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ENV 506 INTEGRATED SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

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Title: ENV 506 INTEGRATED SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT


1
ENV 506INTEGRATED SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
  • LECTURER
  • ABD. RAHIM DAL
  • FACULTY OF HEALTH SCIENCES
  • UiTM

2
INTRODUCTION
  • A key thrust of National Vision Policy is
    pursuing environmentally sustainable development
    to reinforce long-term growth.
  • Waste represent social, political,economic,
    physical and environmental concerns.
  • Preventing and managing waste is the heart of
    sustainable development.
  • Plan for future

3
STATUS OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN MALAYSIA
  • An ever-expanding population and high rates of
    economic development in Malaysia resulted in the
    generation of vast amount of waste.
  • It is estimated about 17,000 ton/day of waste
    generated in Peninsular Malaysia.

4
Cont
  • Average per capita generation of waste 0.85
    kg/cap/day.
  • About 1.5 kg/cap/day in Kuala Lumpur.
  • About 76 of waste generated are collected.
  • 1-2 is recycled and the remainder is taken to
    disposal sites.

5
Cont
  • About 5 waste collected in KL are reused and
    recycled.
  • Over 40 of 175 disposal sites are operating as
    dumpsite.
  • Intermediate treatment is limited to small-scale
    thermal treatment plant in resorted islands.

6
ROLE OF FEDERAL, STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT
  • Three level of Government
  • Federal Government
  • - Ministry of Housing Local Government
  • - Economic Planning Unit, Prime Minister Dpt.
  • - Department of Environment
  • - Ministry of Health
  • State Government
  • Local Authorities

7
ROLE OF FEDERAL GOVERNMENT
  • Local Government Department,
  • MHLG handles all matters related to Solid Waste
    Management funding and policy development
  • this is done in coordination with the Economic
    Planning Unit and others government agencies.

8
Cont
  • Interagency Cooperation
  • MHLG has established a Technical Committee on
    SWM
  • comprising of relevant government agencies,
    Local University Researchers and Research
    Institution.

9
RESEARCH ON SWM BY MHLG AND OTHER AGENCIES
  • Study on Strategic Plan for SWM.
  • Study on Safety Closure Rehabilitation of
    Landfill Sites in Malaysia.
  • Study on Solid Waste Composition
    Characteristic.
  • Study on Composting.

10
ROLE OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT
  • Local Authorities are the implementing agencies
    and have direct responsibility over solid waste
    collection, treatment and disposal.

11
LEGISLATION RELATED TO SWM
  • Local Government Act 1976
  • Street, Drainage and Building Act 1974
  • Environment Quality Act 1974
  • Refuse Collection, Removal and Disposals By-Laws.

12
THE WAY FORWARD Strategic Plan
  • Principles to guide development of Strategic
    Plan
  • Direct participation of Federal Government.
  • Privatization of SWM services
  • Sustainable waste management
  • Inter cooperation amongst government and
    stakeholders.
  • Public awareness program
  • Development of technical and managerial capability

13
THE WAY FORWARD
  • Waste Hierarchy
  • (Current Status)
  • Reduce
  • Reuse
  • Recycling
  • Intermediate
  • Processing
  • Disposal

5 recovery
95 Landfill
14
THE WAY FORWARD
  • Waste Hierarchy
  • (Targeted 2020)
  • Reduce
  • Reuse
  • Recycling
  • Intermediate
  • Processing
  • Disposal

gt 20 Recycling
15 Intermediate Processing
lt 65 Landfill
15
THE WAY FORWARD
  • Waste Hierarchy
  • (FUTURE)
  • Reduce
  • Reuse
  • Recycling
  • Intermediate
  • Processing
  • Disposal

16
THE WAY FORWARD
  • Legislation Institutional
  • Review existing legislation
  • Enable federalization and privatization
  • Enhance waste minimization
  • Identifying all stakeholders
  • Institutional strengthening

17
Cont
  • Privatization
  • To improve SWM services
  • To relinquish financial burden
  • Wider involvement by the private sector
  • Final stage of agreement (transition period)

18
Benefit of private Sector Participation
  • UK US Studies
  • Costs have been at least 25 lower due to
    rationalized operation and greater management
    flexibility.
  • Canadian Studies
  • Costs have been at least 25 lower in most
    provinces
  • 60 lower in Atlantic Province
  • High costs in Quebec Province were due to older
    and large equipment, large crew sizes and lower
    productivity.

19
  • Latin American Studies
  • Costs have been at least 50 lower due to higher
    labor and vehicle productivity
  • Malaysian Study
  • Costs have been at least 20 lower due to grater
    efficiency

20
Cont
  • Technical Aspect
  • Integrated solid waste management facilities
  • New Facilities with appropriate technology
  • - Transfer Station
  • - Thermal Treatment Plant
  • - Composting Plant
  • - Sanitary Landfill

21
INTEGRATED SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT (ZERO EMISSION)
Solid waste management facilities
Persekitaran Kita
Pengurusan sisa pepejal yang baik memerlukan
pendekatan yang bersepadu.
Kitarsemula Sisa Tenaga
Slag
Bahan Binaan
Bahan Tidak Terbakar
atau
Kitarsemula
Buang Ke Tapak Pelupusan
22
Cont
  • Public Participation
  • Lack of public awareness in solid waste
    management.
  • Require full attention
  • A key to success in waste minimization and solid
    waste management.

