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Energy:

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Energy Nuclear Energy When the nucleus splits (fission), nuclear energy is released in the form of heat energy and light energy. Nuclear energy is also released when ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Energy:


1
Energy
2
Nature of Energy
  • Energy is all around you!.
  • You can see energy as light.
  • And you can feel it as wind.

3
Nature of Energy
  • You use energy when you
  • hit a baseball
  • lift your book bag.
  • Lay on your bed and compress the mattress
    springs.

4
Intro to Energy
  • Living organisms need energy for growth and
    movement.

5
Intro to Energy
  • Energy is involved when
  • a bird flies.
  • a bomb explodes.
  • rain falls from the sky.
  • electricity flows in a wire.

6
Intro to Energy
  • What is energy that it can be involved in so many
    different activities?
  • Energy can be defined as the ability to do work.
  • If an object or organism does work the object or
    organism uses energy.
  • exerts a force over a distance to move an object

7
Intro to Energy
  • Energy and work have a direct relationship so
    both measured in.
  • joules (J) 1 Newton- Meter
  • ?work done when object is moved 1 meter by
    1 Newton of force
  • In addition to using energy to do work, objects
    gain energy because work is being done on them.

8
States of Energy
  • The most common energy conversion is the
    conversion between potential and kinetic energy.
  • All forms of energy can be in either of two
    states
  • Potential
  • Kinetic

9
States of Energy
  • Kinetic Energy is the energy of motion.
  • Potential Energy is
  • stored energy.

10
Kinetic Energy
  • The energy of motion is called kinetic energy.
  • The faster an object moves, the more kinetic
    energy it has.
  • The greater the mass of a moving object, the more
    kinetic energy it has.
  • Kinetic energy depends on both mass and velocity.

11
Kinetic Energy
  • K.E. (1/2) mass x velocity
  • What has a greater affect of kinetic energy, mass
    or velocity? Why?

2
12
Potential Energy
  • Potential Energy is stored energy.
  • Stored chemically in fuel, the nucleus of atom,
    and in foods.
  • Or stored because of the work done on it
  • Stretching a rubber band.
  • Winding a watch.
  • Pulling back on a bows arrow.
  • Lifting a brick high in the air.

13
Gravitational Potential Energy
  • Potential energy that is dependent on height is
    called gravitational potential energy.

14
Gravitational Potential Energy
  • A waterfall, a suspension bridge, and a falling
    snowflake all have gravitational potential energy.

15
Gravitational Potential Energy
  • If you stand on a 3-meter diving board, you have
    3 times the G.P.E, than you had on a 1-meter
    diving board.

16
Gravitational Potential Energy
  • The bigger they are the harder they fall is not
    just a saying. Its true. Objects with more mass
    have greater G.P.E.
  • The formula to find G.P.E. is
  • G.P.E. Mass X Height.

17
Elastic Potential Energy
  • Energy that is stored due to being stretched or
    compressed is called elastic potential energy.

18
Kinetic-Potential Energy Conversion
Roller coasters work because of the energy that
is built into the system. Initially, the cars are
pulled mechanically up the tallest hill, giving
them a great deal of potential energy. From that
point, the conversion between potential and
kinetic energy powers the cars throughout the
entire ride.
19
Kinetic vs. Potential Energy
At the point of maximum potential energy, the car
has minimum kinetic energy.
20
Kinetic-Potential Energy Conversions
  • As a basketball player throws the ball into the
    air, various energy conversions take place.

21
Ball speeds up
Ball slows down
22
Forms of Energy
  • The 6 main forms of energy are
  • Mechanical
  • Thermal (Heat)
  • Chemical
  • Electrical
  • Electromagnetic
  • (Radiant -Light)
  • Nuclear

23
Mechanical Energy
  • When work is done to an object, it acquires
    energy to move. The energy it acquires is known
    as mechanical energy.
  • Involves moving parts
  • The conversion of Potential Energy to Kinetic
    Energy is key

24
Mechanical Energy
  • When you kick a football, you give mechancal
    energy to the football to make it move.

25
Mechanical Energy
When you throw a balling ball, you give it
energy. When that bowling ball hits the pins,
some of the energy is transferred to the pins
(transfer of momentum).
26
Mechanical Energy
  • When you eat food, you are have energy to go for
    a run.
  • You are moving due to mechanical energy
  • When a windmills propellers move from the wind
    blowing, they move due to mechanical energy
  • When you hit a golf ball during mini golf, the
    golf ball moves due to mechanical energy.

