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Tools for Space Exploration

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Tools for Space Exploration Rockets, Space Shuttles, Satellites, Probes & Space Stations * * * * Talk about heat tiles for reentry ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Tools for Space Exploration


1
Tools for Space Exploration
  • Rockets, Space Shuttles, Satellites, Probes
    Space Stations

2
ROCKETS
  • A device that contains all the substances needed
    to burn fuel which create escaping gas that
    allows the rocket to move up.

3
Newtons 3rd Law of Motion
  • This law states that every action has an equal
    and opposite reaction.

4
Rockets and the 3rd Law
  • A rocket can liftoff only
  • when it releases gas.
  • The action is when gas
  • shoots out of the
  • engine ? the reaction
  • is the rocket moving the
  • opposite direction.

5
Thrust
  • Thrust is a type of force that is used to push
    gas down so the rocket can push up.
  • Only when the thrust is greater than the weight
    of the rocket does the rocket become unbalanced
    and lift-off happens.
  • Rockets must also overcome the force of gravity.

6
Parts of a Rocket
7
Rocket History
  • 1900-Russian school teacher Konstantin
    Tsiolkovsky comes up with IDEA of a rocket
  • 1915 to 1941 -American Robert Goddard builds and
    tests the first rockets

8
Rocket History
1940s-Rockets are used to fire bombs during
WWII 1950s- COLD WAR between Soviet Union and US
begins the SPACE RACE 1957Soviets launch
Sputnik 1, the first rocket to reach
space 1958US forms NASA builds many rockets
including, Saturn V. 1959Preparation for MANNED
space craft begin
Cold War USSR vs. USA
Saturn V
9
First Astronauts Cosmonauts
  • 1948-US begins to send rockets carrying monkeys
    into space
  • 1957 Russians launch Sputnik 2 carrying a dog
    named Laika

Sputnik 2--Laika
10
  • April 1961 Yuri Gagarin, a Soviet cosmonaut is
    first man to reach space orbit Earth in a
    rocket
  • May 1961 Alan Shepard, an American astronaut is
    first American to reach space, but NOT orbit, in
    a rocket
  • 1962 John Glenn is first American astronaut to
    reach space orbit earth in a rocket
  • JFK proposes that the USA be the first to land a
    man on the MOON!

11
ROCKET HISTORY
  • 1969 The Eagle, the landing module of the Apollo
    11 rocket, lands on the moon.
  • American Neil Armstrong becomes the first man to
    set foot on the moon.
  • Apollo 11 returns moon rocks to study puts
    devices on moon to study moonquake activity and
    solar wind.

12
Return to Earth
Rockets are expensive are not reusable.
13
Space Exploration ROCKETS
14
  • 1981Rockets are used to launch the first
    REUSEABLE space craft called the.

15
Space Shuttle a reusable space vehicle that
takes off on a rocket, but lands like a plane
fuel tank
rockets
orbiter
Escaping gas
16
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17
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18
SPACE SHUTTLE HISTORY
  • 1986 Space shuttle CHALLENGER explodes during
    launch, killing 7 astronauts, including teacher
    Christa McAuliffe.
  • 1988Space shuttle program resumes with the
    launch of DISCOVERY.
  • 2003Space shuttle COLUMBIA explodes on re-entry,
    killing all aboard.
  • 2005-Space shuttle missions continue with the
    launch of DISCOVERY and then ATLANTIS in 2006.

19
The following pictures are from STS 116
DISCOVERY mission, made in December 2006.
20
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22
Space Exploration Space Shuttle
23
COMMUTER SHUTTLE
  • Plans underway for an another reusable space
    plane
  • Will take off and land like a regular plane with
    rocket powered engines

24
Artificial Satellites
Any human-made object placed in orbit around a
body in space
Natural Satellite a NATURAL object in orbit,
like
MOONS!
25
Six main types of Satellites
  1. Scientific research satellites
  2. Weather satellites
  3. Navigation satellites (GPS)
  4. Communication satellites
  5. Earth observing satellites
  6. Military satellites

26
Communication Satellites TV, Radio, Cell Phone
27
Space Technology SATALLITE TECHNOLOGY
28
Space Probes
  • A vehicle that carries scientific instruments
    out of Earths orbit to other bodies in space.