23
SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
  • Definition
  • The discipline associated with the control of
    generation, storage, collection, transfer and
    transport, processing and disposal of solid waste
    in manner that is accordance with the best
    principles of public health, economic,
    engineering, conservation, aesthetics and
    environmental consideration.

24
ELEMENT OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
  • The activities associated with the management of
    solid waste from the point of generation to final
    disposal has been group into five elements.
  • Generation
  • Storage
  • Collection,
  • Transportation and Transfer
  • Treatment
  • Disposal

25
  • WHAT IS INTEGRATED SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT ?

26
Definition
  • The selection and application of suitable
    techniques, technologies and management programs
    to achieve specific waste management objective
    and goals

27
Hierarchy of ISWM
  • Source Reduction
  • Recycle
  • Waste Transformation
  • Landfilling
  • Monitoring and Evaluation

28
Hierarchy of ISWM
  • Source Reduction
  • highest rank of the ISWM
  • most effective way to reduce the quantity waste,
    costs env. Impacts.
  • Involve reducing the amount and/or toxicity of
    the waste
  • May occur through the design, manufacture,
    packaging of products

29
Cont
  • minimum toxic content,
  • Minimum volume of material
  • Longer useful life
  • May also occur at the household, commercial,
    industrial facility.
  • Selective buying patterns reuse of product
    material.

30
Cont
  • Recycle
  • Second highest rank
  • Important factor in reducing the demand or
    resources the amount of waste requiring
    disposal by landfill.
  • Involved
  • separation and collection of waste materials
  • Preparation of the material for Reuse,
    Reprocessing, remanufacture

31
  • Reuse, reprocessing and remanufacture of these
    materials

32
Cont
  • Waste Transformation
  • Involved the physical, chemical or biological
    alteration
  • Improve the efficiency of SWM operation systems
  • To recover reusable recyclable materials
  • To recover conversion products energy
  • Heat biogas
  • Reduce use of landfill capacity

33
Cont
  • Landfilling
  • For solid waste that cannot be recycle no
    future use
  • Residual matter remaining after separation
  • Residual matter remaining after recovery of
    combustion products / energy
  • Involves the controlled disposal of waste

34
  • Monitoring and Evaluation

35
  • WHAT IS WASTE?

36
DEFINITIONS
  • Definition 1
  • Defined as wastes arising from human and animal
    activities that are normally solid and unwanted
  • Definition 2
  • By products of human activities. Physically it
    contains the same materials as are found in
    useful products

37
Cont
  • Definition 3
  • Refuse is define as putrescrible and
    non-putrescrible solid wastes including garbage,
    ashes, rubbish, street cleanings, dead animal and
    industrial wastes

38
Cont
  • Definition 4
  • Garbage is the putrescrible animal or vegetable
    waste generated from the handling, preparation,
    consumption of food and is organic in nature

39
Cont
  • Definition 5
  • Ash is the residue i.e. the waste product of fuel
    used for industrial purposes. It is incombustible
    part of the fuel and is usually used for the
    landfilling or as a constituent in cement making.

40
Cont
  • Definition 6
  • Rubbish is combustible and non-combustible part
    of refuse like paper, rags, wood, and glass

41
CLASSIFICATION OF SOLID WASTE
  • Five main categories of solid waste
  • Municipal Solid Waste
  • Agriculture waste
  • Industrial waste
  • Hazardous waste
  • Medical waste

42
JENIS SISA PEPEJAL TERKAWAL
  • Sisa Pepejal Awam.
  • Sisa Pepejal Import.
  • Sisa Pepejal Isi Rumah.
  • Sisa Pepejal Keinstitusian.
  • Sisa Pepejal Komersial. Sisa Pepejal Pembinaan.
  • Sisa Pepejal Perindustrian.

43
Municipal Solid Waste
  • mainly the household waste include commercial
    waste and institutional waste.
  • it composition depends on factors such as living
    standard, geographical location, type of housing
    and seasons.

44
Agriculture waste
  • Wastes and residues resulting from diverse
    agricultural activities include plant residue and
    animal waste.
  • food processing waste is consider as agriculture
    waste
  • Some are considered as hazardous waste

45
Industrial waste
  • comprises waste from industrial processes
  • E.g construction, fabrication, manufacturing,
    refineries, chemical plants
  • Some of these could also include hazardous waste

46
Hazardous waste
  • Wastes or combination of wastes that pose a
    substantial present or potential hazard to human.
  • special group of wastes define by certain
    criteria containing substances causing hazard.
  • Sometimes hospital waste is also classified as
    hazardous waste

47
Cont
  • the hazard effect could be due to any or all of
    following
  • ignitability
  • corrosivity
  • reactivity
  • toxicity
  • infectivity

48
Medical Waste
  • Hospital waste includes hazardous and
    non-hazardous waste.
  • hazardous waste - clinical waste
  • Non-hazardous -
  • Clinical wastes are any waste consist human
    tissue, blood or other body fluids, excretion
    include infectious waste.

49
Urban waste
  • In the form of solid, semi-solid, liquid and
    gases
  • Could organic and anorganic
  • could divide into six types

50
Type of urban waste
  • household wastes
  • city wastes
  • commercial wastes
  • industrial wastes
  • liquid waste
  • gaseous wastes

51
Household wastes
  • consist of wastes generated in the preparation
    of food
  • mainly garbage, fuel, residue, house sweeping,
    household discard, garden wastes and animal dung.

