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Title: Today: Overpopulation and Education


1
Today Overpopulation and Education Movie night
W 4/21 at 5pm in JES A121A
XKCD.com
2
Fig 52.17
There is a limit to the number of people that the
earth can support...
36.4
9
2.3
UN Department of Economic and Social
Affairs Population Division (2004)
3
Can technology reduce consumption faster than
population increase?
36.4
9
2.3
Fig 52.17
UN Department of Economic and Social
Affairs Population Division (2004)
4
How can we slow human population growth?
36.4
9
2.3
Fig 52.17
UN Department of Economic and Social
Affairs Population Division (2004)
5
  • 1. Regarding the human population on earth...
  • Should we actively work towards slowing
    population growth?
  • Should we work towards reducing the human
    population?
  • Should we do nothing?Why?2. What means should
    we use to attain our population goals?

6
Does female schooling reduce fertility? Evidence
from Nigeria UO Osilia and BT LongJournal of
Development Economics 87 57-75 (August 2008)
Photo from Isolo Primary School in Nigeria
7
Does female schooling reduce fertility? Evidence
from Nigeria
In summary, our results provide robust evidence
that female education reduces the number of early
births.
8
Demographics, industrial vs developing nations
Fig 53.25
9
Number of people infected with HIV (Dec. '06)
10
Fig 19.8
human immune cell (T-cell)
HIV Reproductive Cycle
11
Fig 43.26
Stages of HIV infection
12
From HIV prevention to HIV protection addressing
the vulnerability of girls and young women in
urban areas Richard Mabala Environment
Urbanization (2006)vol 18(2) 407432
13
HIV/AIDS thrives in poverty.
14
Those most affected by an epidemic are precisely
those who are affected by that environment. In
the case of HIV/AIDS in Africa, these are
adolescent girls and young women, especially in
urban areas.
15
  • prevalence rates for girls are generally higher
    than boys

16
At the age of 12, except for those infected
through parent to child transmission (and sexual
abuse), almost no adolescent girls are HIV. Six
years later, in high-prevalence countries, 1020
per cent are infected.
17
  • Among unmarried girls aged 1019 in two
    low-income areas in Addis Ababa, it was found
    that
  • 13 per cent felt they had a place to meet safely
    with friends (compared to 47 per cent of boys)
  • 32.1 per cent had had sex at times they did not
    want to
  • the first experience of sex for 24.8 per cent of
    the girls was forced
  • 14 per cent said that they had been raped.

18
In Ethiopia, young domestic workers (girls aged
1014 who constituted 12 per cent of the
adolescent population in the same areas) worked,
on average, 62 hours a week for less than US 8 a
month. 96 of them had migrated (or been
migrated) to Addis Ababa.
19
Africans are not being infected in such numbers
because they are more sexually promiscuous.UNAID
S statistics show that more Americans than
Africans start having sexual relations at an
early age, and America and Britain have some of
the highest teenage pregnancy rates in the
worldbut still lower than in Sub-saharan
Africa.
20
Only 3 per cent of female contacts were married,
despite the fact that the vast majority of girls
in Ethiopia get married during adolescence, and
the vast majority of girls sexual activity
during adolescence takes place in the context of
marriage (94 per cent).
21
One remedy for such a dismal situation is
ensuring that girls have access to education.
UNICEF, the World Bank and others have argued
that education is a social vaccine, the only
vaccine available to inoculate children and young
people against HIV/AIDS.
Ratio of girls boys in primary and secondary
school (2000)
22
The more important window may thus be a
political one for laying the institutional
foundations for desired change.
Population, Sustainability, and Earth's Carrying
Capacity Gretchen C. Daily and Paul R.
EhrlichBioScience 42761-771 (Nov., 1992)
23
Today Overpopulation and Education Movie night
W 4/21 at 5pm in JES A121A
XKCD.com
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