29
MOON
LUNA 9 (USSR-1966)
pictured mapped the moons surface discovered
possible evidence of water on moon
CLEMENTINE (1994-US)
30
VENERA 9 (USSR-1975)
VENUS
MAGELLAN (US-1989)
gathered info about surface of Venus found
temperatures air pressure on Venus similar
to Earth found rocks similar to Earth
rocks found evidence of plate tectonics on
Venus found volcanoes on Venus
31
VIKING 2 (US-1975)
MARS
MARS PATHFINDER (US-1996)
gathered soil searched for signs of life
found surface of mars to be more like Earth
than any other planet
32
SURVEYOR (US-1996) oldest Mars spacecraft still
in operation tracts weather and seasonal
patterns on Mars
MARS
ODYSSEY (US-2001) used to make global
observations about Mars climate also serves as
communication for Mars rovers Spirit and
Opportunity
33
SPIRIT OPPORTUNITY
MARS
  • Robotic rovers each landing on opposite sides of
    the red planet.
  • Collecting information about the geology and
    atmosphere on Mars.

34
Pioneer Probes found that the dark belts on
Jupiter are warmer than the light belts. First
probes to go past orbit of Pluto.
35
Voyager-flew past Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus,
Neptune (The Gas Giants) Galileo-studied
Jupiters moons, finding Europa, may have water!
36
Discovery Probessmaller, cheaper, faster!!
  • Stardust (1999) will return comet dust to Earth
  • Deep Space 1 first probe with an ion-propulsion
    drive.
  • Cassini (1997) is currently on a mission to find
    out more about Saturn
  • Huygens will explore Saturns moon, Titan
  • Deep Impact (2005) spacecraft flyby and impact
    with Comet Tempel 1

37
Space Station an orbiting platform from which
long term research experiments can be done
space vehicles can be launched
38
1971-Soviets place Salyut 1, the first space
station, in orbit 23 days!1982- Soviets have 7
space stations where the effects of
weightlessness on humans was studied
39
Skylab-- first US Space Stationastronomical,
biological manufacturing experiments 171 days!
40
Russian Space Station Mir (peace)
visited by US astronauts astronauts from
other countriescontinuously inhabited from
1987-1999 as much as 438 days at a time!
41
International Space Station (ISS)
The ISS orbits the Earth once every 90 minutes
(1.5 hours). It is being built with parts
brought by US shuttles Russian rockets
with help from 16 other countries. 40 shuttle
flights and 400 tons of material have been used
to build the station. Astronauts live in the ISS
for months at a time.
42
Space Technology International Space Station
(ISS)
43
TELESCOPES
  • A telescope is an instrument used for viewing
    distant objects so they seem closer and larger.
  • The Hubble telescope was created by Edwin Hubble
    and was the first optical telescope to be placed
    in space.
  • The Hubble telescope is able to capture images
    without interference from the Earths atmosphere.

44
Space Technology Hubble Telescope
45
The following pictures are some of the amazing
images the Hubble telescope has captured.
46
Distant Galaxies
47
Star Forming Region in the Orion constellation.
48
ROBOTS
  • A ROBOT is an automated machine that is made to
    work like a human being.
  • Examples of NASA robots include
  • Robonaut - a humanoid robot designed to help
    humans explore space. Robonaut can work side by
    side humans or go to places to dangerous for
    humans.
  • Personal Satellite Assistant (PSA) - a volleyball
    sized robot used to operate a variety of
    different space equipment. It is designed to
    assist astronauts with day-to-day tasks. The PSA
    could go to space as early as this year (2007)
    and might eventually go to Mars before humans do.

49
Other Space Equipment Space Suits
  • Astronauts wear many different space suits
    depending on their mission assignment.
  • On the ground and in the shuttle astronauts wear
    blue flight suits made of cloth.
  • During launch astronauts wear the bright orange
    launch suits.
  • Outside the spacecraft astronauts wear special
    suits that protect them from solar rays. These
    suits are white so that they can reflect the
    suns heat. On Earth these suits weight about
    100 pounds!

50
Astronauts Space Suits
51
Space Rocks!
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