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NANOBIOSENSORS

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Title: NANOBIOSENSORS


1
NANOBIOSENSORS
  • Cagri Ozge Topal
  • OSU ECEN 5060 Nanotechnology

2
Abstract
  • The revolution of nanotechnology in molecular
    biology gives an
  • opportunity to detect and manipulate atoms and
    molecules at the
  • molecular and cellular level.
  • Definition of Nanobiosensor
  • History
  • Types of Nanobiosensors
  • Working Principle and Fabrication of Optical and
    FET Nanobiosensors
  • Application Areas and Current Research
  • Future Research

3
What is a Nanobiosensor?
  • A biosensor is a measurement system for the
    detection of an analyte that combines a
    biological component with a physicochemical
    detector, and a nanobiosensor is a biosensor that
    on the nano-scale size
  • Nanobiosensor
  • Transducer Detector Biological Recognition
    Element
  • (Bioreceptor)
  • Living biological
    system
  • (cell, tissue or whole organism)
  • Biological
    molecular species
  • (antibody, enzyme, protein)

4
Biosensor Development
  • 1916 First report on the immobilization of
    proteins adsorption of invertase on activated
    charcoal.
  • 1956 Invention of the first oxygen electrode
    Leland Clark
  • 1962 First description of a biosensor an
    amperometric enzyme electrode for glucose.
    Leland Clark, New York Academy of Sciences
    Symposium
  • 1969 First potentiometric biosensor urease
    immobilized on an ammonia electrode to detect
    urea. Guilbault and Montalvo
  • 1970 Invention of the Ion-Selective Field-Effect
    Transistor (ISFET).
  • 1972/5 First commercial biosensor Yellow Springs
    Instruments glucose biosensor.
  • 1976 First bedside artificial pancreas Clemens
    et al.
  • 1980 First fiber optic pH sensor for in vivo
    blood gases.
  • 1982 First fiber optic-based biosensor for
    glucose
  • 1983 First surface plasmon resonance (SPR)
    immunosensor.
  • 1987 Launch of the blood glucose biosensor
    MediSense

5
Theory
  • Principle of Detection
  • Piezoelectric Mass
  • Electrochemical Electric distribution
  • Optical Light intensity
  • Calorimetric Heat
  • Types of Nanobiosensors
  • Optical Biosensors Nanotube Based Biosensors
  • Electrical Biosensors Viral Nanosensors
  • Electrochemical Biosensors Nanoshell
    Biosensors
  • Nanowire Biosensors

6
Theory
  • Optical Nanobiosensors
  • A sensor that uses light to detect the effect of
    a chemical on a biological system. Kopelman et
    al.
  • The small size of the optical fibers allow
    sensing intracelular intercelular physiological
    and biological parameter in micro- environment.
  • Two kind
    of fabrication methods for optical fiber
    tips
  • 1) Heat and Pull
    Method
  • 2) Chemical
    Etching

7
Theory
  • Nanowire Field Effect Nanobiosensors(FET)
  • Sensing Element
  • Semiconductor channel (nanowire) of
    the transistor.
  • The semiconductor channel is fabricated using
    nanomaterials such
  • a carbon nanotubes,metal oxide nanowires or Si
    nanowires.
  • Very high surface to volume radio and very large
    portion of the atoms are located on the surface.
    Extremely sensitive to environment

8
Applications of Nanobiosensors
  • Biological Applications
  • DNA Sensors Genetic monitoring, disease
  • Immunosensors HIV, Hepatitis,other viral diseas,
    drug testing, environmental monitoring
  • Cell-based Sensors functional sensors, drug
    testing
  • Point-of-care sensors blood, urine,
    electrolytes, gases, steroids,
  • drugs, hormones, proteins, other
  • Bacteria Sensors (E-coli, streptococcus, other)
    food industry,
  • medicine, environmental, other.
  • Enzyme sensors diabetics, drug testing, other.
  • Environmental Applications
  • Detection of environmental pollution and toxicity
  • Agricultural monitoring
  • Ground water screening
  • Ocean monitoring

9
Future Application
  • Cancer Monitoring
  • Nanobiosensors play a very important role for
    early cancer detection in
  • body fluids.
  • The sensor is coated with a cancer-specific
    antibody or other
  • biorecognation ligands. The capture of a cancer
    cell or a target protein
  • yields electrical, optical or mechanical signal
    for detection. Professor
  • Calum McNeil detection of cancer proteins that
    cause MRSA
  • Identification of Biomarkers
  • ?
  • Validation of Cancer Biomarkers
  • ?
  • Cancer Biomarkers
  • ?
  • Ligands / Probes Developments
  • ?
  • Cancer Diagnostics Biosensor ? Detector
  • ?

10
References
  • Cullum, B.(2000). The development of optical
    nanosensors for biological measurements. Trends
    in Biotechnology, Vol 18,388-393.
  • Vo-Dihn, T.(2002).Nanobiosensors Probing the
    sanctuary of individual living cells. Journal of
    Cellular Biochemistry Supplement, Vol. 39,
    154-161
  • Pathak, P. et al.(2007). Cancer Research -
    Nanoparticles, nanobiosensors and their use in
    cancer research. Journal of Nanotechnology
    Online, Vol.3, 1-14.
  • Rogers, K.(2006). Recent advances in biosensor
    techniques for environmental monitoring.
    Analitica Chimica Acta. Vol. 568(1-2), 599-624.
  • Li, C. (2005).Complementary Detection of
    Prostate-Specific Antigen Using In2O3 Nanowires
    and Carbon Nanotubes. Journal of the American
    Chemical Society, Vol.127(36), 12484-12485.
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