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English Literature

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Title: English Literature


1
English Literature
  • ???????????????

2
Part ? The Romantic Period
  • Romanticism in England

3
Introduction
  • At the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries
    romanticism came to be the new trend in English
    literature. It rose and grew under the impetus of
    the Industrial Revolution and the French
    Revolution.

4
  • 1. Social Background
  • 2. Radicalism
  • a. Jea-Jacques Rousseau, a French philosopher,
    was one of the leading thinkers in the second
    half of the 18th century. In 1762 he published
    two books that electrified Europe -, in which he
    explored new ideas about Nature, Society and
    education. These ideas of Rousseau's provided
    necessary guiding principles for the French
    revolution, for they inspired an implacable
    resentment against tyrannical rule in France and
    an immense hope for the future. In 1789 there
    broke out the epoch-making French revolution.
  • b. The news of the Revolution and the storming of
    Bastille aroused great sympathy and enthusiasm in
    the English liberals and radicals. Thomas Paine
    published The Declaration of Rights of Man in
    1774. Its motto is "liberty".
  • c. William Godwin
  • The controversies over the French revolution
    were finally raised to the height of philosophy
    by William Godwin . He wrote passionately against
    the injustices of the economic system and the
    oppression of the poor in his Inquiry Concerning
    Political Justice.

5
3. Romanticism
  • a. Romantic Movement in European Literature
  • Following the Enlightenment and its impact on
    literature, there was Romantic Movement. It came
    earliest in Germany, a little later in England.
  • The literature of Romantic Movement expressed a
    more or less negative attitude of the different
    social strata of the time toward the existing
    social and political conditions that came with
    the industrial revolution and the growing
    importance of the bourgeoisie. The romantics saw
    man essentially as an individual in the solitary
    state, emphasized the special qualities of each
    individual's mind. In essence it designates a
    literary and philosophical theory which tends to
    see the individual as the very center of all life
    and all experience. It also places the individual
    at the center of art, making literature most
    valuable as an expression of his or her unique
    feelings and particular attitudes, and valuing
    its accuracy in portraying the individual's
    experiences. It was in the very last years of the
    18th century and the first two decades of the
    19th that romanticism as a literary movement in
    England reached its full flowering, especially in
    the realm of poetry. Wordsworth and Coleridge
    were the major representatives of the movement.

6
I. William Blake(1757-1827)
  • 1. Life .
  • 2. Literary works
  • Songs of Innocence In this volume of poems, Blake
    declares he is writing "happy songs/Every child
    may joy to hear". Using a language which even
    little babies can learn by heart, Blake succeeds
    in depicting the happy condition of a child
    before it knows anything about the pains of
    existence. The poet expresses his delight in the
    sun, the hills, the streams, the insects and the
    flowers, in the innocence of the child and of the
    lamb. Blake, with his eager quest for new poetic
    forms and techniques, broke completely with the
    traditions of the 18th century. He experimented
    in meter and rhyme and introduced bold metrical
    innovations which could not be found in poetry of
    his contemporaries.

7
  • Songs of Experience paints a different world, a
    world of misery, poverty, disease, war and
    repression with a melancholy tone. A number of
    poems from the Songs of Innocence also find a
    counterpart in the Song of Experience. For
    instance, the "Infant Joy" is matched with the
    "Infant Sorrow" and the pure "lamb" is paired
    with the flaming "Tyger". The two books hold the
    similar subject-matter, but the tone, emphasis
    and conclusion differ.
  • Childhood is central to Blake's concern in these
    two volumes of poetry, and this concern gives the
    two books a strong social and historical
    reference.

8
  • Marriage of Heaven and Hell(1790) The book marks
    his entry into maturity. In this poem, Blake
    explores the relationship of the contraries.
    Attraction and repulsion, reason and energy, love
    and hate, are necessary to human existence. Life
    is a continual conflict of give-and-take, a
    pairing of opposites, of good and evil, of
    innocence and experience, of body and soul.
    "Without contraries, there is no progression."
    The "marriage" to Blake, means the reconciliation
    of the contraries, not the subordination of the
    one to the other.

9
  • Blake writes his poems in plain and direct
    language. His poems often carry the lyric beauty
    with immense compression of meaning. He distrusts
    the abstractness and tends to embody his views
    with visual images. Symbolism in wide range is
    also a distinctive feature of his poetry.

10
?. William Wordsworth
  • representative poet, chief spokesman of Romantic
    poetry
  • (1) Life a. love natureb. Cambridge c. tour
    to France d. French revolution e. Dorathy
    f. The Lake District g. friend of Coleridge
    h. conservative after revolution.

11
  • (2) worksa. the Lyrical Ballads (preface)
    significanceb. The Prelude a biographical
    poem.c. the other poems

12
  • (3) Features of his poems.a. ThemeA constant
    theme of his poetry was the growth of the human
    spirit through the natural description with
    expressions of inward states of
    mind.b. Characteristics of style.His poems are
    characterized by a sympathy with the poor, simple
    peasants, and a passionate love of nature.

