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Early Humans


Early Humans Chapter 1, Section 1, page 8 Chapter 1 The First Civilizations * Chapter 1 The First Civilizations * * Chapter 1 The First Civilizations ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Early Humans

Early Humans
  • Chapter 1, Section 1, page 8

Chapter 1, Section 1 Objectives
  • After this lesson, students will be able to
  • describe how Paleolithic people adapted to their
    environment and invented many tools to help them
  • explain how people in the Neolithic age began
    farming, building communities, producing goods,
    and trading.

What is History? page 8
  • History - noun (plural histories)
  • the study of past events.
  • the past considered as a whole.
  • the past events connected with someone or
  • a continuous record of past events or trends.

Who studies the past? page 8
  • Historians are people who study and write about
    the past.
  • We are all historians to some extent.

Why do we study History? page 8
  • History helps us to
  • understand people and societies
  • understand change
  • develop skills
  • History helps us to understand the present and
    plan for the future.

How do we study History? page 8
  • Measuring Time
  • calendars
  • Western calendar
  • based on the birth of Jesus
  • other calendars
  • Dating Events
  • b.c.
  • a.d.
  • b.c.e.
  • c.e.

before Christ
Anno Domini
Before Common Era
Common Era
How do we study History? page 8
  • Periodization
  • the business of identifying and recognizing
    patterns of change and continuity through time
  • imprecise dating

Ancient History (c. 3500 B.C. to A.D.500)
Middle Ages (c. A.D. 500 1500)
Modern History (c. 1500 Present Day)
The Future
Our Course!
Early Humans page 9
  • Prehistory the time before people developed
    writing (before c. 3000 B.C.)

Tools of Discovery page 9
  • Archaeology study of ancient cultures through
    remains (archaeologists)
  • artifact an object made by a human, like a
    weapon, pottery, or tool
  • fossils traces of plants and animals preserved
    in rock

Tools of Discovery page 9
Tools of Discovery page 9
  • Anthropology the study of humankind, especially
    culture and development

Who Were the Hunter-Gatherers? page 10
  • Stone Age
  • Paleolithic ? Old Stone Age (2.5 million ago to
    c. 8000 B.C.)
  • nomads people who regularly move from place to
  • life centers on the search for resources (food)
  • advances like the development of spoken language,
    technology, art, religion (?)

Who Were the Hunter-Gatherers? page 10
  • Chauvet Cave, present-day France

Adapting to the Environment page 10
  • Where you live affects how you live.
  • Ice Age (c. 100,000 to 8,000 B.C.)
  • fire is the key to survival
  • technology tools an methods that help humans
    perform tasks (stone, wood, and bone)

Neolithic Times page 13
  • Neolithic ? New Stone Age (8,000 to 4,000 B.C.)

Why Was Farming Important? page 13
  • Agricultural Revolution (a.k.a. Neolithic
  • domestication of plants and animals (domesticate
    means tame)
  • begins in different places at different times
  • happens gradually over time
  • hunting/gathering ? a settled, agrarian lifestyle
  • most important event in human history?

Why Was Farming Important? page 13
Why Was Farming Important? page 13
The Benefits of a Settled Life page 15
  • specialization the development of different
  • only possible because of the steady supply of
    food provided by agriculture
  • Bronze Age c. 3000 to 1200 B.C.
  • copper tin bronze

Ötzi the Iceman page 12
Comparing the Neolithic and Paleolithic Ages
page 14
Paleolithic Neolithic
Description of Art and Crafts Cave paintings, usually of animals Pottery and carved objects out of wood shelters and tombs
How Food Was Obtained Hunting and gathering Farming and herding
Adaptations Use of fire language simple tools and shelter More advanced houses and places of worship specialization use of copper and bronze
Work of Women and Men Women gathered food and cared for children men hunted Women cared for children and took care of the household men herded, farmed, and protected the village
Chapter 1, Section 1 Questions
  1. Who are archaeologists and what do they study?
  2. Why were Paleolithic people nomads?
  3. Give two examples of jobs that came about because
    of specialization.
  4. Why do some historians consider the agricultural
    revolution to be the most important event in
    human history? (Explain what came about because
    of the agricultural revolution.)

Mesopotamian Civilization
  • Chapter 1, Section 2, page 16

Chapter 1, Section 2 Objectives
  • After this lesson, students will be able to
  • identify the important contributions that the
    people of Sumer made to later peoples.
  • explain how the Sumerian city-states gave way to
    later empires, such as the Babylonian Empire.

Mesopotamian Civilization page 17
  • Civilizations are complex societies.
  • characteristics
  • cities
  • organized government
  • art
  • religion
  • class division
  • writing system

Mesopotamian Civilization page 17
  • Why did the characteristics of civilization
  • cities ? populations on the rise
    safety/security trade centers
  • art ? result of specialization and food
  • government ? decision makers to keep order and
    make plans for food supplies and building
  • religion ? keeps things running smoothly
  • class divisions ? result of wealth and positions
    of power
  • writing systems ? developed to keep records and
    pass on ideas

Why Were River Valleys Important? page 17
  • Early civilizations are centered near rivers.
  • Why?
  • food (irrigation for agriculture and
  • water supply
  • transportation
  • trade