52
City wastes
  • derived from street cleaning, park, school.
  • consist mainly paper, dry leaves, animal dung,
    etc.

53
commercial wastes
  • from office, shops and markets, restaurants,
    hotel
  • include high proportion of paper, cardboard,
    wood, food waste ,glass and plastic.
  • Hospital waste some time include in commercial
    wastes.

54
Industrial wastes
  • from the manufacturing and the processing
    industries, construction .
  • proposition of wastes depending on the type of
    industry.
  • include metal ores, wood, lime, tiles, food
    waste, special waste and hazardous wastes.

55
Liquid waste
  • include mainly domestic sewage and factory
    effluents.
  • could be organic and inorganic liquid.
  • e.g.
  • Agro wastes
  • chemical factory

56
gaseous wastes
  • could be from exhaust fume of factories,
    incinerator and chimney discharges.

57
Sources of solid wastes
  • domestic or residential
  • municipal services
  • commercial
  • Institutional
  • construction and demolition
  • treatment plant site
  • industrial
  • agricultural

58
  • Type of Solid Waste

59
Domestic or residential
Type of Solid Waste
60
Commercial
Facilities, activities /location
Type of solid waste
61
Institutional
Facilities, activities /location
Type of solid waste
Paper, cardboard, plastics, wood, food waste,
glass, metal, special waste, hazardous waste,
ets.
62
Construction and Demolition
Facilities, activities /location
Type of solid waste
Wood, steel, concrete, dirt, etc.
63
Municipal Services
Facilities, activities /location
Type of solid waste
Special waste, rubbish, street sweepings,
landscape and tree trimmings, catch basin debris,
general waste from parks, beaches and
recreational areas.
64
Treatment plant sites
Facilities, activities /location
Type of solid waste
Treatment plant wastes, principally composed of
residual sludges.
65
Municipal Solid Waste
Facilities, activities /location
Type of solid waste
All as above
66
Industrial
Facilities, activities /location
Type of solid waste
Industrial process wastes, scrap materials,
etc. Non-industrial wastes including food
wastes, rubbish, ashes, demolition construction
wastes, special wastes, hazardous waste.
67
Agricultural
Facilities, activities /location
Type of solid waste
Spoiled food wastes, agricultural wastes,
rubbish, hazardous wastes.
68
  • WEEK THREE

69
ELEMENT OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
  • The activities associated with the management of
    solid waste from the point of generation to final
    disposal has been group into six elements.
  • Waste Generation
  • Waste Storage
  • Waste Collection
  • Waste Transfer and Transport
  • Waste Treatment and Disposal

70
Waste Generation
  • Urbanization and industrialization - many
    changes in the quality and quantity of solid
    wastes generated
  • Some of the changes included
  • change in waste characteristic
  • increased volume of waste
  • use modern techniques in MSWM
  • concentration of large population in a small area

71
Cont.
  • The type of produced depends upon various factors
  • standard of living
  • occupation
  • habits of dietary
  • Average per capita generation of waste 0.85
    kg/cap/day. About 1.5 kg/cap/day in Kuala Lumpur.

72
Cont.
  • Housing area generates the largest amount of
    waste.
  • The high income group residential areas - high
    percentage of leaves, glass and plastic
  • Market areas - large percentage of garbage and
    leaves,
  • Hay straw is the large proposition in
    commercial areas

73
Cont.
  • Slum areas higher percentage of hay straw ,
    lower percentage of glass

74
WASTE GENERATION IN MALAYSIA
Source MHLG 2003
75
(No Transcript)
76
(No Transcript)
77
International Trend in MSW Generation
  • Most Asian country produce lower quantities of
    waste (mean 0.56 kg/capita/day) except Japan.
  • The developed industrial countries generate more
    (mean 0.96 kg/capita/day).
  • Japan, Singapore and Hong Kong show the pattern
    of waste generation similar to EC countries (0.86
    kg/capita/day)

78
  • US is the largest per capita generating of MSW
    (1.97 kg/capita/day).
  • Scandinavian countries generated above the per
    capita EC average (gt0.96 kg)
  • The population size does not influence the rate
    of waste generation.

79
Waste composition
  • Malaysia generate about 72 compostable waste,
    comprising
  • organic waste
  • paper
  • textile/leather
  • wood
  • Garbage is the main component - 37 to 48
  • Paper and cardboard is the second most abundant
    component (18 to 30 is)

80
Cont.
  • Plastic waste was at 9 16
  • KL generate only 9 plastic waste compare to 14
    16 generate other three cities around KL
  • The composition of MSW reflects the affluence of
    the society
  • The way of life
  • Economic status
  • Social behaviour