13
  • Example
  • I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud
  • Theme Through describing a scene of joyful
    daffodils recollected in memory, the poet hopes
    to put illustrate his theory of poetic
    inspiration ---spontaneous overflow of powerful
    feelings, which originates in emotion recollected
    in tranquility

14
  • Image dancing daffodils
  • fluttering, dancing, tossing, dance,
    danced, dances
  • sprightly, glee, gay, jocund, pleasure
  • Metrical pattern a short lyric of 4 sestets (a
    quatrain-couplet) of iambic tetrameter lines
    rhyming ABABCC.

15
?. Samuel Taylor Coleridge
  • poet and critic(1) Life a. Cambridge
    b. friend with Southey and Wordsworth c.
    taking opium.(2) works.The fall of
    RobespierreThe Rime of the Ancient MarinerKubla
    KhanBiographia Literaria

16
  • (3) Biographia Literaria.(4) His criticismHe
    was one of the first critics to give close
    critical attention to language. In both poetry
    and criticism, his work is outstanding, but it is
    typical of him that his critical work is very
    scattered and disorganized.

17
?. George Gordon Byron
  • (1) Life a. Cambridge, published poems and
    reviews b. a tour of Europe and the East c.
    left England d. friend with Shelley e. worked
    in Greece national hero f.  radical and
    sympathetic with French Revolution.

18
  • (2) Works.Don JuanWhen We Two PartedShe Walks
    in Beauty

19
  • (3) Byronic Hero.Byron introduced into English
    poetry a new style of character, which as often
    been referred to as Byronic Hero of satanic
    spirit. People imagined that they saw something
    of Byron himself in these strange figures of
    rebels, pirates, and desperate adventurers.(4)
    Poetic style loose, fluent and vivid

20
?. Percy Bysshe Shelley
  • poet and critic(1) Life a. aristocratic
    family b. rebellious heart c. Oxford d.
    Irish national liberation Movement e. disciple
    of William Godwin f.  marriage with Harriet,
    and Marry g. left England and wandered in
    EUrope, died in Italy h. radical and
    sympathetic with the French revolutioni.  Friend
    with Byron(2) works two types violent
    reformer and wanderer
  • Prometheus Unbound

21
  • (3) Characteristics of poems.a. pursuit of a
    better society b. radian beauty c. superb
    artistry imagination.(4) Defense of Poetry

22
  • Ode to the West Wind
  • Theme This is one of Shelleys best known
    lyrics. The poet describes vividly the activities
    of the west wind on the earth, in the sky and on
    the sea and then expresses his envy for the
    boundless freedom of the west wind and his wish
    to be free like it and to scatter his words among
    mankind. The celebrated final line of the poem,
    If winter comes, can Spring be far behind? has
    often been cited to illustrate Shelleys
    optimistic belief in the future of mankind.
  • In the 1st stanza, Shelley uses the seasonal
    cycle in nature as a continuing process of
    universal death and regeneration

23
?. John Keats.
  • (1) Life a. from a poor family b. Cockney
    School c. friend with Byron and Shelley d.
    attacked by the conservatives and died in Italy

24
  • (2) works.
  • Ode to the Nightingale
  • Ode on a Grecian Urn
  • Ode to Psyche
  • Ode to Melancholy

25
?. Water Scott
  • (3) Characteristics of poemsa. loved beauty b.
    seeking refuge in an idealistic world of
    illusions and dreams.

26
  • Novelist and poet(1) Life a. Scotlandb.
    university of Edinburghc. poem to noveld.
    unsuccessful publishing firme. great
    contribution historical novel.(2) three groups
    of novels(3) Features of his novels.(4) his
    influence.

27
?. Jane Austen
  • (1) Life a. country clergyman b. uneventful
    life, domestic duties (2) works.

28
  • (3) features of her writings.Austens novels are
    britened by their witty conversation and
    omnipresent humour. Her stories are skillfully
    woven together her plots never leave the path of
    realism, and have always been sensible. Her
    language shines with an exquisite touch of lively
    gracefulness, elegant and refined, but never
    showy. She herself compared her work to a fine
    engraving made up on a little piece of ivory only
    two inches square. The comparison is true. The
    ivory surface is small enough, but the lady who
    made the drawings of human life on it was a real
    artist.(4) rationalism, neoclassicism,
    romanticism and realism.

29
?. Charles Lamb
  • essayist and critic(1) life a. poor familyb.
    friend of Coleridge c. sister Maryd. worked
    in the East India Housee. a miserable
    lifef.  a man of mild character. g. a
    Romanticist of the city.

30
  • (2) works Essays of Elia. Three groups.(3)
    Features.       a. The most striking feature of
    his essays is his humor.       b. Lamb was
    especially fond of old writers.       c. His
    essays are intensely personal.       d. He was a
    romanticist.
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