27
Thermal or Heat Energy
  • The motion between atoms is called heat energy,
    because moving particles produce heat.
  • Think about friction and what happens when you
    rub your hands together
  • Changes in temperature
  • Becoming colder and hotter are both results of
    Thermal Energy

28
Chemical Energy
  • Chemical Energy is stored in chemical bonds
  • And when bonds
  • are broken, the
  • energy is given off.
  • This energy does
  • work

29
Chemical Energy
  • Fuel and food are forms of stored chemical
    energy.
  • Battery

30
Electrical Energy
  • Electrical charges are involved
  • They exert forces that do work
  • It also occurs in nature
  • Ex lightning bolts, static electricity

31
Electrical Energy
  • Starts in natural gas power plant
  • Power lines carry electrical energy into your
    home in the form of electricity.

32
Electromagnetic Energy
  • A.K.A Radiant
  • Light is another form of electromagnetic energy.
  • Ultraviolet, heat, microwaves, and radar
  • Carried by X-rays, radio waves, and laser light.
  • Full Spectrum
  • of light
  • ? Visible light
  • ? Rainbow

33
Nuclear Energy
  • The nucleus of an atom is the source of nuclear
    energy.

34
Nuclear Energy
  • When the nucleus splits (fission), nuclear energy
    is released in the form of heat energy and light
    energy.
  • Nuclear energy is also released when nuclei
    collide at high speeds and join (fuse).

35
Nuclear Energy
The suns energy is produced from a nuclear
fusion reaction. The light and UV Rays are the
result
36
Nuclear Energy
  • Nuclear energy is the most concentrated form of
    energy.
  • Nuclear power plants use and provide it

37
Energy Conversion
  • Energy can be changed from one form to another.
    Changes in the form of energy are called energy
    conversions

38
Energy conversions
  • All forms of energy can be converted into other
    forms.
  • The suns energy through solar panels can be
    converted directly into electricity.
  • Ex Green plants
  • suns energy (electromagnetic)
  • starches and sugars
  • (chemical energy).

39
Other energy conversions
  • In a battery,
  • chemical energy ? electrical energy
  • In a waterfall or dam
  • Mechanical ? electrical energy in a
    generator
  • Electric motor
  • chemical ? electromagnetic ? mechanical
    energy.

40
Energy Conversions
  • In an automobile engine, fuel is burned to
    convert chemical energy into heat energy. The
    heat energy is then changed into mechanical
    energy.

41
Chemical ? Heat ?Mechanical
Cars
42
The Law of Conservation of Energy
  • Energy can be neither created nor destroyed by
    ordinary means.
  • It can only be converted from one form to
    another.
  • If energy seems to disappear, then scientists
    look for it leading to many important
    discoveries.

43
Natural Resources
  • Type types
  • Non-Renewable
  • Renewable

44
Non- Renewable Resources
  • Energy resources that exist in a limited amount
  • Cannot be replaced once used
  • Except over millions of years
  • Types
  • Coal
  • Oil/Petroleum Fossil Fuels
  • Natural gas

45
Fossil Fuels
  • Fuels made underground
  • Remains of dead plants and animals
  • Heat from core of Earth and pressure from being
    buried
  • Account for the majority of the worlds energy use
  • Inexpensive and easily available BUT create
    pollution

46
Coal
  • Most abundant most
  • commonly burned fossil fuel in the world
  • Burns very easily
  • We get it through mining
  • Used for heat and
  • electricity

47
Oil/Petroleum Natural Gas
  • Used for heat and electricity
  • Very important sources of energy for
    transportation, farming, and other industries
    (factories)
  • Get it through drilling and pumping

48
Natural Gas Power Plants
  • chemical energy in the gas
  • gas is burned, releasing heat energy
  • heat energy is used to make high-pressure steam
  • The steam turns a turbine
  • which transforms the heat energy to mechanical
    energy
  • the turbine turns an electric generator,
    producing electrical energy.

49
Renewable Resources
  • Resources of energy exist in an unlimited amount
  • They CAN be replaced once used
  • Takes a short period of time
  • Types
  • Hydroelectric
  • Solar
  • Geothermal
  • Wind
  • NOT EFFICIENT

50
Hydroelectric
  • Obtained from flowing water
  • As water flows downhill, gravitational PE ? KE
  • KE is used to turn turbines connected to electric
    generators
  • Dams are used to do this

51
Solar
  • Using the suns rays to make electricity
  • Done through use of solar cells (panels)
  • Every 15 min, Earth receives enough energy from
    sun to meet the energy needs of world for one
    year

52
Geothermal
  • Thermal (heat) energy beneath Earths surface.
  • Inside Earth is hot and heats water underground
  • Make water into steam to turn turbines of
    electric generators to create electricity

53
Wind
  • Energy gained from the wind blowing
  • Wind turbines (fans) use the movement of air to
    convert wind energy into electricity in
    generators
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