81
Waste Composition (K.L.)
No. Source Of Waste Residential Commercial Institutional
1. Food waste organic 63.1 76.8 40.6
2. Mix paper 6.7 7.6 16.0
3. Mix plastics 14.3 9.0 17.2
4. Textiles 1.7 0.5 0.7
5. Rubber leather 0.6 0.3 0.1
6. Yard waste 6.3 0.9 18.4
7. Glass 2.1 0.9 1.5
8. Ferrous 2.3 1.4 2.8
9. Aluminum 0.1 0.1 1.3
10. Others 2.8 2.5 1.4
Total (2,3,7,8,9) 25.5 19.0 38.8
Source Nazeri 2002
82
Composition of refuse from the municipality of
KL, Petaling Jaya and Penang for the year 1990
Penang Kuala Lumpur Petaling Jaya
Paper cardboard 25.5 30.0 27.0
Textile leather 3.4 2.5 3.1
Plastics 11.2 9.8 16.4
Rubber 0.8 0.2 2.0
wood 14.4 3.2 7.0
garbage 32.8 40.8 36.5
Metal ferrous non-ferrous 2.6 4.6 3.9
Glass ceramics 1.4 3.0 3.1
Others 8 5.9 1.0
83
  • STORAGE

84
Waste Storage
  • Including the waste handling, processing,
    separation and storage.
  • The type of container use is highly variable
    depend on the amount of waste generated, the
    frequency of collection and whether waste
    separation is mandated.
  • The most commonly used in Malaysia are the
    plastic container.
  • Daily collection 7 11 litres
  • Weekly collection 20 30 litres

85
WASTE HANDLING
  • Refer to the activities associated with managing
    solid waste until they are place in the
    containers used for storage.
  • The activities will vary depending on
  • Type of waste materials are separated
  • Type of collection service
  • May also requires to move the loaded containers
    to the collection point.

86
Residential dwellings
  • Three categories most often used
  • Low-rise dwelling
  • Under 4 stories
  • Single family detached
  • Single family attach
  • multifamily

87
Cont.
  • Tenants are responsible for placing the
    containers of solid waste around their dwelling.
  • Type of container used depend on whether waste
    separation is mandated.
  • Home owner will placed the containers filled with
    wastes to the street curb.

88
  • Medium-rise
  • From 4 to 7 stories
  • Handling methods for Low- and medium-rise
    Apartment depending on the waste storage location
    and collection method.
  • Location of storage include basement storage,
    outdoor storage, occasionally, compactor storage.

89
  • High-rise
  • Over 7 stories
  • The most common methods are
  • Waste are pick up by building maintenance
    personnel
  • Waste are taken to the basement/service area by
    tenants
  • Waste are placed by the tenants in vertical
    chute.

90
Cont.
  • Waste discharged in chutes are collected in large
    containers.
  • The chutes are available in diameter from 12 to
    36 inches ( ) and the most
    common diameter is 24 inches.
  • The use of disinfection and sanitizing unit as
    recommended.

91
Separation
  • Separation of waste components including
  • Paper
  • Cardboard
  • Aluminum can
  • Glass
  • plastic containers

92
Cont.
Factors that must be consider in the onsite
storage include
  • The effects of storage on the waste components.
  • The type container to be used
  • The container location
  • Public health and aesthetics.

93
Cont.
  • Effects of storage on the waste components.
  • Effects of storing wastes include
  • Biological decomposition
  • Waste will immediately start to undergo
    microbiological decomposition (putrefaction)
  • If waste are allowed in storage containers for
    extended period of time, flies will start to
    breed and odors compounds can develop.

94
Cont.
  • The absorption of fluids
  • Components of solid waste have differing initial
    moisture contents, re-equilibration take place.
  • The moisture will become distributed throughout
    the waste.
  • The degree of absorption depend on the length of
    time.
  • Waste also can absorb water from rainfall that
    enter into container.

95
Cont.
  • The contamination of waste components
  • Major waste components may be contaminated by
    small amount of waste.
  • E.g motor oil, paints, household cleaner.
  • Effect reduce the value of the individual waste
    components for recycling.

96
Types of containers
  • The type and capacities of container used depend
    on
  • the characteristics and type of solid waste to be
    collected.
  • type of collection system.
  • The collection frequency
  • The space available for placement of containers.

97
Cont.
  • Low-rise dwelling (manual curbside collection)
  • Container should be light enough to handle
    easily.
  • Injury to collector have results from handling
    container that loaded to heavy.
  • Upper weight limit between 40 to 65lb.
  • 30 gal. galvanized metal or plastic container is
    proven the least expensive of storage for
    low-rise dwelling.

98
Cont.
  • The choice container materials depend on the
    preferences to the home-owner.
  • Galvanize metal tend to be noisy when being
    emptied and can be damage.
  • Some plastic containers tend to crack under
    ultraviolet ray and the freezing temperature.
  • Temporary and disposal containers are routinely
    used as temporary remove along the waste.
  • The problem of temporary containers is difficult
    to loading them.

99
Cont.
  • The use of all types and different grades of
    container liners is common.
  • A disadvantage in the using of liner, if the
    waste are to be separated by component or they
    are to be combusted, has to be break up.

100
Cont.
  • Low-rise dwelling (mechanized curbside)
  • The containers are designed specifically to work
    with the container-unloading mechanism attach to
    the collection vehicle.
  • The container size is from about 75 to 120
    gallons. 90 gallons container being the most
    common.