Why Were River Valleys Important? page 17
The Rise of Sumer page 18
  • Mesopotamia Greek for the land between the
  • the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
  • a.k.a. the cradle of civilization
  • in an area referred to as the Fertile Crescent

The Rise of Sumer page 18
The Rise of Sumer page 18
The Rise of Sumer page 18
  • physical characteristics
  • hot, dry climate
  • desert, rocky mountains
  • limited resources (building materials)
  • no natural borders
  • rivers flooded unpredictably ? a blessing and a
  • flooding left behind fertile soil
  • unpredictability could be dangerous (RELIGION!)
  • solution build dams, channels, and walls as
    irrigation systems (a system meant to bring water
    to crops)

The Rise of Sumer page 18
What Were City States? page 19
  • Sumer early civilization in southern
    Mesopotamia that became prosperous around 3000
  • made up of city-states independently governed
    cities and the territory they control
  • prominent city-states Ur, Uruk, Lagash, Umma

Gods and Rulers page 19
  • polytheistic more than one god, in the case of
    Mesopotamia, thousands of gods
  • deities over parts of the universe (e.g. sky or
    earth), natural phenomena (e.g. flooding),
    human activities (e.g. metal working or basket
  • multitude of good and bad demons
  • Priests were very powerful.
  • Concept of afterlife was not very pleasant.
  • ziggurat (mountain of god) grand temple with
    a shrine at the top, like a giant square wedding

Gods and Rulers page 19
What Was Life Like in Sumer? page 20
  • Class Divisions
  • upper class (kings, priests, government
    officials, landholders)
  • middle class (artisans skilled workers who made
    metal products, cloth, or pottery, merchants,
    farmers, fishers)
  • lower class (slaves)
  • Generalities
  • Small mud-brick houses
  • women had some rights
  • most were farmers

Why Was Writing Important? page 20
  • cuneiform (means wedge-shaped) Sumerian
    system of writing made up of wedge shaped
  • wedge shaped marks cut into damp clay tablets
    with a sharpened reed
  • scribes record keepers, often went on to become
    government officials

Sumerian Literature page 20
  • Epic of Gilgamesh
  • worlds oldest known story (c. 2100 B.C.)
  • follows Gilgamesh, a hero who travels around the
    world performing great deeds

Advances in Science and Math page 21
  • Other important Sumerian inventions include
  • the wagon wheel
  • the plow
  • the sailboat
  • they were among the first to use bronze
  • mathematical concepts (geometry)
  • number system based on 60 (time and 360 circle)

Sargon and Hammurabi page 23
  • Sargon of Akkad
  • king who conquered all of Mesopotamia
  • set up the first empire (a group of many
    different lands under one ruler)
  • Babylonian Empire
  • Amorites invaded Mesopotamia (2000 B.C.)
  • capital at Babylon

Sargon and Hammurabi page 23
  • Hammurabi
  • Babylonian king
  • best known for creating a legal code the Code
    of Hammurabi
  • covered many aspects of daily life
  • eye for an eye some of the time (no equality
    before the law)

Sargon and Hammurabi page 23
  • The Code of Hammurabi

21. If any one break a hole into a house (break
in to steal), he shall be put to death before
that hole and be buried. 22. If any one is
committing a robbery and is caught, then he shall
be put to death. 195. If a son strike his father,
his hands shall be cut off.
Sargon and Hammurabi page 23
  • The Code of Hammurabi

196. If a noble-man put out the eye of another
noble-man, his eye shall be put out. 198. If he
put out the eye of a freed man, or break the bone
of a freed man, he shall pay one gold mina. 199.
If he put out the eye of a slave, or break the
bone of a mans slave, he shall pay one-half of
its value.
Chapter 1, Section 2 Questions
  1. What is a civilization? What factors does it
  2. What is a city-state?
  3. What is cuneiform? What were the record keepers
    trained to use it called?
  4. What did Hammurabi do that was noteworthy?

The First Empires
  • Chapter 1, Section 3, page 26

Chapter 1, Section 3 Objectives
  • After this lesson, students will be able to
  • describe how Assyrias military power and
    well-organized government allowed it to build a
    vast empire in Mesopotamia.
  • discuss the important landmarks built in Babylon
    by the Chaldean Empire and the development of the
    first calendar with a seven day week.

The Assyrians page 27
  • created a military empire in Mesopotamia and
  • Sennacherib moved capital to Nineveh
  • Library of Nineveh
  • glorified military strength

The Assyrians page 27
  • Why were they able to conquer?
  • large, well organized army (including cavalry and
  • iron weapons
  • How did they manage their territory?
  • strong-arm rule
  • use of provinces, or political districts
  • roads

The Chaldeans page 29
  • 612 B.C. Medes and Chaldeans burn Assyrian
    capital at Nineveh
  • rebuilt capital at Babylon
  • King Nebuchadnezzar
  • built the Hanging Gardens, one of the Seven
    Wonders of the Ancient World, to please his wife
  • replaced by the Persians

The City of Babylon page 30
  • Babylon
  • extremely rich city
  • caravans groups of traveling merchants
  • walls so thick a four horse chariot could drive
    on them
  • science
  • astronomy study of the stars (astronomers)
  • sundials

Chapter 1, Section 3 Questions
  1. Why was the Assyrian army a powerful fighting
    force? (two reasons)
  2. What is a province?
  3. Who most likely built the Hanging Gardens? Why
    did he build them?
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