber wrapped in a protective jacket
  • - Data transmitted using light beams.
  • - Very high BW high data transmission rate (500
    Kbps- 25Tbps)

10
Telecommunications Media
11
Wireless Technologies
  • Terrestrial Microwave data transmitted with the
    help of microwaves. Microwaves are
    electromagnetic waves with frequency in the range
    of 300,00 MHz to 3000MHz.
  • Radio Waves also electromagnetic waves with
    low frequency range of 3KHz to 30MHz.
  • Communications Satellites - high-earth orbit
    communications satellites placed in stationary
    geosynchronous orbits

12
Wireless Technologies
  • Cellular and PCS Systems a geographic area
    divided into cells with one low-power transmitter
    device per cell used to relay calls from one cell
    to another
  • Wireless LANs high- or low-frequency radio
    technology installed in an office or building
  • Wireless Web wireless, Web-enabled information
    appliances accessing the Internet, intranets and
    extranets

13
Wireless Application Protocol (WAP)
14
Communication Subnet
  • Switching devices- used for switching data
    signals from source to destination point.
  • Telephone exchange- signals on incoming lines are
    transmitted to appropriate outgoing lines.
  • Transmission lines- that carry data signals from
    one host to another .
  • - also known as circuits or trunks.
  • - speed as well as efficiency depend on the
    speed at which the transmission lines can
    transmit the data.
  • - e.g. optical fibres, twisted pair, cable etc.

15
Switching Alternatives
  • Circuit Switching a switch opens a circuit to
    establish a link between a sender and receiver
    it remains open until the communication session
    is completed.
  • Packet Switching messages are divided into
    fixed or variable length packets, and packets are
    sent across networks.

16
Computer Networks
  • Comprises of communication media, devices,
    software to connect two or more computer system.
  • enable the companies to share H/W, computer
    applications, and databases across the
    organization.
  • geographically dispersed employees and
    workgroups can share documents

17
Client and ServerNetworking
  • Client- Machine that initiates the session with
    another computer and request for information.
  • Server- computer that stores information and
    delivers the requested information

18
Network Topologies
  • Bus all the networked devices share the same
    communications channel and connected to backbone
    by transceiver.
  • Ring Ties local computer processors together in
    a ring.
  • Star Ties end user computers to a central
    computer.

19
Network Topologies
20
Types of Telecom Networks
  • Point-to-point Communication
  • - point to point communication between two
    computers for data transmission.
  • - e.g. computer networks in banks
  • Broadcast Communication
  • - All the machines on the network share a single
    communication channel.
  • - message broadcasted for all receivers.
  • Peer-to-Peer file-sharing software connects
    each PC to a central server or to another online
    users PC

21
Types of Telecom Networks
  • Peer-to-Peer Networks
  • Type of client/server distributed processing
    that allows two or more computers to share their
    resources.
  • In a standard client/server networks,
    information stored in centralized file server
    Information stored across peer to peer networks
    is decentralized.

22
Peer to Peer Networks
23
Types of Telecom Networks
  • Local Area Network (LAN)
  • Network that connect devices sharing a common
    communication link and share resources within a
    limited geographical area.
  • Serves a local area like floor of a building,
    college or university campus.
  • Typical transmission speed is 100Mbps.
  • Within the organization, provides fast and
    efficient access to common bank of information.

24
Local Area Networks
25
Local Area Networks
  • Wireless LANs
  • Wi-Fi (802.11b) standard Up to 11 Mbps, low
    cost, high-speed mobile Internet access, links
    work groups
  • Bluetooth standard Up to 720 Kbps, small
    personal area networks

26
Types of Telecom Networks
  • Wide Area Network (WAN)
  • covers a large geographical area such as a state
    or a country.
  • May include large corporate networks, military
    networks, banking networks, airline reservation
    networks etc.
  • Typical transmission rates are 2Mbps, 34Mbps,
    45Mbps, 625Mbps etc.
  • Often implemented in the form of VPN.

27
Types of Telecom Networks
  • Virtual Private Network (VPN)
  • Secure network that uses the Internet as its
    main backbone network
  • Relies on network firewalls, encryption, and
    other security features.
  • Effective for extranets and important for
    international businesses.

28
Types of Telecom Networks
  • Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)
  • Network that interconnects users with computer
    resources in a geographical area larger than that
    covered by LAN but smaller than a WAN.
  • Covers an area between 5-50 Km diameter. (an
    area the size of a city).
  • Generally owned by either group of users or a
    single network provider

29
Types of Telecom Networks
  • Value Added Network (VAN)
  • A private network that can be hired by
    organization.
  • Enable the users to more closely tailor
    communication capabilities to their specific
    business needs.

30
Network Architectures Protocols
  • Protocol standard set of rules and procedures
    for the control of communications in a network
  • Network Architecture the use of standard
    protocols, standard communications hardware and
    software interfaces standard interface between
    end users and computer systems
  • - the goal of promoting an open, simple,
    flexible, and efficient telecommunications
    environment

31
OSI TCP/IP Models
  • Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) - model is a
    seven-layer model that serves as a standard model
    for network architectures
  • Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol
    (TCP/IP) is a five layer telecommunications
    protocol used by the Internet

32
OSI TCP/IP Models
33
Internet
  • A network made up of millions of smaller private
    networks, each operate independent of, or in
    harmony with, all the other millions of networks
  • Surf
  • E-mail
  • Buy and sell
  • Download
  • Publish

34
Business Value of Telecommunications
35
E- Commerce and E-Business Technologies
  • Teleconferencing Ability to confer with a group
    of people simultaneously
  • Data conferencing Two or more users can edit and
    modify data files simultaneously
  • Videoconferencing Participants are able to see
    each other over video screens

36
Electronic Commerce and Electronic Business
Technologies
  • Distance learning Education or training
    delivered over a distance to individuals in one
    or more locations
  • E-learning Instruction delivered online using
    the Internet or private networks

37
Summary
  • Organizations are becoming networked enterprises
    using the Internet, intranets, and other
    telecommunications networks to support business
    operations and collaboration.
  • Telecom technology is moving toward open,
    inter-networked digital networks for voice, data,
    video and multimedia

38
Summary
  • Open systems with unrestricted connectivity
    using Internet technologies are the primary
    telecommunications technology drivers in
    e-business systems.
  • Companies are deriving strategic business value
    from the Internet, intranets etc. which enables
    them to disseminate information globally

39
Summary
  • Businesses are installing and extending intranets
    throughout their organizations to
  • Improve communications and collaboration among
    individuals and teams within the enterprise
  • Publish and share valuable business information
    easily, inexpensively, and effectively via
    enterprise information portals
  • Develop and deploy critical applications to
    support business operations and decision making

40
Summary
  • The major generic components of any
    telecommunications network are
  • Terminals
  • Telecommunications processors
  • Communications channels
  • Computers
  • Telecommunications software
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