101
Cont.
  • Low- medium-rise apartment
  • The two most common types have been use are
  • Individual plastic or galvanized metal
  • Large portable or fix container
  • The container is kept in enclosed areas which
    easy access to nearby street.
  • The containers are equipped with caster or roller

102
Cont.
  • High-rise apartment
  • Where chutes are available separation storage
    containers are not used.
  • The most common storage for wastes accumulate
    from apartment include
  • Enclosed storage containers or disposal bags
  • Large open-top containers for uncompacted waste,
    bulky items,
  • Large open-top container for recycle materials.

103
Cont.
  • Commercial facilities
  • Types of container depend to a large extents the
    on the methods use of collection
  • Usually large open-top containers are used for
    unseparated waste
  • The use of container equipped with compaction
    mechanism
  • Special onsite processing equipment may also be
    used recoverable material

104
Cont.
  • Container storage locations
  • Depend on the type of dwelling or commercial and
    industrial facilities, available space and access
    to collection service.
  • Residential dwelling
  • Low-rise detached dwellings usually are placed
  • At the sides of rear of the house
  • In alley
  • In or next to the garage

105
Commercial industrial facilities
  • depend on the location of available space
    service access condition
  • location type of containers not own by the
    commercial or industries Solid waste that
  • The contents of large containers are removed by
    elevator to the

106
Cont.
  • Large storage container
  • Compactors used in conjunction with storage
    containers
  • Stationary compactors
  • Other processing equipments.

107
Cont.
  • The older large office commercial buildings
    are used inadequate equipment and tend to create
    handling problem.
  • All of the office paper is now collected for
    recycle.

108
Public Health Aesthetics
  • Public Health
  • Infestation of vermin insects mechanical
    vectors
  • Most effective control is proper sanitation.
  • Use container with tight lids.
  • The period washing the container
  • Periodic removal biodegradable materials
  • Excellent description of solid waste-disease
    relationship

109
Cont.
  • Aesthetics
  • Related to the production of odors
    un-maintenance of sanitary condition.
  • Odors can be controlled
  • through the use container with tight lids
  • Reasonable collection frequency.
  • If odors persist, the contents of the container
    spray with the masking deodorant
  • To maintain aesthetic condition, the container
    should scrubbed wash periodically

110
Cont.
The common communal storage methods used in Asian
country include
  • Depot
  • simple enclosure of brick wall
  • low public health aesthetic value
  • Commonly found in development countries

111
Cont.
  • Enclosure
  • slightly improvised depot within an enclosure
    around the storage area.
  • Exposed to rain and causes air pollution and
    odors
  • Not suitable in modern society

112
Cont.
  • Fixed storage bins
  • more appropriate and hygienic
  • Occasionally, an irrseponsible people tend to
    burn the refuse in the bin.
  • If not emptied regularly become threat to human
    health.

113
Cont.
  • Portable steel bins
  • commonly used in Malaysia
  • can be easily loaded/unloaded
  • Drum
  • 200 litres drum
  • provided in some cities in Asia

114
Cont.
  • Concrete pipe Section
  • Found in India, Bangladesh and Pakistan
  • Capacity depend on size of pipe
  • scavengers and animal always messing up the bins

115
  • COLLECTION

116
Planning the waste collection system
  • Factors need to be consider
  • population distribution density
  • topography road layout
  • characteristic of the waste quantity
  • disposal method used
  • weather condition
  • type number vehicles available
  • number of location of transfer station
  • road design

117
Collection of solid waste
  • The term collection included
  • picking up of solid waste from the sources,
  • hauling of wastes to the location where the
    contents of the collection vehicle are emptied
  • The unloading of collection vehicle is also
    consider part of the collection operation.
  • The activities associated hauling unloading are
    similar

118
Cont.
  • Activities associated with hauling and unloading
    similar for most collection system
  • The gathering or picking up of SW vary with the
    characteristic of
  • the facilities.
  • Activities.
  • location where wastes are generated.
  • method use for storage of accumulated wastes
    between collections.

119
Cont.
  • Collection in an urban area is difficult and
    complex
  • Development of urban and sub-urban
  • Generation become more diffuse quantity of
    waste increases.
  • The responsible of the municipal or district
    council the privet waste management companies.

120
Low-rise detach dwelling (commingled)
  • Manual method use for collection residential
    waste include
  • The direct lifting carrying of loaded
    containers to the collection vehicle.
  • The rolling the loaded containers on their rims
    to the collection vehicle
  • The use of small lifts for rolling loaded to the
    collection vehicle.

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Cont.
  • The method of waste collection will influence the
    quality and quantity of recovered material and
    the mode of disposal.
  • Basically, four common types of residential
    collection service
  • curb
  • alley
  • setout-setback
  • setout

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Cont.
  • Curb
  • Door to door collection
  • Homeowner responsible for placing the containers.
  • Most common method in Malaysia
  • Terrace houses or link houses
  • material collected from the home by the
    collection crew

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Cont.
  • In other case the collection vehicle equipped
    with auxiliary container then emptied to the
    collection vehicle
  • The use of small satellite vehicles
  • The empty bins are taken back by the owners

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Cont.
  • Disadvantages
  • the bins are messed up by scavengers
  • bin are stolen
  • animal sometimes mess up the bins looking for
    food

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Cont.
  • Alley
  • Door to collection
  • Also call back lane collection
  • Commonly used in many part of Asia

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Cont.
  • Setout-setback
  • Door to collection
  • Containers are set out from homeowners property
    and set back after emptied by additional crew.
  • Use two groups of collectors
  • Faster

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Cont.
  • Setout
  • Door to collection
  • Same as setout-setback except
  • Homeowners is responsible to return the container
    to storage location.
  • Individual house collection
  • bungalow

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Cont.
  • Manual methods
  • Manual methods used for the collection of
    residential waste include
  • The direct lifting carrying of loaded
    containers to vehicle
  • Rolling the loaded container to the vehicle
  • Use small lift for rolling loaded container

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Low- and Medium-rise Apartments
  • Curbside collection is common for most low- and
    medium-rise apartments.
  • Maintenance staff is responsible for transporting
    the containers to the street for curb collection
  • If large containers are used, the collection
    vehicle will equipped with unloading mechanisms.

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High-rise Apartments
  • Usually large containers are used to collect
    wastes large apartment building.
  • The contents of the containers may be emptied
    mechanically or may be hauled to an off-site
    location.

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Commercial industrial Facilities
  • Manual mechanical means are used to collect
    wastes.
  • In many large cities solid wastes are collected
    early morning or late evening
  • Plastic bag, cardboard boxes and other disposal
    container are used in manual collection.
  • Collection usually accomplished with three or
    four person crew

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Cont.
  • containers usually used are
  • Movable containers
  • Container that can be couple to large stationary
    compactor
  • Large capacity open top containers

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Collection of waste (separated at source)
  • Must be collect gathered together before they can
    be recycle.
  • The method of collection include
  • Curbside collection using conventional special
    designed collection vehicle
  • Incidental curb collection
  • Delivery by homeowners to drop-off buy-back
    centers.

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Residential (curbside collection)
  • Recyclable materials are collected separately
    from commingled waste.
  • Some programs require residents to separate
    several different material store in their own
    containers.
  • Other programs only one or two containers to
    store commingled recyclable.
  • The vehicle used are for collect the separated
    waste are
  • standard collection vehicle
  • specialized collection vehicle.

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Type of Collection System
  • The system used may classified from several
    points of view such as
  • The mode of operation.
  • Equipment use
  • Type of waste collected
  • collection system have been classified according
    to their mode of operation into two categories.
  • Hauled container systems (HCS)
  • Stationery container systems (SCS)

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Cont.
  • Hauled Container Systems (HCS)
  • Suitable for removal of waste where the rate of
    generation is high.
  • The use of large containers reduce handling time.
  • The advantage
  • is the flexibility many different sizes
    shapes for the collection all types of waste.
  • Require one truck driver to accomplish the
    collection cycle

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Cont.
  • Disadvantage
  • the use of vary large containers leads to
    low-volume utilization unless loading aids
    provided.
  • Three types of haul container system
  • Hoist truck
  • tilt-frame container
  • Trash trailer

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Cont.
  • Hoist truck systems
  • container size from 0.2 to 10 cu3 (2 to 12 yd3)
  • Applicable in only limited cases which are
  • For small operation and collects from a few
    pickup points
  • For the collection of bulky item and industrial
    rubbish

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Cont.
  • Tilt-frame container
  • Widely use especially among private collectors
  • Used tilt frame loaded vehicle and large
    containers.
  • Suitable for collection of all types of solid
    waste rubbish.
  • Various type of large containers are available
    for use with these vehicles

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  • Open-top containers are used at warehouse and
    construction sites
  • Large containers in conjunction with stationary
    compactors are common at apartment, commercial,
    and transfer station.

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  • Trash trailer
  • Similar to tilt frame container system
  • Better for the collection heavy rubbish often
    used for the demolition waste.

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Cont.
  • Pneumatic and hydraulic system
  • More complex than hydraulic systems.
  • Use low pressure air and vacuum conduit system to
    transport rubbish through underground pipe
  • transport wastes from high density apartments or
    commercial activities to central location for
    processing.

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  • Reduces traveling time increases the waste
    collection efficiency minimize management cost.
  • Hydraulic transports is being used for the
    transport of food wastes
  • The major problem of this method is the / waste
    water used for transporting the wastes must be
    treated.
  • This system practical in areas where proper
    processing facilities are incorporated into
    treatment system.

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Automated pneumatic waste collection disposal
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Cont.
  • Routes of Collection
  • The guideline should be taken in to
    consideration when design the layout the
    collection routes
  • Existing policies and regulations
  • the number arrangement of the containers
  • Frequency of collection

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  • Existing system characteristic
  • the number crew
  • Vehicle type
  • Begin and end should be near arterial street.
  • In hilly area
  • Should start at the top and proceed downhill as
    the vehicle become loaded

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  • The last container to be collected must be
    located nearest to the disposal site
  • Traffic congested location
  • Should be collect as early in the day
  • Sources at extremely large quantities
  • Serviced during the first part of the day

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  • Scattered pickup points
  • the number arrangement of the containers
  • distance between containers
  • number of block arrangement

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Layout of collection routes
  • The general steps involved in establishing route
    include
  • Preparation of location maps
  • Data analysis
  • Preliminary layout of routes
  • Evaluation of the preliminary routes the
    development of balanced route by successive trials

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Collection routes Layout Step1
  • Map of the commercial, industrial, or resident
    housing area to be serve.
  • Plot the solid waste pickup point
  • Location
  • Collection frequency
  • Number of containers
  • Enter on the map the estimate quantity of waste
    at each pickup location (if use mechanically
    loaded containers)

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Cont.
  • For residential sources - assume that
    approximately the same average quantity number of
    homes per block will be shown
  • Use the tracing paper once the basic data have
    been entered on the work map

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  • WEEK SIX

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  • WASTES TRANSFER AND TRANSPORT

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Transfer Station
  • The transfer of wastes from one location to
    another more distant location
  • Contents small collection vehicles are
    transferred to large vehicles to transport the
    waste over extended distances
  • Transfer and transport operation also used in
    conjunction with MRFs to transport recover
    material to markets/residue material and
    waste-to-energy facilities.

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The need for transfer operation
  • Transfer and transport operations become
    necessity when haul distance to available
    disposal sites increase.
  • Also become necessity when disposal sites cannot
    be reach directly by highway (sites in remote
    control).
  • Transfer station is integral part of all types of
    MRFs and MR/TFs
  • The time require for transportation is the key
    factor especially in the traffic congested city.

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  • Located between the disposal site the centre of
    the city
  • The function are volume reduction sorting of
    waste for recycling
  • Additional factor that tend to make the use of
    transfer station includes
  • The occurrence of illegal dumping due to
    excessive haul distances
  • The location of disposal sites relatively far
    from collection routes

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  • The use of small-capacity collection vehicles
  • The existence of low-density residential service
    area

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Types of transfer station
  • Classified into three type
  • Direct load
  • Storage load
  • combined direct load and storage load

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  • Direct load
  • Small capacity
  • Wastes discharge directly into the open-top
    trailer to be use to transport to compaction
    facilities.
  • large capacity
  • The wastes in collection emptied directly into
    transport vehicle, or
  • The wastes in the collection vehicles are emptied
    temporarily onto unloading platform

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  • The wastes are then push into the transport
    trailers.
  • The new technology of direct-load transfer
    station, replace the use of open-top transfer
    vehicle with the compaction facilities.
  • The compaction facilities can be use to compact
    wastes into the transfer trailers.

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  • Storage load
  • Wastes are emptied directly into a storage pit
    then they are loaded into transport vehicles
  • Various types of auxiliary equipment are used to
    load the wastes into the transport vehicles.
  • The different between direct-load and
    storage-load is the capacity to store wastes.

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  • combined direct load and storage load
  • Multipurpose facilities that service a broader
    range of users
  • It can be a materials recovery operation

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diagram
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The operation of transfer station
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Factors to be consider for location of transfer
station.
  • As near as possible to the collection area.
  • easy access to highway
  • minimal public and environmental risk/objection
  • economical aspects
  • capacity of collection vehicle
  • storage space require
  • time require to unload the collection trucks

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  • number of trucks that will use facilities
  • transfer trailer capacity
  • operation hours
  • type of waste processes

188
Motor Vehicle transport
  • Collection
  • Compactors
  • commonly use for door to door collection
  • Equipped with compacter facilities
  • capacity 12m3
  • Use for the compactable waste

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  • Roll on roll off (RORO)
  • Top-open truck used for commercial and
    residential areas
  • For bulky and uncompactable wastes
  • Side loader
  • Without compactor
  • Manually door to door collection

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  • Open trucks
  • Used for transporting bulky uncompactable
    wastes.
  • Used for door to door collection
  • Not recommended for garbage and refuse
  • Hand carts
  • Commonly use by the street sweepers

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  • Transfer station
  • Open-top semitrailer
  • Capacity 40m
  • Enclose semitrailer
  • Equipped with satationary compactor
  • Drop-bottom open-top semitrailer
  • Unloaded with hydraulic tipping ramp

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  • WEEK SEVEN

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Waste Treatment and disposal
  • ideally the disposal methods should meet the
    following condition
  • environment friendly
  • cause no health hazard
  • economically less demanding
  • maximum recycling options
  • Should not be labour intensive

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Waste Treatment
  • The treatment of solid waste prior to disposal
    includes
  • recycling
  • compaction
  • pulverisation

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Waste disposal
  • ideally the disposal methods should meet the
    following condition
  • environment friendly
  • cause no health hazard
  • economically less demanding
  • maximum recycling options
  • Should not be labour intensive

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  • Disposal without treatment
  • dumping in water
  • dumping on land
  • direct disposal (sanitary land field)
  • Disposal involve some treatment
  • incineration
  • biological treatment
  • pyrolysis

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Disposal On Land
  • Landfill method
  • Define as the physical facilities use for the
    disposal of residual in the surface soils of the
    earth.
  • Sanitary landfill refer to engineered facilities
    for the disposal of SWM designed and operated to
    minimize the public health and environmental
    impacts

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  • One of the primary technologies use to disposal
    of solid waste.
  • The most economically if suitable land is
    available at low cost, environmentally accepted
    method and simple.
  • The only method that can deal with all material
    in solid waste
  • Direct disposal without treatment and Also used
    for the final disposal of treated waste.

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  • Sanitary Landfill
  • Define as
  • Method of disposing refuse on land without
    creating nuisance or hazard to public health
  • or safety by utilizing the principle of
    engineering to confine the refuse to the smallest
    practical area
  • The goal for design and operation of modern
    landfill is to eliminate/ minimize the impacts to
    human and environment

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  • and to reduce it to the smallest practical
    volume and cover it with a layer of earth at the
    conclusion of each days or at such more frequent
    as many be necessary
  • also call as control tipping and involves the
    covering of the waste daily with soil or other
    modern material
  • consist depositing the wastes in 1 -2 m tick
    layer in low-laying lands or excavation

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Landfill Planning, Design and operation
  • The element s should be consider in the planning
    , design and operation of landfill are as below
  • Landfill layout and design
  • Landfill operations and management
  • The reaction occurring in the landfill
  • The management of leachate
  • Environmental monitoring
  • Landfill closure

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Landfill siting consideration
  • Siting of new landfill is one of the difficult
    tasks faced by the most communities.
  • Several factors must be consider in evaluating
    potential site for-long term disposal of solid
    waste.
  • Final selection of a disposal site usually is
    best on the result of a detail site survey,
    engineering design, cost study and EIA.

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  • The factors should be consider are
  • Haul distance
  • Location restriction
  • Available land area
  • Site access
  • Soil condition and topography
  • Climatological conditions
  • Surface water hydrology
  • Geologic and hydrogeologic conditions
  • Local environmental conditions
  • Potential ultimate uses for the completed site

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Preparation of the site
  • First Step
  • Existing site drainage must be modified to route
    any runoff away from the landfill area.
  • Drainage of the landfill area itself must be
    modified to route water away from the initial
    fill area
  • Construction of access roads, weighing facilities
    and fences installation.

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  • Second Step
  • The excavation and preparation of the landfill
    bottom and sub surface site
  • Modern landfills are constructed in sections
    allows only the small part of the unprotected
    landfill surface to be expose to precipitation.
  • Excavations are carried out over time not
    prepare the landfill bottom at once
  • Excavated material can be stockpiled on
    unexcavated soil to minimized the precipitation
    problem

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  • If the bottom of the landfill is lined at once,
    the storm water runoff must be remove from the
    portion of the landfill that is not being used.
  • To minimized cost, it desirable to obtain the
    cover material from the landfill site whenever
    possible.
  • The excavated material stockpiled for later use.
  • Vadose zone and groundwater monitoring equipment
    is installed before the landfill liner is laid
    down.

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  • Leachate collection and extraction faciliteis are
    place within or on top of the liner
  • Usually the liner extends up the excavated wall
    of landfill.
  • Installation of the horizontal gas recover
    trenches at the bottom of the landfill
  • To minimized the release of VOCs, vacuum is
    applied and air is drown through the completed
    portion of landfill
  • The gas that is remove must be burned under
    controlled condition to destroy the VOCs

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  • A soil berm must be constructed at the downwind
    side of the planned fill area before the fill
    operation begin.
  • Foe the excavated landfill, the wall of the
    excavation usually served as the initial
    compaction face.

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The placement of waste
  • The waste is placed in cell beginning along the
    compaction face
  • The waste deposited in each operating period
    usually one day from in an individual cell.
  • Wastes deposited are spread out in 45 60 cm
    layers and compacted
  • Typically the cell height vary from 2.8 4 metres

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  • The length of the working face varies with the
    site condition the size of the operation
  • The width of the a cell varies from 300 -900 cm
    depending on the design and capacity of of the
    landfill.
  • The exposed faces of the cell are covered with a
    thin layer of soil (15 to 30 cm) at the end of
    each operating period.
  • After or more lifts has be place, horizontal gas
    recovery trenches can be excavated in the
    completed space.

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  • The excavated trenches are filled with gravel and
    perforated plastic pipes are installed in the
    trenches
  • Successive lifts are place on top of another
    until the final design grade is reached.
  • A cover layer is applied to the completed
    landfill section to
  • minimized infiltration of precipitation
  • to route drainage away from the active section of
    the landfill
  • The landscaping to control erosion

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Reactions in landfill
  • Biological reactions
  • The organic material in MSW lead to the
    production of landfill gas and liquids.
  • Decomposition process usually proceed aerobically
    for a short period.
  • During aerobic decomposition, CO2 is the gas
    produced
  • Once the available O2 has been consumed, the
    composition become anaerobic and the organic
    matter converted to CO2 and CH4 and ammonia and
    hydrogen Sulfide.

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  • Chemical Reaction
  • Include dissolution and suspension of landfill
    materials and biological conversion products in
    the liquid percolating, evaporation and
    vaporization of chemical compound and water
  • The organic compounds can subsequently be
    released into the atmosphere through the soil
    or from uncover leachate treatment facilitie.
  • Other chemical reactions include those between
    certain organic compound and clay liner.

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  • Physical reactions
  • The important physical changes are
  • the lateral diffusion of gases and emission of
    landfill gases to surrounding environment
  • Movement of leachate within the landfill and into
    underlying soil
  • Settlement caused by consolidation and
    decomposition of landfill material
  • Landfill gas movement and emission particularly
    important consideration in landfill management
    because

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  • Internal pressure could causing the landfill
    cover crack and leak
  • Escaping landfill gas may carry trace
    carcinogenic and teratogenic compounds into the
    environment
  • Because high CH4 contents, may be can cause
    burning or explosion
  • Leachate migration is another concern

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Concerns with the landfill
  • Uncontrolled release of landfill gas
  • The impact of uncontrolled discharge of landfill
    gas
  • Uncontrolled release of leachate
  • The breeding of disease vector
  • T
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